LET US CORRECT OUR ISLAMIC FAITH

دعونا نصحّح العقيدة الاسلامية

 

 

PROPHET MOHAMMAD'S (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)

PARENTS ( رضئ اللھ تعالی عنہم ) AND

HADHRAT ABU TALIB (رضئ اللھ تعالی عنہ)

ARE SAVED

 

 

 

 

 

PROPHET IBRAHIM ( علیھ السلا م )
 


 

It is reported that Hadhrat Ibrahim ( علیھ السلا م )  grew up under the guardianship of his uncle Azar (father's brother), because his father, Tareq died when he was very young. 

However, Salafis and their like minded groups contradict these reports and claim that Azar was the real father of Ibrahim ( علیھ السلا م ). We have discussed this issue in the light of Quran and Ahadith.

 

(1) It is in Quran - أَمْ كُنتُمْ شُهَدَاءَ إِذْ حَضَرَ يَعْقُوبَ الْمَوْتُ إِذْ قَالَ لِبَنِيهِ مَا تَعْبُدُونَ مِن بَعْدِي قَالُوا نَعْبُدُ إِلَـٰهَكَ وَإِلَـٰهَ آبَائِكَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَإِسْحَاقَ إِلَـٰهًا وَاحِدًا وَنَحْنُ لَهُ مُسْلِمُونَ [Meaning -  Nay! were you witness when death visited Yaqoub ( علیھ السلا م ), when he said to his sons: What will you serve (worship) after me? They said: We will serve (worship) your God and the God of your fathers; Ibrahim ( علیھ السلا م ) and Ismail ( علیھ السلا م ) and Ishaq ( علیھ السلا م ); one God only, and to Him do we submit.] ( Al-Baqara - 133).

In the above verse, the sons of Yaqoub ( علیھ السلا م ) are referring to, both Ishaq ( علیھ السلا م ) and  Ismail ( علیھ السلا م ),  as their fathers ( آبَائِكَ  ).  Ishaq ( علیھ السلا م ) is their grand father, and Ismail ( علیھ السلا م )  is the brother of Ishaq ( علیھ السلا م ). Thus, it is proved that the word ( أبي ) is used in Quran for both biological father,  and brother of father.

 

(2) It is in Quran - وَإِذْ قَالَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ لِأَبِيهِ آزَرَ أَتَتَّخِذُ أَصْنَامًا آلِهَةً ۖ إِنِّي أَرَاكَ وَقَوْمَكَ فِي ضَلَالٍ مُّبِينٍ  [ Meaning - And when Ibrahim ( علیھ السلا م ) said to his father, Azar : Do you take idols for gods? Surely I see you and your people in manifest error] (Al-Anaam - 74).

The literal meanings of this verse  that comes to a reader's mind are : Ibrahim ( علیھ السلا م ) said to his father whose name was Azar. But as per the rules of laconic usage, descriptive linguistics and rhetoric, this is a wrong understanding  because it is mentioned that "Ibrahim ( علیھ السلا م ) said to his father, Azar", which denotes different meanings.

Like, we never say, “My father,  Husain, is coming".  We only say "My father is coming".

If we talk of a relationship and a name at the same time, people will understand that there are more than one person associated with that relationship. If we have only one person associated with the relationship (like father), we will only say, “My father is coming". 

Arabic word ( أبي ) is commonly used for biological father, or 'step father' or 'brother of father'. Like in Indian Sub Continent, many children call their father Papa. And they call, elder brother of their father, Abbu, Bade Papa, etc. Similarly, in English language, people use 'father' to denote different relationships; like 'father figure', 'father of nation', 'god father', 'grand father', 'heavenly father', etc. 

If Azar was the biological father of Ibrahim ( علیھ السلا م ), it would have been enough to say, "He said to his father"  or "He said to Azar”.  But the Quranic verse emphasizes "Ibrahim ( علیھ السلا م ) said to his father, Azar".  This shows that Azar was not biological father of Ibrahim ( علیھ السلا م )

 

(3) It is in Quran - وَمَا كَانَ اسْتِغْفَارُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ لِأَبِيهِ إِلَّا عَن مَّوْعِدَةٍ وَعَدَهَا إِيَّاهُ فَلَمَّا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُ أَنَّهُ عَدُوٌّ لِّلَّهِ تَبَرَّأَ مِنْهُ ۚ إِنَّ إِبْرَاهِيمَ لَأَوَّاهٌ حَلِيمٌ [ Meaning - Ibrahim ( علیھ السلا م ) would not have asked forgiveness for his father but for a promise he made to him, and when it became clear to him that he was an enemy of Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی), he renounced him. Ibrahim ( علیھ السلا م ) was tender-hearted and forbearing.] (At-Tauba -114).

