دعونا نصحّح العقيدة الاسلامية




Written   By

Shaikh Mir Asedullah Quadri

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بِسم الله الرحمنِ الرحيم  

 الحمد لله رب العالمين ، والصلاة والسلام على سيدنا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين


If we are interested in knowing about a thing, like our human body's functions and its internal and external organs, we need special education, under competent Medical professors in a hospital environment.  Similar is the case with subjects like Engineering, Technology, etc. Imagine the complexities in knowing about Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) and this Cosmos. This is a specialized knowledge.  People who are unaware of this knowledge  have developed strange theories that have nothing to do with Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) and His Creatures.

Correct faith about Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) is an essential requirement for salvation on the Day of Judgment.  If you are misled by unrelated theories developed by people who are under the veil from their Lord, you will go astray.

It is in Quran -  كَلَّا إِنَّهُمْ عَن رَّبِّهِمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ لَّمَحْجُوبُونَ [ It is never (as they consider it to be); rather they will be under veil from their Lord (they will not be able to see their Sustainer on the Day of Judgment)’. (Al-Mutaffifeen – 15).

This book contains important information about Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) and His creation in the Cosmos which will help you walk on the right path of Islam.

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To know the understanding patterns of people, let us take the example of water and  analyze different views of people about it.  Let us ask a common man about water;  he will say that it is a real thing, a life saving liquid and we use it for drinking, vegetation and other purposes. 

Ask a Chemist, he will say that water is actually a compound of Hydrogen and Oxygen in the ratio of 2:1.  The real thing is its components.  If you remove one of its components, the water will disappear. He will say that he can prove this fact in a chemistry lab. 

Ask a philosopher, he will say that water is one of the shapes of matter  (solid - liquid - gas - plasma).  Earlier  it was in the shape of its component gases and now it is in liquid form.  

Ask an Islamic Scholar,  he will say that water is a creation of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) and we have been commanded to use it as per the rules of Sharia.

The fact of the matter is,  existence of  water or anything in this cosmos is dependent upon  Allah  (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ).  Therefore, real (original) existence belongs to Allah  (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) and the existence of  water is  temporary ( حادث - Haadith).  Things cannot exist when separated from (the support of) Allah  (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ).  Therefore, water is a signs that proves the existence of Allah  (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ)

It is in Quran – إِنَّمَا قَوْلُنَا لِشَيْءٍ إِذَا أَرَدْنَاهُ أَن نَّقُولَ لَهُ كُن فَيَكُونُ [ And a thing, We (Allah) want (to create), We only Say 'Be', and there it is (it comes into existence)’. (An-Nahl – 40).




When we look at anything in this cosmos, we get reminded about the Creator of that thing.  Everything in this cosmos diverts our attention towards Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ).  And that is how we understand the existence of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ).

It is in Quran -  اللَّهُ نُورُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ [Allah is the light (existence) of the Heavens and Earth’.]  (An-Noor -35).

It is in Quran - فَأَيْنَمَا تُوَلُّوا فَثَمَّ وَجْهُ اللَّهِ [ Whichever side you turn, you will find Allah. ] (Al-Baqara - 115) 

We have been commanded in the Quran hundreds of times to see Allah's (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) signs (evidence of the existence of Allah عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) in the cosmos. 

It is in Quran -  وَقُلِ ٱلۡحَمۡدُ لِلَّهِ سَيُرِيكُمۡ ءَايَـٰتِهِۦ فَتَعۡرِفُونَہَا‌ۚ وَمَا رَبُّكَ بِغَـٰفِلٍ عَمَّا تَعۡمَلُونَ [(Say O' Prophet ﷺ) Praise be to Allah. He will show you His signs and you will recognize them.  Your Lord is not heedless of anything you do.]  (An-Naml - 93). 

Allah’s (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) Being (Existence) is independent. Our existence is dependent upon Him. To understand this relationship, let us take some clay and make a house, a horse, a human being, a dog, etc.
Now look, outside it is clay which has the capability of taking different shapes. Has the change in different shapes, made clay from one into two? No. Clay is one and the same. The multiplicity is in its shapes and forms, not in its essence (fundamental nature).

