LET US CORRECT OUR ISLAMIC FAITH

دعونا نصحّح العقيدة الاسلامية

 

 

 

 

تفسيرِ اَسَدی

TAFSEER-E-ASEDI
 

BY

SHAIKH MIR ASEDULLAH QUADRI

 
 
JUZ 2.2   SAYAQOOL (سَيَقُولُ)
 
 

 

سورة البقرة

The Cow
 

Al-Baqara | Sura # 2| 286 verses | Madinah

 

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ 

In the name of Allah, the Compassionate and the Merciful
    
 

Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 164
 
إِنَّ فِى خَلۡقِ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَٱخۡتِلَـٰفِ ٱلَّيۡلِ وَٱلنَّهَارِ وَٱلۡفُلۡكِ ٱلَّتِى تَجۡرِى فِى ٱلۡبَحۡرِ بِمَا يَنفَعُ ٱلنَّاسَ وَمَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ مِنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ مِن مَّآءٍ۬ فَأَحۡيَا بِهِ ٱلۡأَرۡضَ بَعۡدَ مَوۡتِہَا وَبَثَّ فِيہَا مِن ڪُلِّ دَآبَّةٍ۬ وَتَصۡرِيفِ ٱلرِّيَـٰحِ وَٱلسَّحَابِ ٱلۡمُسَخَّرِ بَيۡنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ لَأَيَـٰتٍ۬ لِّقَوۡمٍ۬ يَعۡقِلُونَ - [ In the creation of the heavens and earth; in the alternation of night and day; in the ships that sail the seas with goods for the benefit of people; in the water which Allah sends down from the sky to give life to the earth when it has been barren, scattering all kinds of creatures over it; in the changing of the winds and clouds that run their appointed courses between the sky and earth: there are signs in all these for those who use their minds. ]
 
Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) is explaining to us  that everything in this Cosmos has a special significance and purpose; and all these things are His signs. But who can recognize them?  Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) says that the people who use their minds can recognize them.
 
How do we use our minds to recognize these signs.  Let us discuss it  in a little detail.

There are five internal faculties of our brain that help in processing the information and restoring it for future use.  These are; (i) Common Sense, (ii) Incredulity (Doubt), (iii) Imagination, (iv) Notion (thought), and (v) Memory.  Common Sense is the processor that analysis the information in the following two ways.

(a) If the information is coming from outside, through our external senses, like eyes, touch, taste, etc., the process is called as ‘Incredulity’ (doubt). 

(b) If the information is coming from inside, the process is called ‘Imagination’.

There are two drives or reservoirs in our brain where processed information is dumped for future use.   These are, (i) Notion (thought), and (ii) Memory.

When we look at an outside picture, the 'common sense' studies it and separates meanings from the apparent picture.
  For example, when we look at a tiger, our common sense separates the meaning 'powerful'  from tiger's picture. And the information analyzed is 'tiger is powerful'.

The process of separating 'meanings' from outside 'picture' in the Common Sense is known as ‘the process of Incredulity (doubt)’.
Why this process is called ‘Incredulity’? Because drawing of meanings by individual men and women could be right or wrong, depending upon their knowledge or ignorance about facts of things. Like, a person is looking at a hand made Idol. His common sense is analyzing the picture and drawing the meanings that the ‘idol is his god’. Another person is looking at the same idol, and his common sense is drawing the meaning that the idol is  'a statute of mud/metal, made by a human being which does not have life and power even to move on its own’.

When we move our attention away from the outside thing, the picture goes into ‘Notional Reservoir’ and its meanings go into our ‘Memory’. After sometime when we draw our attention back on the that thing, its picture comes out of the ‘Notional Reservoir’ and its meanings come out of our ‘Memory’ and together they become visible in our common sense.

'Imagination' is also the name of the process of our common sense. In 'Imagination' the thing does not come from outside. It comes from our mind.  Like a man brought a headless human body and body-less head of an elephant from his 'notional reservoir' and joined them together in his common sense.

People belonging to all religions, all regions and ethnic background are basically reasonable, and when they are explained issues in the light of facts and logic, they will understand.   It will not take much time for them to find the right path of their creator.  It is their scholars and leaders who have concocted stories and convinced them to believe in them. Like, someone among the early religious elderly among Idol worshipers imagined a face/form consisting of head of an elephant over a human body. They imagined this shape to be 'knowledgeable and eloquent'. They gave  a name to this form 'Ganesha' and brought it out in the world in the shape of an idol which has a long trunk and big belly and convinced their followers that this is their god. Gradually it became a popular Hindu idol god.  Similarly, when some religious elderly among idol worshipers looked at cow, they associated 'motherhood' with it as people drink its milk.  They also drew the meaning of sacredness with cow and considered cow as divine and started worshiping it. 

It is in Quran - وَإِذْ وَاعَدْنَا مُوسَى أَرْبَعِينَ لَيْلَةً ثُمَّ اتَّخَذْتُمُ الْعِجْلَ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ وَأَنْتُمْ ظَالِمُونَ [ And we specified forty nights for Musaؑ and then, while he was away, you started worshiping the calf. And you (surely) were wrongdoers (in that worship). ] (Al-Baqara - 51)

In the same way some religious elderly among idol worshipers imagined about the beginning of life. They could not understand it as to when life began on planet Earth. Their imagination rested on penis. They imagined it to be sacred and divine.  They made an idol of human penis and started worshiping it.  Their followers followed them in this worship.  They are known as people of Lingayat.

Needless to say that all idol gods and deities worshiped in the world have originated from the 'Imagination of different people. This was the reason there were 360 Idols placed in an around Kaba and their number was increasing all the time.

When Christians looked at the miraculous birth of Isa (عليه السلام), they could not understand it. As there was no male intervention in his birth, their 'common sense' concluded that ‘he is the Son of God’ (Astaghfirullah).  If they had used their minds and pondered over the facts of things and sought Allah’s (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) guidance, they would have realized that as Adam (عليه السلام) was born without biological father and mother, then it is possible that Isa (عليه السلام) can come into this world without a biological father.

Some Muslim sects, like Salafis and their like minded groups,  read certain metaphorical verses (Aayaat-e-Mutashabihaat) of Quran and misinterpret them on the basis of their textual meanings and claim that  (Nauzubillahi) Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) is a huge planetary Idol god, who has a physical body like humans and is sitting over the skies.  They worship this Sky God 5 times a day during their Salah.  If they had studied Quran and Ahadith in the guidance of Shaiks of Ihsan, who are true Islamic monotheists, and pondered over the creation of this cosmos and sought Allah’s (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) guidance, they would have understood the facts of things in this cosmos.  All animals they sacrifice is in the name of this Sky Idol God and all their prayers and supplications are to this Sky God.

How do we escape from the clutches of misleading people in power and their associate corrupt scholars on Earth? The only way is to turn our attention towards our Creator and seek His guidance.  Supplicate to the one who has created you and ask for His help to find you His path. He will show you His path. 

Remember, there is only one God who is the creator of this Cosmos. He does not have any partners.  Divinity only rests in Him. Other than Him is spurious.

It is in Quran - لَوْ كَانَ فِيهِمَا آلِهَةٌ إِلَّا اللَّهُ لَفَسَدَتَا ۚ فَسُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَرْشِ عَمَّا يَصِفُونَ [ Had there been within the skies and earth gods besides Allah, they both would have been ruined. So exalted is Allah, Lord of the Throne, above what they describe.] (Al-Anbiya - 22)

Quran is the only book  that has not been altered since its descent. How can it be possible without the intervention of God?