Read the above verse carefully;  it says "Ibrahim ( علیھ السلا م ) would not have asked forgiveness for his father but for a promise he made to him".

Remember, we do not pray for our parents because we make a promise to them.  We do it as mandatory and obligatory on us.  We might make a promise to our relatives that we will do dua for them in a specific issue. Thus, the verse shows the relationship of Ibrahim ( علیھ السلا م ) with Azar, was not that of son and real father, rather it was the relationship between two relatives. He asked for forgiveness for (his uncle) Azar because he promised him once.  But when Ibrahim ( علیھ السلا م ) realized that he was an Idol worshiper and the enemy of Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی), he renounced him.

 

(4) It is in Hadith - Anas Ibn Malik (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) narrates that one day Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) stood on the pulpit and informed (sahabah) the names of his ancestors: 

The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said: Ana, Mohammad Ibn Abdullah, bin Abdul Muttalib, bin Hashim, bin Abd Manaf, bin Qusa'i, bin Kilab, bin Murra, bin Ka'b, bin Lu'ayy, bin Ghalib, bin Fihr, bin Malik, bin an-Nadr, bin Kinanah, bin Khuzaimah, bin Mudrikah, bin Elias, bin Mudar, bin Nizar, bin Ma'ad,  bin Adnan, bin Udad, bin Asha'b, bin Saleh, bin Salooq, bin Hameesa, bin Nabad, bin Khizaar, bin Ismail ( علیھ السلا م ), bin Ibrahim ( علیھ السلا م ), bin Tariq. 

(Baihaqi, Hakim, Ahmed, Ibn Kathir in Bidaya wan Nihaya and Ibn Asakir also narrated this Hadith).

It is clear from the above Hadith that the father of Ibrahim ( علیھ السلا م ) was Tariq, a Momin;  while his uncle Azar was an Idol worshiper.

 

(5) It is in Quran - رَبَّنَا اغْفِرْ لِي وَلِوَالِدَيَّ وَلِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ يَوْمَ يَقُومُ الْحِسَابُ   [Meaning - O our Lord! grant me protection and my parents and the believers on the day when the reckoning shall come to pass! ] (Ibrahim - 41).

In the above verse, Ibrahim ( علیھ السلا م ) is praying for protection for himself, his both parents (who were Momineen) and general believers on the Day of Judgment. This Quranic verse shows Azar, who was an Idol worshiper, was not the father of Ibrahim ( علیھ السلا م ).

 

(6) Ibn Kathir has written in al-Bidaya wan Nihaya -  Ibrahim ( علیھ السلا م ) was the son of Tariq.  When Tareq was 75 years old, Ibrahim ( علیھ السلا م ) was born to him.  (al-Bidaya wan Nihaya, vol 1, page 139)

(7) Ibn Jarir al-Tabari in his Tafsir and History book has mentioned that - Azar was not the father of Ibrahim ( علیھ السلا م ). ( History of Tabari, Vol. 1,Page 119.  and Tafsir-e-Tabari by Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Vol. 7, page 158).

(8) Hadhrat Mohammad Abdul Qadeer Siddiqui (r) has written in his Tafseer-e-Siddiqui that Azar was the brother of the father of Ibrahim ( علیھ السلا م ).  (Tafseer-e-Siddiqui) 

 

 

     

    ALL ANCESTORS OF

    PROPHET MOHAMMAD (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)

    PROSTRATED BEFORE ALLAH (سبحانہ و تعا لی)

     

    (1) It is in Quran - وَتَقَلُّبَكَ فِي السَّاجِدِينَ  [ Meaning -  And your turning over and over among those who prostrate themselves before Allah.] (Ash Shuara - 219)

    Imam Fakr al-Din Razi  wrote, ‘Verily the fathers of the prophets were not disbelievers, because of the saying of Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی) "He is the One who sees you when you stand; and when you were transferred in the loins of the prostrating ones". The meaning is that Noor-e-Mohammadi (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) transferred from one prostrating one to the next, proving that all forefathers of Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) were Muslims.’ (Seerah Halbiyya. Imam Muhammad Abu Zuhra, vol. I, p. 103).