Then where is multiplicity?
It is in our understanding. Is our understanding fictitious? No. This thought has been derived from the clay and has been understood accordingly. If you remove clay from these things, these shapes will disappear.  Similarly, what ever is there in the cosmos are forms and shapes of Allah's Being (Wajood-e-Elahi). But their attributes are different as they are creatures.  Allah's Being is has the capacity to appear in different shapes.
Let us go back to the example of clay and answer this question.  Has the clay become a horse?  No.  Outside it is clay, and horse is one of its manifestation.  The clay is the essence, and its shapes could be many.  Thus the origin of all the shapes in the Cosmos belongs to the existence of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ).  And the Unity of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) is our God.  With this, it is proved that no shape or form in this Cosmos can be described as God because the Unity of Almighty cannot be confined into a shape or form.
What is existing outside? It is 'the Being' or Existence of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) whose attribute is Divinity. Then, where are these shapes?  They are in our common sense.
To find answer to this question, we will have to first know about Allah’s (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) attributes and potentialities?
Allah’s (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) attributes and names
Allah’s (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) attributes and potentialities are derivable, not contiguous.
What is the difference between Derivable Attribute (Sifat-e-Inteza'ee - صفتِ انتزاعی) and  Contiguous Attribute (Sifat-e-Inzimami - صفتِ انضمامی)?
(i) The Derivable Attribute (Sifat-e-Inteza'ee - صفتِ انتزاعی)  is that attribute which is not available externally, but its ‘person’ or ‘intention’ is there outside in such a way that the derivable attribute can be understood. Like we say the sky is up and earth is down. 

(ii) Contiguous Attribute (Sifat-e-Inzimami - صفتِ انضمامی) is that attribute, or non-permanent thing, which is associated with a permanent thing and is dependently existent. It can not exist when separated. For contiguous attribute there may not be a permanent existence externally, but a week existence is always accepted.  Like the whiteness/paint of the wall.

Since 'The Being' (Wajood-e-Elahi - وجودِ الٰہی)  is the precise unity (ذاتِ  الٰہی) of the Independent Almighty, nothing can ever emerge out of it.  Whether these are the attributes and epithets of the 'Independent Almighty' or His creatures. Whatever we understand other than Allah,  is derivable.  With this explanation, the Unity of Almighty (ذاتِ  الٰہی) is encompassing everything is proven. 
It is in Qura   -  أَلَا إِنَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ مُّحِيطٌ [  Unquestionably Allah is encompassing all the things.]  (Fussislat - 54)

Allah's (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) attributes have been described in the Quran. 
It is in Quran -  اللَّهُ لَا إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الْحَيُّ الْقَيُّومُ ۚ لَا تَأْخُذُهُ سِنَةٌ وَلَا نَوْمٌ ۚ لَّهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ [Allah, there is no god but He, the Alive, the Self-subsisting, Eternal. No slumber can seize Him nor sleep. Whatever is in the Heavens and whatever is in the Earth belongs to Him. (Al-Baqara – 255).
It is in Quran -  وَاللَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ [ And Allah is All Hearing, All Knowing.]  (Al-Baqara – 115).
It is in Quran -  إِنَّ اللَّهَ بِالنَّاسِ لَرَءُوفٌ رَّحِيمٌ [ Allah is Kind and Merciful to people. ] ( Al-Baqara – 143)