It is in Quran -  إِنَّا نَحْنُ نَزَّلْنَا الذِّكْرَ وَإِنَّا لَهُ لَحَافِظُونَ [We (Allah) have descended Quran and We only will preserve it.] (Al-Hijr - 9).

Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) has challenged the entire humanity and Jinns, many a time in Quran that if they doubt in Quran, they should bring  a Surah like that of Quran.  Since the word of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) and the word of His creature cannot be equated, this challenge remains unfulfilled and will remain so till the day of resurrection.

It is in Quran -  وَإِن كُنتُمْ فِي رَيْبٍ مِّمَّا نَزَّلْنَا عَلَى عَبْدِنَا فَأْتُوا بِسُورَةٍ مِّن مِّثْلِهِ وَادْعُوا شُهَدَاءَكُم مِّن دُونِ اللَّـهِ إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ  [ If you doubt (in this Quran) which has been sent down on Our chosen servant, (Apostle Mohammad ﷺ) then bring a chapter like it;  and call all your helpers other than Allah,  if you are truthful.].

It is important that every human being on planet belonging to any faith, region and ethnic background read this book carefully.  Your sincere reading, and  supplications to your Creator in showing His path,  will surely lead you to His path. It is also important that you find a sincere teacher to explain you the meanings of Quran. Supplicate to your Creator to find you a teacher in this context.  


 
Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 165
 
وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَنْ يَتَّخِذُ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ أَنْدَادًا يُحِبُّونَهُمْ كَحُبِّ اللَّهِ وَالَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا أَشَدُّ حُبًّا لِلَّهِ وَلَوْ يَرَى الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا إِذْ يَرَوْنَ الْعَذَابَ أَنَّ الْقُوَّةَ لِلَّهِ جَمِيعًا وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعَذَابِ - [ Yet there are among humankind those who take to themselves objects of worship as rivals to God, loving them with a love like that which is the due of God only – while those who truly believe are firmer in their love of God.  If only those who do this wrong could see – as they will see when they behold the punishment – that the power altogether belongs to God, and that God is severe in punishment.]
 

For many people creatures are real and God is notional (a thing in thought). They associate divinity with certain creatures, forms and shapes and concoct many false stories about these man made gods  and go astray.  

It is in Quran - Transcendent (magnificent) is your Lord, the Lord of All-Greatness, far above what they ascribe to Him’. (As-Saaffaat – 180).

It is in Hadith - Prophet Mohamammed (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said, ‘Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) was Hidden Treasure; then He wanted to be known; therefore, He created this Cosmos’.

Every thing in the cosmos, from the invisible micro organism to the huge stars, including human beings, have been drawn from His Being (Existence - وجود). 

It is in Quran -  اللَّهُ نُورُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ [ Allah  is the light (existence) of the Heavens and Earth’. (An-Noor - 35).

It is in Quran -  هُوَ الْأَوَّلُ وَالْآخِرُ وَالظَّاهِرُ وَالْبَاطِنُ ۖ وَهُوَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ [ Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) is the first, and the last.  He is the Manifest (apparent) and the Immanent (hidden - but actually present through out the material world) and He is the knows about of all things’. (Al-Hadeed – 3).

The source of all creation is Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ), who is also the source of our existence. This is denoted in Islamic Cradle Testimony (Shahadah - Kalima Tayyiba) – ‘There is no (real) god, but Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ), and Mohammed (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) is the Apostle of Allah’. 

True Muslims are knowledgeable. They are aware of the facts of things in this cosmos. They look at every thing and deal with it as per its exigency (necessity), but their common sense does not stay with visible things, it reaches to the source, Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ).   
 
 
Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 166
 
إِذْ تَبَرَّأَ الَّذِينَ اتُّبِعُوا مِنَ الَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُوا وَرَأَوُا الْعَذَابَ وَتَقَطَّعَتْ بِهِمُ الْأَسْبَابُ - [ When those who have been followed disown their followers, when they all see the suffering, when all bonds between them are severed.]

The people in power, corrupt scholars, and the founders of deviant sects who are followed by many people will disassociate themselves from all their followers on the Day of Judgment.  Even Satan will disassociate himself from everyone who fell victim to his insinuation and led a rebellious life in his company.

It is in Quran - وَقَالَ الشَّيْطَانُ لَمَّا قُضِيَ الْأَمْرُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ وَعَدَكُمْ وَعْدَ الْحَقِّ وَوَعَدتُّكُمْ فَأَخْلَفْتُكُمْ ۖ وَمَا كَانَ لِيَ عَلَيْكُم مِّن سُلْطَانٍ إِلَّا أَن دَعَوْتُكُمْ فَاسْتَجَبْتُمْ لِي ۖ فَلَا تَلُومُونِي وَلُومُوا أَنفُسَكُم ۖ مَّا أَنَا بِمُصْرِخِكُمْ وَمَا أَنتُم بِمُصْرِخِيَّ ۖ إِنِّي كَفَرْتُ بِمَا أَشْرَكْتُمُونِ مِن قَبْلُ ۗ إِنَّ الظَّالِمِينَ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ   [ When everything has been decided, Satan will say, 'Allah  gave you a true promise. I too made promises but they were (all) false : I had no power over you except to call you, and you responded to my call, so do not blame me; blame yourselves. I cannot help you, nor can you help me. In front of Allah I deny your association with me (in your lives).' (Allah says) A bitter torment awaits such wrongdoers. ]  (Ibrahim - 22)

The Kings, the politicians in power, the misleading scholars and even Satan will not be able to save their followers.  Each of them will want nothing to do with the other.  Everyone will be confined to what they have earned.  

It is important to note that Satan and the people in power or corrupt scholars do not have the authority to compel any person to do anything he or she does not want to do.  In fact no one has any power or authority over any human being whatsoever. The absolute authority rests in Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ). And Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) has given freedom of action to all His servants. And in this freedom no one has the power to make you do things forcefully.  If a tyrant King makes you do things as per his evil whims, and you are subjected to torture; if Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) wills, He will reward you freedom in this life, and if you die, you will get bountiful rewards in Hereafter. 

What actually happens in most of the cases is,  Satan, evil rulers and corrupt scholars mislead people by their convincing skills and by providing some worldly benefits like money. They will also warn people that if they do not follow their advice, they may loose worldly comforts.

It is in Quran - الشَّيْطَانُ يَعِدُكُمُ الْفَقْرَ وَيَأْمُرُكُم بِالْفَحْشَاءِ ۖ وَاللَّهُ يَعِدُكُم مَّغْفِرَةً مِّنْهُ وَفَضْلًا ۗ وَاللَّهُ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ [ Satan threatens you with poverty and convinces you for immorality, while Allah promises you forgiveness from Him and bounty.  And Allah is all Encompassing and Knowing.] (Al-Baqara - 268)  

Satan and his associate scholars make people act voluntarily as per their whims.  This is known as the convincing power.  But as Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) has said repeatedly in His book, those who follow Satan or his associates, are the ones who already have an inclination and desire to act evil in their hearts.  This is the reason they start following evil. But those who believe in their Lord, do not fall victims to Satan or his associates.

It is in Quran  -  إِنَّهُ لَيْسَ لَهُ سُلْطَانٌ عَلَى الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَلَىٰ رَبِّهِمْ يَتَوَكَّلُونَ  [ Surely he has no authority over those who believe and rely on their Lord. ] (An-Nahl - 99). 