     

    (2)  It is in Hadith - "You (Prophet Mohammad - صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) descend from the best men of each century." (Bukhari)

    Mullah Jami says: "The holy light shown on the forehead of Hadhrat Adam ( علیھ السلا م ) because he had a particle of Mohammad ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ). That particle was transferred to Eve ( علیھ السلا م ), to Seth ( علیھ السلا م ).  And then to clean women from clean men,  and to clean men from clean women. That holy light was transferred to foreheads from foreheads together with that particle." (Shawahid)

     

    (3)  It is in Hadith - The Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) said - "Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی) chose Kinanah among the sons of Ismail ( علیھ السلا م ), the Quraish among the sons of Kinana and sons of Hashim among the Quraysh. And He chose me among them." (Muslim)

    (4)  It is in Hadith - The Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) said - "I descend from the best people. My ancestors are the best people." (Tirmidhi)

    (5) It is in Hadith - The Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) said - "Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی) chose me among the distinguished people of Arabia. I descend from the best people." (Tabarani)

    (6) It is in Hadith - Ibn Abbas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) narrated : "I transferred you from the generation of one prophet to the generation of another prophet. If a father had two sons, the Messenger of Allah ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) descended from the one that had the Prophet-hood."  ( Mawahib al-Ladunniyyah  )

    (7) It is in Hadith - The Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) said - "None of my grandparents committed fornication. I descend from the best fathers and clean mothers. If one of my grandfathers had two sons, I descended from the better one." ( Mawahib al-Ladunniyyah  )

    (8) It is in Hadith - The Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) said - "All of my ancestors beginning from Adam ( علیھ السلا م ) were married couples. I am the best of you in terms of ancestors." (Daylami)

    (9) It is in Hadith - The Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) said - "I am the most honorable person among people. I am not saying it in order to boast." (Daylami)

    (10) It is in Hadith - Suyuti reported in “Al-Jami‘ Al-Saghir” on the authority of `Ali, (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) that the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) said: “I was born of the best and noblest lineage after lineage, and nothing of the fornication of Jahiliyyah (pre-Islamic time of ignorance) touched my birth.” Tabarani in “Al-Awsat”. Haythami said: The chain of Narrators of this Hadith have been authenticated by Hakim.

    (11) It is in Hadith - Abu Nua’im writes in Dala’il al-Nabuwwa, with the chain of Ibn Abbas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) that the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) said, ‘Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی) continued to transfer me from the loins of the pure to the wombs of the pure, clean and mannered. No two groups have appeared except I was the best of the two.’

    (12) It is in Hadith - Imam Tirmidhi has recorded a Hadith which he classified as Hasan, as well as Imam Baihaqi from Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib
    (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) that the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) said :  "When Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی) created me, He made me from the best of creations. Then when He created the tribes, He made me from the best of tribes. And when He created souls He made me from the best of souls. Then when He created households, He made me from the best of households. Thus I am the best in terms of household, and the best in terms of souls.’

    (13) It is in Hadith -  Imam Tabrani writes in Awsat and Imam Baihaqi in Dala’il, from Ummul Momineen Aisha (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا)  that the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) said:  "Jibreel ( علیھ السلا م ) said to me, I have searched the Earth, the Easts and the Wests, and I did not find a man better than Muhammad ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ), and I did not find a clan better than the clan of Bani Hashim."

    After citing the above narration, Imam Suyuti includes the saying of Imam Ibn Hajar : ‘Imam Ibn Hajar said, ‘And it is known that being the best, being the chosen and preferred, comes from Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی). And in the eyes of Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی), being the best cannot occur with Shirk (polytheism).
     

    (14) It is in Quran -  يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِنَّمَا الْمُشْرِكُونَ نَجَسٌ [Meaning - O you who believe! the idolaters are nothing but unclean.] (At Tauba - 28)

    (15) It is reported that before the fall of Makkah, Abu Sufyan (who had not accepted Islam then) went to visit Ummul Momineen, Umm-e-Habibah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) who was his daughter. He wanted to sit down on the bedding of the Prophet Mohammad ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ), but Umm-e-Habibah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) did not allow her father to sit on it as he was an unbeliever. She said, "You are a polytheist and hence unclean and this is a pure, clean bedding of the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم )".