The Being' (Wajood-e-Elahi - وجودِ الٰہی)  is the precise unity (ذاتِ  الٰہی) of the Independent Almighty.  When we take into consideration the attributes of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ), His names are derived.  And when we taken into consideration the Existence of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ), we understand His creatures. 
Name includes 'person with attribute'.  To wield power is an attribute, Allah is its Unity (ذات).   'Powerful' (قدیر)  is His name.  Allah’s attribute to be powerful is an evidence of His existence. Similarly, mercy, beneficence are the attributes. Allah’s unity is the 'person'.   And 'Beneficent' (رحمان) and 'Merciful' (رحیم) are the divine names.
It is in Quran – قُلِ ادْعُوا اللَّهَ أَوِ ادْعُوا الرَّحْمَـٰنَ ۖ أَيًّا مَّا تَدْعُوا فَلَهُ الْأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَىٰ  [ Say, "Call upon Allah or call upon the Most Gratious. Whichever (name) you call; to Him belong the best names. (Al-Isra – 110)
Names signify various potentialities of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ). Like ‘Sustainer’ (رَب); this potentiality of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) sustains all that is there in Heavens and Earth.  Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) is Sustainer, and we are ‘Sustainables’. Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) is permanent, independent, self subsisting and eternal. We are temporary, contingent and dependent on Him for our survival every moment.
It is in Quran - وَسِعَ كُرْسِيُّهُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ ۖ وَلَا يَئُودُهُ حِفْظُهُمَا ۚ وَهُوَ الْعَلِيُّ الْعَظِيمُ   [ His authority spreads over the heavens and Earth and He feels no fatigue in guarding and preserving them (His creatures), for He is the Most High, the Supreme (in glory).] (Al-Baqara – 255) 



The answer is available in the Quran and Ahadith. 

It is in Hadith -    [ The  Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) stated that Allah  (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) said : كنت كنزاً مخفياً فأحببت أن أعرف فخلقت الخلق  [ I was a Hidden Treasure; then I wanted to be known; therefore, I created the creatures. ]

It is in Quran وَمَا خَلَقْتُ الْجِنَّ وَالْإِنسَ إِلَّا لِيَعْبُدُونِ [ And I did not create the jinn and mankind except to worship Me.]  (Adh-Dhaariyat - 56)

The contents and meaning of the above Quranic verse and Hadith are exactly the same. 

The above Hadith-e-Qudsi is very popular.  However, its chain of transmission is not recorded by Hadith scholars. Since the contents of the Hadith are Sahih, and do not contradict with Quran, it is widely accepted by Muslims as authentic.

Three things have been mentioned in the above Hadith, as follows.

(i) Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) was a Hidden treasure (كنزاً مخفياً).

We only came to know about Him after our creation.  Before that He was known to Himself.

(ii) He wanted to be known by His creatures.

(iii) Therefore, He created all that available in this Cosmos. 

And the only purpose of our creation is to know Him and worship Him.

What is meaning of 'Hidden Treasure' (كنزاً مخفياً)?

The first understanding of Allah’s  (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) Existence, which is referred to as 'Hidden Treasure' in the above Hadith is clearly described in the Quran. 

It is in Quran -  قُلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ  -  اللَّهُ الصَّمَدُ - لَمْ يَلِدْ وَلَمْ يُولَدْ - وَلَمْ يَكُن لَّهُ كُفُوًا أَحَدٌ [ Say (O’ Prophet ﷺ) Allah is one. Allah is independent. He does not have children. Nobody has given birth to him. Nobody can match Him or equal Him.]  (Al-Ikhlas - 1- 4).

Everything in the Cosmos are not independently existent on their own.  They are dependent upon Allah's  (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) Existence or His Being.  Everything is derived  from Him. His existence (or the support of His existence) has the capacity to manifest/appear in limitless shapes and forms in consideration with the individual facts and natures.  All shapes and forms and bodies in this Cosmos are His creatures and the source and origin of these creatures is Allah's Unity (ذاتِ الہى) who is the Lord of the worlds (رب العالمين).

Does it mean that everything is God or God is in everything?  

No, everything is His creature. The source of all creatures is Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ).

There is difference between 'the manifestation of the Being' and 'Divinity of the Being (Uloohiyat - اُلوہيت)'. Divinity is the attribute of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ), who is the 'essence of all existence' in the Cosmos.  The Shapes and forms in this cosmos are, though supported by His Being, or we can say manifestations of His Being, but are all creatures.  No shape, no body and no form in this Cosmos is Divine or worshipable.  Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ), the creator of all these shapes and forms is the real worshipable God.