This is the reason, on the Day of Judgement, Satan and his associates will abandon their followers. Satan will confess that all he could do was to call people for sin.  Whoever responded to this call has only himself or herself to blame.


Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 167
 
وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُوا لَوْ أَنَّ لَنَا كَرَّةً فَنَتَبَرَّأَ مِنْهُمْ كَمَا تَبَرَّءُوا مِنَّا كَذَلِكَ يُرِيهِمُ اللَّهُ أَعْمَالَهُمْ حَسَرَاتٍ عَلَيْهِمْ وَمَا هُمْ بِخَارِجِينَ مِنَ النَّارِ - [ And when the followers will say, ‘If only we could have another chance at life, we would disown them as they disowned us!’ Thus shall Allah show them their deeds as regrets for themselves, and they shall never leave the Fire.]

When the relationships of the followers will be cut of from their scholars, what will be left is only regret. They will cry asking for one more chance to go back to the world.  But their request to return to this world for another try will not be granted. The regret will not save them from Hell fire.

It is in Quran -   يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اتَّقُوا رَبَّكُمْ وَاخْشَوْا يَوْمًا لَّا يَجْزِي وَالِدٌ عَن وَلَدِهِ وَلَا مَوْلُودٌ هُوَ جَازٍ عَن وَالِدِهِ شَيْئًا ۚ إِنَّ وَعْدَ اللَّهِ حَقٌّ ۖ فَلَا تَغُرَّنَّكُمُ الْحَيَاةُ الدُّنْيَا وَلَا يَغُرَّنَّكُم بِاللَّهِ الْغَرُورُ [ People, be mindful of your Lord and fear a day when no parent will avail their child, nor a child avail their parent in any way. Allah's promise is true, so do not let the present life delude you, nor let the deceiver delude you about Allah. ]  (Luqman - 33)

 

Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 168
 
يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ كُلُوا مِمَّا فِي الْأَرْضِ حَلَالًا طَيِّبًا وَلَا تَتَّبِعُوا خُطُوَاتِ الشَّيْطَانِ إِنَّهُ لَكُمْ عَدُوٌّ مُبِينٌ - [ O' mankind, eat what is good and lawful from the earth, and do not follow Satan’s footsteps, for he is your sworn enemy.]

Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) is addressing the entire mankind in this verse, believers and non-believers both, and reminds all of them of his bounties provided on this Earth.  You can eat and use everything lawful.  But do not follow Satan in disbelieve and rebellion and in using unlawful things.  Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) is cautioning us again and again about Satan, who is a sworn enemy of mankind.

 
Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 169
 
إِنَّمَا يَأْمُرُكُمْ بِالسُّوءِ وَالْفَحْشَاءِ وَأَنْ تَقُولُوا عَلَى اللَّهِ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ - [ He (the Satan) only convinces you to evil and indecency and that you should speak against Allah the things about which you have no knowledge.]

Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) says Satan convinces people to do evil, indecency and rebellion.  How Satan convinces people?  He attacks human minds by by creating evil and suggestive considerations.  There is one more enemy within ourselves which is known as 'Nafs'.  Satan colludes with Nafs to lead us to evil.  We get good and bad thoughts both.  How do we recognize that these thoughts are originating from which source.  There is a science of considerations and our Sufia-a-Karam train people in recognizing these considerations and act safely.  We provide below a brief account for the benefit of our readers.

 In all, we get the following 4 types of thoughts or considerations (خَطرات). 

(i) Satanic Consideration (خَطراتِ شيطاني) - Their work is to be create disbelief about Allah (سبحانه و تعالى), lead you towards lustful indecency, like taking out your clothes and exposing private parts in the name of physical fitness. They also provoke you to rebel against the commandments of Sharia and breaking the established principles of Islam.  They also provoke you to rebel against the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), to disrespect him and treat him as an ordinary sinful human being.
(ii) Anima's Consideration (خَطراتِ نفساني) - The objective of the Anima (نفس) is to enjoy, eat, drink, dress, marry, lead a luxurious life and spend most of the time in indecent worldly affairs and playfulness.  But if you train Nafs, it becomes also rational. 
(iii) Angelic Consideration (خَطراتِ مَلكي) - These thoughts are meant to stops a person from evil deeds and to differentiate between virtue and evil.  
(iv) Beneficent's Consideration (خَطراتِ رحماني) - It enriches the person with divine gnosis (معارف الہیہ).   
 
What is the difference between 'Consideration' (خطرہ) and 'Determination' (عزم)?
 
It is important to note that a 'Consideration' (خطرہ) is a thought that comes and goes.  If a person firmly resolves to do something, the 'Consideration' becomes 'determination' (عزم).  The consideration is forgivable, but the determination is not.  If a person strongly willed to do a bad thing, but in view of some hindrance could not do it, then this will be treated as determination which is sin, subjected to punishment. But this sin is smaller than the performance of the actual act.  In any case from morning till evening several good and bad thoughts come to our minds  and it is important that we recognize them and play safe.  We will discuss details in this context at an appropriate place in the Tafseer. 

     

Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 170
 
وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمُ اتَّبِعُوا مَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ قَالُوا بَلْ نَتَّبِعُ مَا أَلْفَيْنَا عَلَيْهِ آَبَاءَنَا أَوَلَوْ كَانَ آَبَاؤُهُمْ لَا يَعْقِلُونَ شَيْئًا وَلَا يَهْتَدُونَ - [ And when it is said to them, "Follow what Allah has revealed," they say, "rather, we will follow that which we found our fathers doing." What! Even though their fathers understood nothing, nor were they guided?]

There are two dimensions to the above, as follows.

(i) Idol worshipers and unbelievers

Every prophet, in the history of mankind, faced this problem.  When the prophet asked his nation to follow the commandments of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) revealed to him, they said, how can we leave the traditions of our forefathers.

(ii) Deviant sects 

There are 72 deviant sects and their innumerable sub groups among Muslims. The founders of all these deviant sects convinced their followers that the actual teachings of Islam were different from what Muslims practiced for centuries. They misinterpreted Quranic verses and Ahadith which were related to unbelievers and applied them on Muslims in order to lead their followers away from Islam. That is how they created so many deviant sects among Muslims.  

It is in Hadith - وكان ‏ ‏ابن عمر ‏ ‏يراهم شرار خلق الله ‏ ‏وقال إنهم انطلقوا إلى آيات نزلت في الكفار فجعلوها على المؤمنين - Ibn Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) considered the Khawarij and the heretics (Salafis, Deobandis and their like minded groups) as the worst beings in creation and he said : 'They went to verses which were revealed about the disbelievers and applied them to the Believers (Prophets, Sahabah, Awliya Allah and Muslims). (Bukhari).
 
Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 171
 
وَمَثَلُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا كَمَثَلِ الَّذِي يَنْعِقُ بِمَا لَا يَسْمَعُ إِلَّا دُعَاءً وَنِدَاءً صُمٌّ بُكْمٌ عُمْيٌ فَهُمْ لَا يَعْقِلُونَ - [ The example of those who disbelieve is such as someone calling to an animal that hears nothing but a call and a cry. They are deaf, mute and blind, so they do not understand.]

The verb ‘calls to’ is used to describe a shepherd gathering his livestock.  He shouts and calls out so that his livestock would gather and follow him. The call is to seek  animals' attention. Meaning, the animals only hear calls and cries and understand nothing more than that. Following a deviant scholars is just like that. Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) is saying that people do not use their faculties of understanding, listening and seeing that have been awarded to them from their Lord. They blindly follow deviancy, be it from their desires or from a deviant scholar. They do not understand,  and act like deaf. mute and blind towards the commandments of  Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) and His Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).