     

    All Quranic verses and Ahadith mentioned above confirm the fact that Prophet's ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) Grandfather Hadhrat Abdul Muttalib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and his Father Abdullah bin Abdul Mutallib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and all his ancestors till Adam ( علیھ السلا م ) were either Prophets or among the people who were clean and Honorable Momineen.

     

     SCHOLARS' OPINIONS

     

    (i) Imam Jalal al-Din Suyuti wrote in his book Masalak al-Hunafa : "The proof is based on two elements. Firstly, it is proven from authentic Ahadith that from the time of Adam ( علیھ السلا م ) to Abdullah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) ( Prophet’s  صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم  father), the Prophet’s ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ), lineage were the best people. No one was better than his lineage in any generation.

    Secondly, it is proven from Ahadith that from the time of Adam ( علیھ السلا م ) up till the time of Abdullah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) , there was no period in which at least some people of Fitra existed, who worshiped Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی), performed Salah for Him and thus, through their means and blessings,  the Earth was preserved (from destruction). If it was not for them, the Earth and all above it, would have perished. If we hypothetically assume that some of the forefathers of the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) were polytheists, then we must ask; were they still better than the others of that generation or not? If his fathers were still deemed better, then this necessitates that a polytheist and disbeliever is better than a Muslim! This hypothesis can never be accepted. And if others from previous generations were better than the Prophet’s ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) forefathers, then this too is unacceptable because it has been proven from authentic Ahadith that his ancestors were the best of each generation. Therefore, it can only be understood and concluded that the forefathers of the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) were all monotheists and believers, and were the best of their generations.


    (ii) Imam Abd al-Razzaq wrote in al-Musannaf, from the chain of Ma’mar, from Ibn Juraij, from Ibn al-Mussaiyab; Ali ibn Abu Talib
    (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said : "The Earth has continuously been occupied with at least seven Muslims or more. If this was not the case, the Earth and its inhabitants would have perished.’

    The chain of the above narration is authentic (Sahih) according to the conditions set by Imam Bukhari and Imam Muslim, and though it is saying of Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), we assume he must have heard it from the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ).

    (iii) Ibn al-Munzir
    has mentioned in his Exegesis with a sound chain, from Ibn Juraij in the commentary of the verse [ رَبِّ اجْعَلْنِي مُقِيمَ الصَّلَاةِ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِي ۚ رَبَّنَا وَتَقَبَّلْ دُعَاءِ  - Meaning - O' Allah! make me (Ibrahim
    علیھ السلا م ) one who establishes regular Prayer, and also (raise such) among my offspring O our Lord! and accept Thou my Prayer.] (Ibrahim - 40); he said, ‘there has remained from the offspring of Ibrahim ( علیھ السلا م ) to our Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) people on Fitra who have worshiped Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی).

     

     

     WHAT IS FITRA

    AND WHO ARE THE PEOPLE OF FITRA

     

    Some scholars say that Prophet Mohammad's ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) parents and close ancestors are the people of Fitra.

    FITRAفطرة ) is an Arabic word which means 'natural disposition'.  Human beings are born with an innate inclination towards Tawhid (Oneness of God), which is inbuilt in their fitra (nature); along with intelligence and all other attributes that are required to be human. 

    In the context of our discussion, the people of Fitra can be divided into following three major categories.

    (i) The people, through their own natural disposition and enlightened insight, were able to deduce the oneness of Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی).

    (ii) People who diverted from the religion of Ibrahim ( علیھ السلا م ) and began worshiping idols, like Makkan Pagans. Such people are destined for Hell Fire.

    (iii) In view of lack of knowledge and disregard, some people refrained from accepting other beliefs and remained firm on monotheism. They did not indulge in polytheism or idol worship. These are the people who fall under the verse  وَمَا كُنَّا مُعَذِّبِينَ حَتَّىٰ نَبْعَثَ رَسُولًا  [ Meaning - And We do not torment until We send a Prophet.] (Al-Isra - 15).