We are creatures and our attribute is ‘servant hood’. You, we or anything in this cosmos, though is the manifestation of His Being, but not God.  Divinity cannot be associated with any shape or form or body in this Cosmos.   Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) cannot be confined into a Shape or Form.  He is free from all such limitations. 

This is denoted in Islamic Testimony (Kalima Tayyiba) -  لا اله الا الله محمد رسول الله  [There is no God, but Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ), and Mohammed (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) is the Apostle of Allah. ]

We are born, we grow old and die. Similar is the case with planets, trees and everything in this cosmos.

It is in Quran - كُلُّ مَنْ عَلَيْهَا فَانٍ  -  وَيَبْقَىٰ وَجْهُ رَبِّكَ ذُو الْجَلَالِ وَالْإِكْرَامِ [All that there is in the Cosmos shall vanish. The Countenance (stand alone) of your Lord (by Himself) shall endure, the Lord of Majesty and Glory’. (Ar-Rahman – 26-27).

All things in this cosmos remain for a specific period and vanish. If they were all gods, or divinity was associated with them, they would have lived indefinitely. 


ALLAH'S INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL STATES (مراتِبِ داخلیہ و خارِجیہ)


It is common sense that from the abstract, details will come out.  Everything in this Cosmos has come out of Allah's Unity or Person or Essence (ذات) and is dependent on Him. 

How do we understand this process?

For this purpose, we need to understand the 'Internal' and External States of the Independent Being (wajood-e-Elahi - وجودِ الٰہی).

There are two annotations (eitebaarat - اعتبارات) of ‘the Independent Being’ (wajood-e-Elahi - وجودِ الٰہی) : (i) Internal State (مرتبہ داخلیہ), and (ii) External State (مرتبہ   خارجیہ).

The internal state of the Almighty is prior to the command of 'Be' (kun fayakun - کُن فیکون) from which the creatures were created.  Therefore the creatures have no access here.   In the ‘internal state’ the seeming multiplicity is actually existing in ‘Allah's knowledge’ (علم الٰہی).

There are three internal states of 'the Being' (وجودِ الٰہی), known as (i)  'Infinity' (احدیت), (ii) Indefinity (وحدت), and (iii) 'Actiplicity' (واحدیت). 

After 'Actiplicity', is the state of 'Creatures' who were created from the command 'Be'.


Infinity  (احدیت)

Infinity is a state of ‘the Unity’ (ذاتِ الٰہی) which is pure from incredulity and supposition. Multiplicity has no access to this splendor.  (Here) unity is completely free from confinements.  The state of Infinity is also known as ‘Absolutely Unseen’ (Ghaib-e-Mutlaq - غیبِ مطلق) or Hidden Treasure (كنزا مخفيا)

It is in Hadith-e-Qudsi - كنت كنزا مخفيا ، فأحببت أن أعرف [ I (Allah) was a hidden treasure, then I wanted to be known.].

In the state of  ‘Infinity’,  ‘personal knowledge’ (zaati ilm - ذاتی علم), ‘divine light’ (noor - نور), ‘Being’ (wajood - وجود) and ‘immanence’ (shuhood - شہود) are definitely there.  In this state Allah is Himself knowledge; Himself knowledgeable and Himself known.  But in this state, it has not been taken into consideration because in here diversity and illustrative otherness (eitebar-e-gairiyat - اعتبارِ غیریت) do not have any access.


Indefinity (وحدت

Indefinity is a state of 'Divine Unity' where multiplicity is inherent, still multiplicity does not exist, or actively not existing.  This is also known as 'Exalted State' (Rafi-ud-darajaat - رفیع الدرجات)

Some people, in consideration that 'Indefinity' wants its details in 'Actiplicity', call it 'Self affection' (Hubb-e-Zaati - حبٌِ ذاتی ). The Hadith - فَاَحَبَبْتُ اَنْ اَعْرَفَ  [Then Allah wanted to be known.]  is an indication of this State. 