It is in Quran -  أَفَلَمْ يَسِيرُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ فَتَكُونَ لَهُمْ قُلُوبٌ يَعْقِلُونَ بِهَا أَوْ آذَانٌ يَسْمَعُونَ بِهَا ۖ فَإِنَّهَا لَا تَعْمَى الْأَبْصَارُ وَلَـٰكِن تَعْمَى الْقُلُوبُ الَّتِي فِي الصُّدُورِ  [ Have they not traveled about the earth? Do they not have hearts to understand with or ears to hear with?  It is not their eyes which are blind but the hearts within their chests which are blind. ] (Al-Hajj - 46)

 
 
Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 172
 
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا كُلُوا مِنْ طَيِّبَاتِ مَا رَزَقْنَاكُمْ وَاشْكُرُوا لِلَّهِ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ إِيَّاهُ تَعْبُدُونَ - [ O' you who have believed, eat from the good things which We have provided for you and be grateful to Allah if it is Him that you worship.]

 

Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 173
 
إِنَّمَا حَرَّمَ عَلَيْكُمُ الْمَيْتَةَ وَالدَّمَ وَلَحْمَ الْخِنْزِيرِ وَمَا أُهِلَّ بِهِ لِغَيْرِ اللَّهِ فَمَنِ اضْطُرَّ غَيْرَ بَاغٍ وَلَا عَادٍ فَلَا إِثْمَ عَلَيْهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ - [ He has only forbidden to you dead animals, blood, the flesh of swine, and that which has been dedicated to other than Allah. But whoever is forced by necessity, neither desiring nor transgressing, there is no sin upon him. Indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.] 

What is the purport of the command that 'a thing which has been dedicated to other than Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) is forbidden'?

It is with reference to what we intend and commit by saying at the time of sacrificing the animal. The Makkan pagans used to sayبسم اللاتِ والعُزَى ['Bismillati wal Uzza' - In the name of Laat and Uzza - the deities of Makkan pagans]. Against this, it was established in Islam that Muslims say -  بسم اللهِ اللهُ اكبر [ Bismillahi Allahu Akbar - In the name of Allah and Allah is Supreme].

Islam teaches us to take the name of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) before everything we do.

It is in Hadith - It is narrated by Abu Hurairah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said  :   'Every thing which does not start with the praise of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ)   is vitiated, devoid of virtue] (Musnad Ahmed). 

This is the reason  Fateha and Eisaal-e-Thawab is so popular among Muslims. We cook food, sacrifice animals in the name of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) and dedicate recompense (thawaab) to Awliya Allah and dead Muslims.  The people who are dead surely get benefited from Fateha and Eisaal-e-Thawaab  in life after death.

Eisaal-e-Thawaab is Sunnah proved by so many Ahadith. Fateha is one of the kinds of Eisaal-e-Thawaab. 

It is in Hadith - Ibn Abbas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) narrated that a person came to the audience of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and submitted that his sister had made a vow (nazr) that she would do Hajj.  But She died without doing it.  On this the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said, "if she had a loan, would you pay it?  He said, yes I would. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said, pay the loan due to Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) , He deserves to be paid more than anybody else". (Bukhari, Muslim)

It is in Hadith - Buraidah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) narrated that when he was  sitting with the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), a woman came and said, O'Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), I had given a slave maid to my mother and now my mother is dead.  The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said, your retribution (Jaza) is a certainty and the inheritance has returned that slave maid back to you.  Then the woman said, O'Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) my mother had an obligation to keep one month's fasts.  Shall I keep fasts on her behalf?  Again she said, O'Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) she had never done Hajj.  Shall I do Hajj on her behalf?  The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said , do Hajj on her behalf". (Muslim)

It is in Hadith - A  sweet water well was dug for the (dead) mother of Hazrat Sa'ad (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) (in Madina during Prophet Mohammad's -  صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) time and it was announced هذهِ لي اُمِّ سَعد [ this well is for the mother of Sa'ad - رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)].  Both rich and poor used to drink water from that well. (Abu Dawood, Nasa'i).

It is in Hadith Ummul Momineen Aisha (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) narrated that a person came to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and said O'Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) my mother died all of a sudden.  In my opinion if she had lived, she would have done some charity.  If I do it on her behalf, will she get the recompenses (thawaab)?  The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said 'Yes'. (Bukhari, Muslim)

The above Ahadith confirm Eithaal-e-Thawaab to the dead.  If we do any charity or good deeds and donate the recompense to them, they get it in Life after death.  If we recite Quran, feed the poor or do any kind of charity and donate the recompense to our dead relatives, it reaches them in Hereafter and is beneficial for them.

It is in Hadith - Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said  "three things continue to benefit a (believing) person even after death - charity which he had given (which continues to benefit others), beneficial knowledge which he had left behind (i.e. authored or taught), and supplication on his behalf by a righteous child. (Muslim).

It is in Quran -  Verily, the good deeds remove the evil deeds. That is a reminder for the mindful (those who accept advice). (Hud - 114)

It is in Quran - Whoever brings a good deed  shall have ten times the like thereof to his credit, and whoever brings an evil deed  shall have only the recompense of the like thereof, and they will not be wronged. (Al-Anaam - 160)

It is in Quran - "Except those who repent and believe  and do righteous deeds, for those, Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) will change their sins into good deeds, and Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. (Al-Furqan - 70)

The above Quranic verses and Ahadith signify the importance of Eisaal-e-Thawaab to our dead relatives.  Who knows, our good deeds done with the intention to benefit them carry unlimited Thawaab to them and help in removal of their bad deeds or converts their bad deeds into good ones.  This way they get significant assistance from the living people to increase their Thawaab even after their deaths.  

What do we do in Fateha.  We cook food and read the verses of Quran and feed the people and send the recompense to our dead relatives.  It is important that we repeat Fateha more often so that our dead relatives get more thawaab. Thus Fateha is a requirement established by Prophet's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) commandment and is in practice since the time of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)

The deviant sects like Salafis, Deobandis mislead Muslims against Fateha and Eisaal-e-Thawaab.  They say that if you sacrifice an animal for Eisaal-e-thawaab for some Wali Allah or dead Muslim, this is Haraam.  With this logic, they claim the food of Fateha is Haraam.

It is in Hadith - At the time of sacrificing the animals Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) used to say اللهمَّ هذا منكَ ولك - اللهمَّ هذا عن محمدٍ وآلِ - بسم الله اللهُ اكبر   [O'Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) this is for you and from you. O'Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) this is from Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and 'Aal-e-Nabi (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) '.   In the name of Allah who is Supreme]. And  -  اللهمَّ انّ هذا  عَن شَهِدَ نِي بِى البَلاغ   [O'Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ), this is from the ones (your servants) who stood witness to my conveying your Message.] (Abu Dawood, Ahmad). 

Slaughtering of animals for deities is different from sacrificing them in the name of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) for conveying recompense (thawaab) to the needy. 

All Muslims in the world sacrifice animals by saying "Bismillahi Allahu Akbar".  Where is shirk in it? Muslims sacrifice animals in the name of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) and supplicate Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) to convey its thawaab to the dead Muslims.  What is wrong in it? But Wahhabis/Salafis/Deobandis and their like minded go against the established principles of Islam. 