    Some scholars say that Prophet's
    ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) parents belonged to the third category of Fitra.  No prophet was sent to them from the time of Ismail ( علیھ السلا م ) up till the official announcement of Prophet-hood of Mohammad ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ), nor did they perform any act associated with disbelief or polytheism.  Therefore, their salvation is a certainty.

    Some other scholars say that Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی) resurrected Prophet's  ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) parents (after their deaths) and they confirmed faith in him. This way they have been saved. This opinion is held by Ibn Shaahin, Abu Bakr al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, Sohaili, Qurtubi, Muhibb Tabri, Nasir al-Din Ibn al-Munzir, etc.
     

    However, we have proved, beyond doubt, in the light of Quran and Ahadith, that all ancestors of Prophet Mohammad ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ), from Adam ( علیھ السلا م ) till Abdullah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), were either Prophets or virtuous Momineen and were best among their people. Therefore, they are the recipients of unlimited bounties in Hereafter. We consider it a sin to even discuss about their salvation.

     

     

     CORRECT UNDERSTANDING OF AHADITH

     

    (1) It is in Hadith -  Narrated Anas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) that a man said : " O' Messenger of Allah ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ), where is my father?  He said : "In Hell". When he turned away, he called him back and said : "My father and your father are in Hell ( أبي و أأبوك في النار  )".  (Muslim, Book 1, 398)

    Salafis and their like minded Groups,  take the literal meanings of the above Hadith to prove that Ma'azallah, Astaghfirullah, Prophet's ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) father is in Hell. 

    If you take literal meanings of this Hadith, you will have to deny many many authentic Ahadith and Quranic verses mentioned above.

    We have proved, in the light of Quran and Ahadith that the word ( أبي ) is used in Arabic for both father and the brother of the father.  In the above Hadith, the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) is consoling the person that the person's father and the Prophet's ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) uncle, both are in Hell.

     

    (2) It is in Hadith - Abu Huraira (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) reported Allah's Messenger ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) as saying - "I sought permission to beg forgiveness for my mother, but He did not grant it.  I sought permission from Him to visit her grave, and He granted it (permission) to me". (Muslim)

    Salafis and their like minded Groups misinterpret the above Hadith to prove that Ma'azallah, Astaghfirullah, Prophet's ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) mother is in Hell.

    Read the following Quranic verse to understand the correct meaning of this Hadith.

    (3) It is in Quran -  وَلَا تُصَلِّ عَلَىٰ أَحَدٍ مِّنْهُم مَّاتَ أَبَدًا وَلَا تَقُمْ عَلَىٰ قَبْرِهِ ۖ إِنَّهُمْ كَفَرُوا بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ  وَمَاتُوا وَهُمْ فَاسِقُون [Meaning  - 'And never, (O' Prophet -  صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)  pray (funeral prayer) for anyone of them that dies, nor stand at his Grave. Certainly they disbelieved in Allah ( سبحانہ و تعا لی ) and His Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and died in a state of rebellion'. (at-Tauba - 84).

    The above Quranic verse is clearly commanding the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) never to pray funeral prayer or stand by the grave of disbelievers.

    Thus, the correct understanding of the above Hadith is, when Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) wanted to ask for forgiveness for his mother, Allah ( سبحانہ و تعا لی ) does not grant it because she is the virtuous mother of the seal of Prophet-hood, and one among the best of women among human beings, who has been rewarded plentiful bounties in Hereafter. Therefore, there is no need to ask for her forgiveness.  Forgiveness is requested for a sinner whose salvation is under scrutiny. 

    As far as the permission to visit her grave is concerned, this is granted to the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) because visiting the graves of Prophets, Sahabah and Muslimeen is a virtuous deed in Islam.

    From the above Hadith and Quranic verse, two issues are understood (i) We should not visit the graves of non-believers.  (ii) And when we visit the graves of Sahabah, Imams, or Awliya Allah, we should not pray for their forgiveness or salvation because they are the favorites of Allah ( سبحانہ و تعا لی ). Rather, we should request them to pray for our forgiveness and salvation.