It is in Hadith-e-Qudsi - كنت كنزا مخفيا ، فأحببت أن أعرف [ I (Allah) was a hidden treasure, then I wanted to be known.]. 

The state of Indefinity (Wahdat - وحدت) is also known as 'Veracity of Prophet Mohammad (حقیقتِ محمدی صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).  The details of the Veracity of Prophet Mohammad (حقیقتِ محمدی صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) are unfolded in the state of 'Actiplicity' (واحدیت).


Actiplicity (Active Multiplicity - واحدیت )

Actiplicity (Active Multiplicity) (Wahidiyet - واحدیت) is a state of 'Divine Unity' (ذاتِ حق) in which active multiplicity (in Knowledge) is taken into consideration. Here multiplicity means the multiplicity of 'Divine Epithets, Attributes and His Knowledge about His creatures.
The state of Actiplicity is also the 'Veracity of a unified Fact' whose details are individual creatures like  'Zaid, Bakr, Aamer, all are 'fractional facts (Juzziyaat -  جزئیات); and human beings, animals, etc., are 'Integral facts' (Kulliyaat - کلیات).  These facts are individually known as Probate Archetype (عينِ ثابته).  The probate archetypes (Ayaan-e-Thabita - اعیانِ ثابتہ) together (as one Unit) are known as 'Archetype Primeval' (عَينُ الاعيان)

When we consider, we realize that though all 'Probate Archetypes' (اعیانِ ثابتہ) are comprised of 'Archetype Primeval' (عَينُ الاعيان), still in its own limits it is 'fractional reflective reality' (Juzz-e-Haqeeqi - جز حقیقی ) only.  You consider it further, you will know that there are two identities of 'Archetype Primeval', viz., (i) its individual  identity which has a person/innate (ذات) (ii) its 'contingent identity' with reference to 'Probate archetypes'. The integral aspect befalling on it is in regard to 'probate archetypes'. 

This is also evident that until the refulgence of Allah's epithets and attributes fling on probate archetype (Ain-e-Thabita - عینِ ثابتہ), it will not come into existence.  Thus on 'fractional probate archetype the refulgence of Allah's epithets and attributes will fling fractionally. The refulgence on one probate archetype will never fling on other probate archetype, else there will not be two different manifestations of two probate archetypes.

This is also evident that until the refulgence of Allah's epithets and attributes fling on probate archetype (Ain-e-Thabita - عینِ ثابتہ), it will not come into existence.  Thus on 'fractional probate archetype the refulgence of Allah's epithets and attributes will fling fractionally. The refulgence on one probate archetype will never fling on other probate archetype, else there will not be two different manifestations of two probate archetypes.

With regard to the 'Archetype primeval' (Ain-ul-Ayaan - عینُ الاعیان), that envelops, and is included in, all probate archetypes, the refulgence (تجلِّئ الٰہی) flinging on it will be dominant to all refulglences.  This is known as divinity splendor (Shaan-e-Uloohiyat - شانِ اُلوہیت). The refulglence flinging on 'Archetype primeval' is known as 'Sustainer of the Sustainers' (Rabbul Arbaab - رب الارباب), and supreme refulgence (تجلی اعظم), and the Archetypes primeval is known as 'Servant of Allah' (Abdullah - عبداللہ) or 'Supreme Sustainable' (مربوبِ اعظم). 

In our view, the 'Veracity of the fact of Actiplicity' is the reflective integral fact of  Archetype Primeval or Servant of Allah which is known as the veracity of Prophet Mohammed (حقیقتِ محمدی صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).  And Allah, who is the Sustainer of sustainers is the supreme refulgence which is the collection of all attributes of utmost excellence that  flings on the Veracity of Prophet Mohammed (حقیقتِ محمدی صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).  When   these facts meet, the 'supreme external entity (Maujood-e-Kharij-e-Azam -  موجودِ خارجِ اعظم) wears the dress of 'Being' (in knowledge) in the State of 'Actiplicity' (واحدیت). 