Wahhabism/Salafism was invented in Arabian Peninsula in 18th century AD by Ibn 'Abdul-Wahhab who took Quranic verses revealed for the Mushrikeen of Makka and applied them on Muslim Ulema, Awliya Allah, Sufi Shuyookh and general Muslims and said  those who do Fateha and Eisaal-e-Thawaab are similar to the Mushrikeen  of Makka.  He branded all Muslim Ulema / Awliya and Shuyookh of 1000 years before him as Mushrikeen.

 
Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 174
 
إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَكْتُمُونَ مَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ وَيَشْتَرُونَ بِهِ ثَمَنًا قَلِيلًا أُولَئِكَ مَا يَأْكُلُونَ فِي بُطُونِهِمْ إِلَّا النَّارَ وَلَا يُكَلِّمُهُمُ اللَّهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ وَلَا يُزَكِّيهِمْ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ - [As for those who conceal from the Book that Allah sent down and sell it for a small price, they eat nothing but fire in their bellies. Allah will not speak to them on the Day of Resurrection, nor will He purify them: an agonizing torment awaits them.]
 
The scholars who mislead Muslims and form sects to make some money, should know that their attempts of hiding facts from their followers will not help them in Hereafter.  What they are doing is,  for a small price they are actually filling their bellies with fire.    
 
 
Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 175
 
أُولَئِكَ الَّذِينَ اشْتَرَوُا الضَّلَالَةَ بِالْهُدَى وَالْعَذَابَ بِالْمَغْفِرَةِ فَمَا أَصْبَرَهُمْ عَلَى النَّارِ - [ Those are the ones who have exchanged guidance for error and forgiveness for punishment; how persistent they are in their struggle to cast themselves into the fire! ]

 

Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 176
 
ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّ اللَّهَ نَزَّلَ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ وَإِنَّ الَّذِينَ اخْتَلَفُوا فِي الْكِتَابِ لَفِي شِقَاقٍ بَعِيدٍ - [ That is because Allah has sent down the Book with the truth. And indeed, those who differ over the Book are in extreme dissension. ]

 

Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 177
 
لَيْسَ الْبِرَّ أَنْ تُوَلُّوا وُجُوهَكُمْ قِبَلَ الْمَشْرِقِ وَالْمَغْرِبِ وَلَكِنَّ الْبِرَّ مَنْ آَمَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآَخِرِ وَالْمَلَائِكَةِ وَالْكِتَابِ وَالنَّبِيِّينَ وَآَتَى الْمَالَ عَلَى حُبِّهِ ذَوِي الْقُرْبَى وَالْيَتَامَى وَالْمَسَاكِينَ وَابْنَ السَّبِيلِ وَالسَّائِلِينَ وَفِي الرِّقَابِ وَأَقَامَ الصَّلَاةَ وَآَتَى الزَّكَاةَ وَالْمُوفُونَ بِعَهْدِهِمْ إِذَا عَاهَدُوا وَالصَّابِرِينَ فِي الْبَأْسَاءِ وَالضَّرَّاءِ وَحِينَ الْبَأْسِ أُولَئِكَ الَّذِينَ صَدَقُوا وَأُولَئِكَ هُمُ الْمُتَّقُونَ - [ Righteousness is not that you turn your faces toward the east or the west; rather righteousness is belief in Allah , the Last Day, the angels, the Book, and the prophets and to give wealth, however cherished, to relatives, orphans, the needy, the traveler, to those who ask, and for freeing slaves; It is to establish prayer and give Zakat;   to honor the promise when it is made; and to be patient in poverty and hardship and during battle. Those are the ones who have been true, and it is those who are the mindful. ]

Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) is emphasizing people to keep Sahih Iman and do good deeds as per the commandments of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) and His Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).

Love of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and his Ahle Bait is part of Sahih Iman and good deeds.

It is in Hadith - Anas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) narrated that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said, 'None of you will have faith till he loves me more than his father, his children and all mankind'.  (Bukhari)

It is in Quran -  النَّبِيُّ أَوْلَىٰ بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ مِنْ أَنفُسِهِمْ ۖ وَأَزْوَاجُهُ أُمَّهَاتُهُمْ [ The Prophet ﷺ is dearer to the believers than their own selves; his wives are their mothers.] (Al-Ahzaab - 6). 

It is in Quran -  ذَ‌ٰلِكَ الَّذِي يُبَشِّرُ اللَّهُ عِبَادَهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ ۗ قُل لَّا أَسْأَلُكُمْ عَلَيْهِ أَجْرًا إِلَّا الْمَوَدَّةَ فِي الْقُرْبَىٰ ۗ وَمَن يَقْتَرِفْ حَسَنَةً نَّزِدْ لَهُ فِيهَا حُسْنًا ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ شَكُورٌ  [It is of that of which Allah gives good news to His servants who believe and do good deeds. Say (O'Prophet ﷺ), ‘I ask  no reward from you for this, only the affection due to my kin.’  If anyone does good, We shall increase it for him; Allah is most forgiving and most appreciative. (Ash-Shura - 23).

 

Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 178
 
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الْقِصَاصُ فِي الْقَتْلَى الْحُرُّ بِالْحُرِّ وَالْعَبْدُ بِالْعَبْدِ وَالْأُنْثَى بِالْأُنْثَى فَمَنْ عُفِيَ لَهُ مِنْ أَخِيهِ شَيْءٌ فَاتِّبَاعٌ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَأَدَاءٌ إِلَيْهِ بِإِحْسَانٍ ذَلِكَ تَخْفِيفٌ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ وَرَحْمَةٌ فَمَنِ اعْتَدَى بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ فَلَهُ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ - [ O'You who believe, fair retribution is prescribed against you in cases of murder : the free man for the free man, the slave for the slave, the female for the female. But if the perpetrator is pardoned by his aggrieved brother, this shall be adhered to fairly, and the perpetrator shall pay what is due in good will.  This is easing from your Lord and an act of mercy. If anyone then exceeds these limits, grievous suffering awaits him. ]

Taking revenge for something wrong done by someone,  is generally in  human nature. Specially in a tribal setting, this is more prevalent.  The tribes remain in war with each other for decades in these revenge killings. Islam changed all that. The divine command is that the retribution for a murder has to be limited to the extent of damage done.  It cannot be more.  Even in this, if the aggrieved party is willing, they can pardon the murderer by accepting an agreed money known as Diya.  

There is no retaliation in Islam; there is no mutilation of bodies in revenge, nor punishment of an entire family or population for the crimes of one member.  Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) wants us to acknowledge that revenge aggression does not produce any good; rather, it ignites the fires of hatred and bloodshed.

The above commandment is not new. Similar legislation were in force for the followers of earlier prophets.

It is in Quran -  وَكَتَبْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ فِيهَا أَنَّ النَّفْسَ بِالنَّفْسِ وَالْعَيْنَ بِالْعَيْنِ وَالْأَنفَ بِالْأَنفِ وَالْأُذُنَ بِالْأُذُنِ وَالسِّنَّ بِالسِّنِّ وَالْجُرُوحَ قِصَاصٌ ۚ فَمَن تَصَدَّقَ بِهِ فَهُوَ كَفَّارَةٌ لَّهُ ۚ وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ فَأُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الظَّالِمُونَ  [ In the Torah We prescribed for them a life for a life, an eye for an eye, a nose for a nose, an ear for an ear, a tooth for a tooth, an equal wound for a wound: if anyone forgoes this out of charity, it will serve as atonement for his bad deeds. Those who do not judge according to what Allah has revealed are doing grave wrong. ] (Al-Maaida - 45) 

 

Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 179
 
وَلَكُمْ فِي الْقِصَاصِ حَيَاةٌ يَا أُولِي الْأَلْبَابِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ - [ And there is life for you in Fair retribution, people of understanding, so that you may guard yourselves against what is wrong. ]
 
In cases of murder, justice is served not through revenge killing; rather it is served by killing the perpetrator or murderer. Additionally, in order to cleanse malice and vengeful hatred from the hearts of the people, Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) granted the victim’s guardian the right to either kill or pardon the murderer.  Thus, the life of the killer is put in the hands of the victim’s guardian.  If the guardian chooses to forgive, it would be  his/her honorable choice. There is no compulsion on him. The issue of Qisas has been dealt with in detail in  Islamic Penal law. These rules are for the promotion of peace and amity in human society. 
 