THE FACT OF PROPHET MOHAMMAD (حقيقتِ محمدي صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)


It is established from Quran and Ahadith that Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) is the root of all creation. 

It is in Hadith - It is related that Jābir Ibn  Abd Allah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said to Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم),  "O Apostle of Allāh (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) may my father and mother be sacrificed for you, tell me the first thing Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) created before all things.'  The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said:   O' Jabir (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), the first thing Allah  (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) created was the light of your Prophet (  صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) from His light. (And everything else was created from that light).  (Part of the Hadith). 

The above Hadith was narrated by Abd al-Razzaq (d. 211 AH) in his Musannaf according to Qastallani in al-Mawahib al-Laduniyya (1:55) and Zarqani in his Sharh al-Mawahib (1:56 of the Matba`a al-amira edition, Cairo). 

There cannot be any doubt as to the reliability of Abd al-Razzaq as a narrator.  Bukhari took 120 narrations from him while  Muslim took 400. 

Biahaqi also narrated the above Hadith with a different wording in "Dala'il al-Nubuwwa, according to Zurqani in his Sharh al-Mawahib (1:56 of the Matba'a al-amira, Cairo).  Also Diyarbakri narrated it in 'Taarikh al-Khamis (1-20). 

The authenticity of the above Hadith is also proved from the following Quranic verses and Ahadith. 

(i) It is in Quran –   يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ إِنَّا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ شَاهِدًا وَمُبَشِّرًا وَنَذِيرًا - وَدَاعِيًا إِلَى اللَّهِ بِإِذْنِهِ وَسِرَاجًا مُّنِيرًا [ O’ Prophet  ﷺ)! Truly,  We have sent you as a Witness, a Bearer of Glad Tidings and Warner (for the entire Cosmos); and as one who invites to Allah's (Grace) by His consent, and as a lamp spreading light (into the whole cosmos).] (Al - Ahzab 45-46).

The above verse describes Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) as 'Lamp spreading light (into the whole cosmos).  He is also referred as a Witness, a bearer of glad tidings and warner to humanity.  A witness is the one who knows about all the physical and spiritual aspects of this cosmos.  

(ii) It is in Quran  -  اللَّهُ نُورُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۚ مَثَلُ نُورِهِ كَمِشْكَاةٍ فِيهَا مِصْبَاحٌ ۖ الْمِصْبَاحُ فِي زُجَاجَةٍ ۖ الزُّجَاجَةُ كَأَنَّهَا كَوْكَبٌ دُرِّيٌّ يُوقَدُ مِن شَجَرَةٍ مُّبَارَكَةٍ زَيْتُونَةٍ لَّا شَرْقِيَّةٍ وَلَا غَرْبِيَّةٍ يَكَادُ زَيْتُهَا يُضِيءُ وَلَوْ لَمْ تَمْسَسْهُ نَارٌ ۚ نُّورٌ عَلَىٰ نُورٍ ۗ يَهْدِي اللَّهُ لِنُورِهِ مَن يَشَاءُ ۚ ۗ وَاللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ وَيَضْرِبُ اللَّهُ الْأَمْثَالَ لِلنَّاسِ  [ Allah  is the Light of the Heavens and Earth.  The similitude of His light is as a niche wherein is a lamp.  The lamp is in a glass.  The glass is as it were a shining star. (This lamp is) kindled from a blessed tree, an olive neither of the East nor of the West, whose oil would almost glow forth (of itself) though no fire touched it. Light upon Light (نُّورٌ عَلَىٰ نُورٍ).  Allah guides to His light whom He will.  And Allah speaks to mankind in allegories, for Allah  is Knower of all things.]  (An-Nur - 35). 

Suyūtī said in al-Riyād al-Aniqa : Ibn Jubair (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and K'ab al-Āhbar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said, 'What is meant by the second light [in Light upon Light (نُّورٌ عَلَىٰ نُورٍ )] is  Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) (as it is also described in verse Al-Ahzab- 46, above. 

(iii) It is in Quran - قَدْ جَاءَكُم مِّنَ اللَّهِ نُورٌ وَكِتَابٌ مُّبِينٌ  (From Allah has come to you a Light and a Book manifest.) (Al-Maida - 15). 

The above verse is very clear in describing Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) as 'Noor from Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ).  In the exegesis (Tafseer) of the above verse, many well known  Ulema have confirmed that the  'light'  refers to Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).

References - (1) Suyuti in Tafsir al-Jalalayn.   (2) Feruzabadi in the Tafsir Ibn 'Abbas entitled Tanwir al-miqbas (p. 72). (3) Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, in his Tafsir al-kabir (11:189). (4) Qadi Baidawi in his Tafsir entitled Anwar at-Tanzil. (5) Al-Baghawi in his Tafsir entitled Ma`alim at-Tanzil (2:23).  (6) Al-Shirbini in his Tafsir entitled al-Siraj al-Munir (p. 360). (7) The author of Tafsir Abi Sa`ud (4:36). (8) Thana’ullah Pani Pati in his Tafsir al-Mazhari, (3:67). (9) Shaikh Mohammad Abdul Qadeer Siddiqui (رحمتہ اللہ علیہ) in his Tafseer-e-Siddiqui.  (10) Ibn Jarir al-Tabari in his Tafsir jami` al-bayan (6:92)  (11) Al-Khazin in his Tafsir (2:28). (12) Al-Nasafi in his commentary entitled Tafsir Al-Madarik (1:276) and al-Qasimi in his Mahasin at-ta’wil (6:1921). (13) Ahmad al-Sawi in Tafsir al-Jalalayn (1:258). (14) Sayyid Mahmud al-Alusi in his commentary entitled Tafsir Ruh al-Ma`ani (6:97) and many others.   

(iv) It is in Quran -  وَهُوَ الَّذِي أَنشَأَكُم مِّن نَّفْسٍ وَاحِدَةٍ فَمُسْتَقَرٌّ وَمُسْتَوْدَعٌ ۗ قَدْ فَصَّلْنَا الْآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَفْقَهُونَ  [ And look, He is Who have created you from single soul  (نَّفْسٍ وَاحِدَةٍ) then there is (for you) a resting-place and a depository; indeed We have detailed our signs  for the people who understand.] (Al-Ana’am – 98).

Some people say that the above verse refers to  Prophet Adam ( علیھ السلا م ). Their contention is true as far as the Human beings are concerned. But as far as the entire creation is concerned, everything in this cosmos was created from the Noor of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). 

(vi) It is in Hadith - Narrated by Abu Hurayrah  (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ). When Allah's Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) was asked since how long he is the Prophet, he replied, ‘When Adam (علیھ السلا م ) had not yet had his spirit joined to his body (Tirmidhi). 
Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) has explained this to His servants in the Quran.
It is in Quran -  إِنَّ رَبَّكُمُ اللَّهُ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ فِي سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ ثُمَّ اسْتَوَىٰ عَلَى الْعَرْشِ يُغْشِي اللَّيْلَ النَّهَارَ يَطْلُبُهُ حَثِيثًا وَالشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ وَالنُّجُومَ مُسَخَّرَاتٍ بِأَمْرِهِ ۗ أَلَا لَهُ الْخَلْقُ وَالْأَمْرُ ۗ تَبَارَكَ اللَّهُ رَبُّ الْعَالَمِينَ [ Indeed, your Lord is Allah, who created the heavens and earth in six days and then established Himself (His authority) on the Throne. He covers the night with the day, (another night) chasing it rapidly; and (He created) the sun, the moon, and the stars, subjected by His command. Unquestionably, His is the creation and the command; blessed is Allah, Lord of the worlds.] (Al-A'raaf – 54).
Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) has also explained the process of creation to His servants. 