 
Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 180
 
كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمْ إِذَا حَضَرَ أَحَدَكُمُ الْمَوْتُ إِنْ تَرَكَ خَيْرًا الْوَصِيَّةُ لِلْوَالِدَيْنِ وَالْأَقْرَبِينَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ حَقًّا عَلَى الْمُتَّقِينَ - [ It is prescribed for you, when death approaches one of you and if he has some good (inheritance) to leave, to make a will in favor of his parents and relatives, correctly and fairly: a duty for all those who are righteous. ]
 
The meaning of the word (كُتِبَ)  is  'it is obligatory'.  Like in (الصلاة مكتوبة)  and (كُتِبَ عَليكم الصيام), meaning,  Salah and Fasting have been made obligatory for you. 
 
Inheritance is another subject that has been dealt with in Islamic law in detail.  Islam is against  the wealth to remain in the hands of a few individuals.  It should be distributed fairly among people.
 
There are two options in distribution of Inheritance, that work side by side. These are (i) the Will (وصیت), and (ii) the Inheritance (وراثت). And in consideration of the nature of these options, the ‘Will’ gets preference in the distribution of heredity as the ‘Will’ is the reformer of Inheritance.
  
The rules of 'Inheritance' (وراثت) have been detailed in Quran, as follows.

It is in Quran - “يُوصِيكُمُ اللَّهُ فِي أَوْلَادِكُمْ ۖ لِلذَّكَرِ مِثْلُ حَظِّ الْأُنثَيَيْنِ ۚ فَإِن كُنَّ نِسَاءً فَوْقَ اثْنَتَيْنِ فَلَهُنَّ ثُلُثَا مَا تَرَكَ ۖ وَإِن كَانَتْ وَاحِدَةً فَلَهَا النِّصْفُ ۚ وَلِأَبَوَيْهِ لِكُلِّ وَاحِدٍ مِّنْهُمَا السُّدُسُ مِمَّا تَرَكَ إِن كَانَ لَهُ وَلَدٌ ۚ فَإِن لَّمْ يَكُن لَّهُ وَلَدٌ وَوَرِثَهُ أَبَوَاهُ فَلِأُمِّهِ الثُّلُثُ ۚ فَإِن كَانَ لَهُ إِخْوَةٌ فَلِأُمِّهِ السُّدُسُ ۚ مِن بَعْدِ وَصِيَّةٍ يُوصِي بِهَا أَوْ دَيْنٍ ۗ آبَاؤُكُمْ وَأَبْنَاؤُكُمْ لَا تَدْرُونَ أَيُّهُمْ أَقْرَبُ لَكُمْ نَفْعًا ۚ فَرِيضَةً مِّنَ اللَّهِ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا” [Allah instructs you concerning your children: for the male, what is equal to the share of two females. But if there are (only) daughters, two or more, for them is two thirds of one's estate. And if there is only one, for her is half. And for one's parents, to each one of them is a sixth of his estate, if he left children. But if he had no children and the parents (alone) inherit from him, then for his mother is one third. And if he had brothers (or sisters), for his mother is a sixth, after any bequest he (may have) made or debt. Your parents or your children - you know not which of them are nearest to you in benefit. (These shares are) an obligation (imposed) by Allah . Indeed, Allah is ever Knowing and Wise.] (An-Nisa - 11)

The meaning of (الْوَصِيَّةِ) is an ‘emphatic command’. Therefore, the meaning of (يُوصِيكُمُ اللَّهُ)  is  Allah ( عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) emphatically commands. The meaning of (الْوَصِيَّةِ)  is also to decide and authorize distribution of a part of inheritance to those who do not fall under the category of ‘direct heirs’ and for religious works and for alms to the poor (and needy).

It is in Quran - “ وَلَكُمْ نِصْفُ مَا تَرَكَ أَزْوَاجُكُمْ إِن لَّمْ يَكُن لَّهُنَّ وَلَدٌ ۚ فَإِن كَانَ لَهُنَّ وَلَدٌ فَلَكُمُ الرُّبُعُ مِمَّا تَرَكْنَ ۚ مِن بَعْدِ وَصِيَّةٍ يُوصِينَ بِهَا أَوْ دَيْنٍ ۚ وَلَهُنَّ الرُّبُعُ مِمَّا تَرَكْتُمْ إِن لَّمْ يَكُن لَّكُمْ وَلَدٌ ۚ فَإِن كَانَ لَكُمْ وَلَدٌ فَلَهُنَّ الثُّمُنُ مِمَّا تَرَكْتُم ۚ مِّن بَعْدِ وَصِيَّةٍ تُوصُونَ بِهَا أَوْ دَيْنٍ ۗ وَإِن كَانَ رَجُلٌ يُورَثُ كَلَالَةً أَوِ امْرَأَةٌ وَلَهُ أَخٌ أَوْ أُخْتٌ فَلِكُلِّ وَاحِدٍ مِّنْهُمَا السُّدُسُ ۚ فَإِن كَانُوا أَكْثَرَ مِن ذَ‌ٰلِكَ فَهُمْ شُرَكَاءُ فِي الثُّلُثِ ۚ مِن بَعْدِ وَصِيَّةٍ يُوصَىٰ بِهَا أَوْ دَيْنٍ غَيْرَ مُضَارٍّ ۚ وَصِيَّةً مِّنَ اللَّهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَلِيمٌ” [And for you is half of what your wives leave if they have no child. But if they have a child, for you is one fourth of what they leave, after any bequest they (may have) made or debt. And for the wives is one fourth if you leave no child. But if you leave a child, then for them is an eighth of what you leave, after any bequest you (may have) made or debt. And if a man or woman leaves neither ascendants nor descendants but has a brother or a sister, then for each one of them is a sixth. But if they are more than two, they share a third, after any bequest which was made or debt, as long as there is no detriment (caused). (This is) an ordinance from Allah , and Allah is Knowing and Forbearing](An-Nisa - 12)

 

When the shares of the heirs have been fixed, it is also commanded in Quran to write a 'Will' (for non-heirs) and for repayment of loans, etc.  The rules for writing a 'will of inheritance' (وصیت), are as follows.

 

 It is in Quran - وَإِذَا حَضَرَ الْقِسْمَةَ أُولُو الْقُرْبَىٰ وَالْيَتَامَىٰ وَالْمَسَاكِينُ فَارْزُقُوهُم مِّنْهُ وَقُولُوا لَهُمْ قَوْلًا مَّعْرُوفًا [And when (other) relatives and orphans and the needy are present at the (time of) division, then provide for them (something) out of the estate and speak to them words of appropriate kindness.] (An-Nisa - 8)

It is in Quran - وَلَا يَأْتَلِ أُولُو الْفَضْلِ مِنكُمْ وَالسَّعَةِ أَن يُؤْتُوا أُولِي الْقُرْبَىٰ وَالْمَسَاكِينَ وَالْمُهَاجِرِينَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ ۖ وَلْيَعْفُوا وَلْيَصْفَحُوا ۗ أَلَا تُحِبُّونَ أَن يَغْفِرَ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ  [ And let not those of virtue among you and wealth swear not to give (aid) to their relatives and the needy and the emigrants for the cause of Allah , and let them pardon and overlook. Would you not like that Allah should forgive you? And Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.]  (Al-Noor - 22)

It is in Hadith -  Narrated by Hadhrat Ibn Abbas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said, “Writing of a Will is not allowed for a heir (until all other heirs agree).  (Abu Dawood, Ibn Maja, Ahmad).

 

Since the issue of Inheritance and 'will of inheritance' are important subjects, we will write some details in this context for the benefit of our readers.

Three things have been described in Quran (a) The share of heirs, (b) Repayment of Loan, and (c) Writing of a Will.

The shares of inheritance of lawful heirs have been fixed in the Quran.  For others, it is commanded to write a Will.  However, the beneficiaries of the 'Will' and their shares have not been fixed. The assistance to people who are not heirs has been left to the discretion of the  writer of the Will.  The discretionary choice given to a person is only for those beneficiaries who do not fall under the category of direct heirs; and this is after the allotment and ascertainment of lawful heirs’ portions.

To write a will in favor of an heir is not necessary because the shares of heirs have already determined by Quran.  Thus the 'Will' can be written for 1/3rd of the inheritance.

 

It is in Hadith -  Narrated by Hadhrat Saad Ibn Abi Waqaas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) came to inquire about me when I was ill. He (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) asked me, “Have you written a Will?”. I said, “Yes I have done it”. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) asked, “How much?”. I said, “The entire wealth (owned by me) for charity in the path of Allah”. Then the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) asked, “What have you left for your children?".   I submitted that they are rich and are in fine shape.   On this, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) asked me to write a Will for one tenth (part). Then I started requesting the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) for reduction (of inheritance to the children) until he (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said, “OK, write a Will for one third of your wealth for charity and one third is also plenty”. (Tirmidhi)

 

However, if all heirs agree, the 'Will' can be written for more (than one third) of inheritance. If there are no heirs, then the 'Will' can be written for the entire wealth because there is no one to object over it.

The sequence of distribution of wealth is, first the 'Will' will be taken into consideration, then the repayment of loans of the diseased will be taken care of and then  payments will be made to the heirs as per the shares prescribed in Quran. 

The 'Will' has been placed ahead of ‘repayment’ of loan and ‘distribution of inheritance to legal heirs’. The reason for giving precedence to the 'Will' is that the heirs consider the wealth of the deceased as their own and in the process the loans taken by the deceased during his life time remains unpaid.  Sometimes, it so happens that the person takes a loan from people on which there is no witness or deponent.  In such circumstances, there is apprehension that the loan amount could be lost (in the absence of witnesses). If the heirs do not accept the repayment of this kind of  loan, then this can be taken care of by the amount of the Will. 

 
Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 181
 
فَمَنْ بَدَّلَهُ بَعْدَمَا سَمِعَهُ فَإِنَّمَا إِثْمُهُ عَلَى الَّذِينَ يُبَدِّلُونَهُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ - [ And should anyone alter the 'will' after hearing it, its sin shall indeed lie on those who alter it. Surely God is All-Hearing, All-Knowing. ]
 
Sometimes, it so happens that the dying person makes a will in front of some people who are in front of him at the time of death. Or he makes a will during his life time and makes some people as witnesses. At the time of distribution of inheritance, the person is already dead.  Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) is warning people who are witnesses to the will to be sincere in implementing it as per the wishes of the deceased.  If they alter it, it is a great sin and they will face the consequences of their lies in this world and in Hereafter.   

The 'Will' is the only thing to which people show indifference,  while the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) has commanded us not to pass two nights without a written Will of inheritance. 

The deed of inheritance has to be kept safely to be opened only after the death of that person.  In view of its importance, the Quran has commanded to ‘keep two witnesses to the deed of inheritance’. As per Quranic directive when the 'Will' is read out to two witnesses, it is preferable to keep it somewhere safe out of the reach of greedy people. 

Islamic imperatives are comprehensive and complete. The commandments given for inheritance are also unequivocal and non-amendable.  A 'Will' should be written in respect to those relatives who are deprived of the inheritance or for those who deserve it  or for friends and those sincere people who served the deceased or sympathizers or for the virtuous and community deeds.

 

Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 182
 
فَمَنْ خَافَ مِنْ مُوصٍ جَنَفًا أَوْ إِثْمًا فَأَصْلَحَ بَيْنَهُمْ فَلَا إِثْمَ عَلَيْهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ - [ But if someone fears bias or wrongdoing on the part of the person making the will, and puts things right between the people involved, in that case he has not committed any sin. Allah is Ever-Forgiving, Most Merciful. ]

Allah wants to protect the rights of all.  In the previous verse, the rights of the dying person were protected; changing his or her will by the heirs was declared a sin.  In this verse, it is the rights of the heirs that are considered and protected from possible errors of the dying person. A will should not be a tool to deprive the poor while increasing the wealth of the rich, nor should it be used to settle scores and leave some close-relatives out.  Doing so tears the social fabric that Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) intends to strengthen.  Thus, Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) gives the heirs room to help correct what is wrong.

An unjust 'Will' can come from two sources.  First, a dying person may have  bias and preferences that he or she is not aware of.  In this case, the heirs are encouraged to give advice and make the person aware of the bias that he or she may have.  This will not only protect the rights of the heirs, but it will also protect the dying person from unintentionally making errors.  Second, the dying person may intentionally use his or her 'Will' to discriminate.  In this case, the heirs have a duty to make the necessary corrections and protect the family from injustice. 

If an heir interferes with a just 'Will' and changes it for his or her own benefit, then the violation is a sin that will be punished.  If on the other hand, an heir makes an effort to advise the dying person against a bias, then it is mercy and salvation for both the dying and the living.  Similar is the case of an heir that interferes to prevent a deliberate injustice done by the dying.   

Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ)  commands us that when we choose to write our 'will', it is best to consult knowledgeable people in order to avoid bias and injustice.  In this manner, problems are addressed before they occur and the social fabric is preserved and strengthened. 

We get a sense of Allah's (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) care for the social fabric of the believers, when we read - فَمَنْ خَافَ مِنْ مُوصٍ جَنَفًا أَوْ إِثْمًا [But if someone fears bias or wrongdoing.]  This command encourages unity among people because the person who comes forward to suggest corrections in the 'will' may not be an heir as per se.  Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) uses the generic term ‘someone’ because this person could be a witness or a guest who heard the 'will'; what drives this person to give advice is the love and concern he or she has for fellow believers.  Any issue that benefits one believer, benefits the entire community.  Likewise, an injustice affecting one believer is an injustice affecting the community as a whole. 

 

Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 183
 
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الصِّيَامُ كَمَا كُتِبَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ - [ O'You who believe, fasting is prescribed for you, as it was prescribed for those before you, so that you may become mindful of God. ]
 
The meaning of the word (كُتِبَ)  is  'it is obligatory (Fardh)'.  Like in (الصلاة مكتوبة)  and (كُتِبَ عَليكم الصيام), meaning,  Salah and Fasting have been made obligatory for you.  

Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) says that the purpose of fasting is to develop righteousness (تقوه) by abstaining from food, drink and sinful deeds. The root meaning of Taqwa (تقوه) is to guard, therefore it is generally translated as righteousness and mindfulness.  Fasting benefits our body, mind and heart.