It is in Quran – إِنَّمَا قَوْلُنَا لِشَيْءٍ إِذَا أَرَدْنَاهُ أَن نَّقُولَ لَهُ كُن فَيَكُونُ [And a thing, We (Allah) want (to create), We only Say ‘Be’, and there it is (it comes into existence)’. (An-Nahl – 40).

Thus Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) gave the command of ‘Be’ to the ‘Integral fact of all Creatures known as Archetype primeval' (Ain-ul-Ayaan - عینُ الاعیان) and there it came into existence. 

Similarly, Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) knew about our facts, characteristics before we were born. He made a compound of His potentialities/attributes in a specific ratio as per individual human being’s nature which was known to Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ). This ratio was breathed into our bodies. What is this ratio? This is our soul (Rooh -  روح).
It is in Quran - فَإِذَا سَوَّيْتُهُ وَنَفَخْتُ فِيهِ مِن رُّوحِي فَقَعُوا لَهُ سَاجِدِينَ [ And when I have proportioned him (the body of Adam - عليه السلام) and breathed into him something (into it) out of My Soul’ then (all angels) fall down to him in prostration.] (Al-Hijr – 29)
How are our bodies made?
It is in Quran -  خَلَقَ الْإِنسَانَ مِن صَلْصَالٍ كَالْفَخَّارِ [He created man (Adam  - عليه السلام) from sounding clay like the clay of pottery.] (Ar-Rahman – 14)
Every human being’s soul is made of different ratio of Allah’s (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) potentialities/attributes. This is the reason no two human beings, or no two creatures of the same kind, are identical with each other.
We are different from each other not only in our outward appearance, but also in our attributes. Even our body parts like eyes, finger prints are different from each other. Our common sense and understanding qualities are also different from each other. Some of us are illiterates and some are knowledgeable.

When you know these facts, you will stop your foul mouth for  equating Prophets with sinful human beings. Prophets' attributes are exceptional, their creation is for the reformation of human kind. They are born teachers of humanity. They cannot be equated with normal human beings.

Similarly, Imams of Jurisprudential schools of thoughts (Hanafi, Shafa’i, Maliki and Hanbali, are knowledgeable scholars of Islam and are accepted authorities in deducing religious laws from Quran and Sunnah. If we revolt against them and try to deduce laws on our own, we are sure to lose the straight path of Islam.  Similar is the case with Allah's (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) chosen servants, His Awliya Allah.

It is in Quran  -  أَلَا إِنَّ أَوْلِيَاءَ اللَّهِ لَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ - الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَكَانُوا يَتَّقُونَ - لَهُمُ الْبُشْرَىٰ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَفِي الْآخِرَةِ ۚ لَا تَبْدِيلَ لِكَلِمَاتِ اللَّهِ ۚ ذَ‌ٰلِكَ هُوَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ  [Behold the friends of Allah! On them shall come no fear, nor shall they grieve.  These are they, who have believed in Allah and are mindful of Him (the feeling of closeness of Allah) and (have consequently abstained from everything evil).  To them tidings come (from Allah) of a happy life both in this world and in Hereafter.  The word of Allah is never revoked.  This in itself is a great felicity] (Yunus - 62-64).

Awliya Allah are chosen people. They inherit their knowledge, stations, and states from Prophets. 

It is in Hadith - “Whoever takes a Wali of Mine an enemy, I will wage war on him; and My slave will not perform any act with which he draws closer to Me, more beloved to Me then when he fulfills what I have ordained on him; and My salve will keep drawing closer to Me by performing the Nawafil (voluntary acts of worship) until I love him, and when I love him, I will be his hearing with which he hears, his sight with which he sees, his hands with which he strikes, and his legs with which he walks; and if he asks Me, I will give him; and if he seeks refuge with Me, I will grant him refuge” (Bukhari).

The emphasis on "Wali of mine" in the above Hadith shows that this human being is the chosen one.


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