It is in Hadith - The Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said, fasting is a shield from Hell fire just like the shield of any of you in a battle. (Ibn Maja).
 
Fasting is not just from staying away from food and drink. It is also required that you stay away from all kinds of evil as far as possible.  

It is in Hadith - The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said, verily, fasting is not just from eating and drinking. Rather, fasting is from vanity and obscenity. If someone abuses you or acts foolish against you, then say : Indeed, I am fasting. (Sahih Ibn Hibban) 

It is in Hadith - Abu Huraira (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) reported that the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said - 'Whoever does not give up false speech and evil deeds while fasting, then Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) is not in need of his leaving food and drink. (Bukhari) 

Thus, there are three types of fasting.  (i) Restraining stomach from fulfilling its desires; this is the fasting of the common people. (ii) Restraining one's hearing, sight, tongue, hands, feet and all limbs from sin; this is the fasting of the pious. (iii) Restraining heart from everything other than Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ);  this is the fasting of Awliya Allah.
 
Fasting carries multiple rewards,  both in this world and in Hereafter.
 

It is in Hadith - Abu Hurayrah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) narrated that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said : 'Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) said that all the deeds of the son of Adam (عليه السلام) are for him: the good deeds will be multiplied ten times to seven hundred time, except fasting, which is for Me and I will reward for it accordingly. He abandons his (sexual) desire, food and drink for Me.’ Verily, there are two joyous and pleasurable moments for the fasting person: one at the time of breaking his fast, and the other is when he will meet his Lord (in the Hereafter). Verily, the unpleasant odor emanating from the mouth of the fasting person is better in the sight of Allah () than the scent of musk.' (Bukhari and Muslim)  

 
  
Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 184
 
أَيَّامًا مَعْدُودَاتٍ فَمَنْ كَانَ مِنْكُمْ مَرِيضًا أَوْ عَلَى سَفَرٍ فَعِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ وَعَلَى الَّذِينَ يُطِيقُونَهُ فِدْيَةٌ طَعَامُ مِسْكِينٍ فَمَنْ تَطَوَّعَ خَيْرًا فَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لَهُ وَأَنْ تَصُومُوا خَيْرٌ لَكُمْ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ - [ For a specified number of days. But any of you who are ill or on a journey should fast a number of other days.  But for those who can manage to fast with some hardship, there is redemption by feeding a person in poverty.  Yet better it is for him who volunteers greater good, and that you should fast is better for you, if you only knew. ]
 
It is in Quran - لَا يُكَلِّفُ اللَّهُ نَفْسًا إِلَّا وُسْعَهَا [ Allah does not task a person more than he/she can bear.]  (Al-Baqara - 286)
 
In this verse certain concessions have been given to the needy in regard to the fulfillment of the obligation of Fasting in the month of Ramadhan.  If you are traveling, you can postpone your fast.  If you are ill, postpone the fasts.  And if you cannot fast because of some ailment or advance age, feed the poor in lieu of fasting.
 
   
Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 185
 
شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ الَّذِي أُنْزِلَ فِيهِ الْقُرْآَنُ هُدًى لِلنَّاسِ وَبَيِّنَاتٍ مِنَ الْهُدَى وَالْفُرْقَانِ فَمَنْ شَهِدَ مِنْكُمُ الشَّهْرَ فَلْيَصُمْهُ وَمَنْ كَانَ مَرِيضًا أَوْ عَلَى سَفَرٍ فَعِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ بِكُمُ الْيُسْرَ وَلَا يُرِيدُ بِكُمُ الْعُسْرَ وَلِتُكْمِلُوا الْعِدَّةَ وَلِتُكَبِّرُوا اللَّهَ عَلَى مَا هَدَاكُمْ وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ - [ It was in the month of Ramadan that the Quran was revealed as guidance for mankind, clear messages giving guidance and distinguishing between right and wrong. So any one of you who is present that month should fast, and anyone who is ill or on a journey should make up by fasting on other days later. God wants ease for you, not hardship. He wants you to complete the prescribed period and to glorify Him for having guided you, so that you may be thankful. ]
 

There are two more verses in Quran on this subject, as follows

It is in Quran - إِنَّا أَنزَلْنَاهُ فِي لَيْلَةِ الْقَدْرِ [ Indeed, We sent the Qur'an down during the Night of Decree (لَيْلَةِ الْقَدْرِ).] (Al-Qadr - 1)

The Quran was revealed in stages over a period of 23 years.

It is in Quran - وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لَوْلَا نُزِّلَ عَلَيْهِ الْقُرْآنُ جُمْلَةً وَاحِدَةً ۚ كَذَ‌ٰلِكَ لِنُثَبِّتَ بِهِ فُؤَادَكَ ۖ وَرَتَّلْنَاهُ تَرْتِيلًا [ And those who disbelieve say, "Why was the Qur'an not revealed to him all at once?" Thus it is that We may strengthen thereby your heart. And We have spaced it distinctly.] (Al-Furqan - 32)

From the above three verses we understand that the Quran was descended completely from the Preserved Tablet (اللوح المحفوظ) to the lower sky in Ramadan on the night of al-Qadr which falls in the last 10 days of Ramadhan.

Then it was revealed to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) gradually, over a period of 23 years. 

Thus, Ramadhan is not just a privileged month of fasting, it also has the honor that Quran was descended in this month.  This was the reason that  the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) used to review the  Quran with Hadhrat Jibreel (عليه السلام) in the month of Ramadan every year. He used to listen to it from Hadhrat Jibreel (عليه السلام), pondered over it and recited it full along with Hadhrat Jibreel (عليه السلام) in the month of Ramadhan.

It is in Hadith - Abu Huraira (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) narrated that Jibreel (عليه السلام) used to repeat the recitation of the Quran with the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) once in year (in the month of Ramadhan), and he repeated it twice with him (in the month of Ramadhan) in the year he died. (Bukhari)

The person who observes fasting and recites the Holy Quran, he lives the month of Ramadhan in total harmony with the commandments of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) and His Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).

It is in Quran -  كِتَابٌ أَنزَلْنَاهُ إِلَيْكَ مُبَارَكٌ لِّيَدَّبَّرُوا آيَاتِهِ وَلِيَتَذَكَّرَ أُولُو الْأَلْبَابِ [This is the Book which We have sent down to you (O'Prophet ﷺ), full of blessings, that they may ponder over its Verses, and that, men of understanding may remember}  (Sad - 29) 

The Quran consists of 114 chapters.  All these chapters  were  compiled by the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) during his lifetime.  As a matter of fact, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) made sure that every verse revealed to him was recorded and written at the time of its revelation itself. Quran was later written down in a book form, as per the instructions of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) during the time of Khulafa-e-Rashideen. 

It is in Hadith - Usman bin Affan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) narrated that whenever a verse was revealed, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) used to call scribes and give them specific instructions to write it in the specific Chapter (sura) where it belonged.  (Ahmed, Abu Dawood, Nasai,  Tirmdhi, Ibn Hibban, Hakim, etc.)

It is in Hadith - Zaid bin Thabit (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) narrated that in the life time of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) there were at least four Sahabah from Ansar of Medina, Ubay bin Kaab, Muadh ibn Jabal, Zaid, and Abu Zaid (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہم) who had the entire Quran written with them. It is also reported that Abdullah bin Saeed bin al-Aas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), who was a calligrapher, was instructed to teach the art of writing the Quran to the people of Medina.  (Bukhari)  

   

 

 

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السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

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