     

    (4) It is in Hadith - Related by al-Hakim in Mustadrak from Ibn Mas`ud (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and graded authentic, that a young man of the Ansar who asked a lot of questions, once asked the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), "Are your parents in the Fire?" To which the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) answered, "My Lord promised to give me what I ask concerning them, and on that day I shall stand at the Praiseworthy Station (of chief intercessor)." (Hakim)

    (5) It is in Quran - وَلَسَوْفَ يُعْطِيكَ رَبُّكَ فَتَرْضَىٰ [ Meaning - "And your Lord shall give you so that you will be pleased".] (Ad-Duha - 5)

    The meaning of al-Hakim's narration is Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی) will reward uncountable bounties to the parents of Prophet Mohammad ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) on the Day of Judgment. There is no doubt in it.  And this is what the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) is emphasizing in the above Hadith. 

     

     

    HADHRAT ABU TALIB (رضئ اللھ تعالی عنہ) IS SAVED

     

    Salafis and their like minded groups spend their life times trying to reduce the respect of Prophet Mohammad ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ), by equating him with sinful human beings.  They also go overboard and claim Prophet's ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) parents and his respected Uncle Hadhrat Abu Talib (رضئ اللھ تعالی عنہم اجمعین ) are Mushrikeen (ma'azallah, astaghfirullah).  They misinterpret some Ahadith to fool innocent people. 

    There are some differences of opinions even among Ahle Sunnah in this context. 

    (1) Some claim Hadhrat Abu Talib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) ma'zallah, Astaghfirullah, died on Kufr.

    (2) Some say, we should keep silence in this issue because  any statements or interpretations against Hadhrat Abu Talib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) in establishing Kufr on him  could become cause of grief for Prophet Mohammad ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ). Causing grief to the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) may invite Allah's ( سبحانہ و تعا لی ) wrath in this world and in Hereafter. Remember Hadhrat Abu Talib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was father figure for the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) who took care of him from his childhood, in thick and thin.

    (3) A vast majority of Ahle Sunnah scholars say that Hadhrat Abu Talib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was, indeed, a Muslim.

     

    We have discussed this issue and have provided correct interpretations of related Ahadith,  in the light of Quran and Sunnah.  Read the following Ahadith.

    (1) Hadhrat Abu Talib ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) recognized and believed in the Prophet-hood of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)  during his childhood.  

    It is in Hadith - When Abu Talib ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) decided to go to Syria along with the Quraish for business, he took the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) along with him. At that time, the age of the  Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) was 12 years, 2 months and 10 days.

    When the caravan reached Basra, there a hermit (Christian Monk) by name Buhaira recognized the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) the moment he saw him, as he had read in the previous heavenly books the attributes of the Last Prophet and the signs of his Prophet-hood.

    Buhaira held the blessed hands of the Apostle ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) and told the Quraish: He is the leader of the heavens and earths. He is the Prophet of the Lord of the Worlds and his greatness is "Mercy for the whole universe".

    The Quraish asked him : How do you know all this? Buhaira replied: When you were ascending the valley, there was no tree or stone that did not prostrate to Him, at the time of heat, a cloudlet always covered Him and He has the Seal of Prophet-hood between both His shoulders. With great devotion and respect, Buhaira arranged a feast for the sake of the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ).

    Buhaira told Hadhrat Abu Talib ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ),  Take your nephew back to Makkah and sell away your merchandise here itself, as the Jews are His die hard enemies. There is a danger that they might martyr Him. Hence, Hadhrat Abu Talib ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) returned to Makkah along with the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ).  (Tirmidhi, Muwahib Ladunniya by Qastallani).   

    The above episode shows that Hadhrat Abu Talib ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) believed in the Prophet-hood of Prophet Mohammad ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ).  This was the reason he returned back to Makka.  If he did not believe it, he would have ignored Buhaira and would have continued his scheduled journey.

     

    (2) It is in Hadith -  Ibn Asakir narrated from Jalhama ibn Urfuta that Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) was in Makka when he was a small child and it was drought in Makka for two years. People came to Abu Talib (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) and suggested him that let all of them together go to Ka'aba to pray for rain.  Abu Talib (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) did not go with them; he waited for some time then went alone to Ka'aba and took  Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) along with him and had him stand with his back against Ka'aba and prayed  for rain.  There wasn’t even a tiny cloud in the sky at that time.  But as soon as the the young Prophet's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) hands were raised in prayer, the clouds started to arrive from every direction and it started raining, then pouring. The valley blossomed and both in Makka and out in the desert became fertile. Later, Hadhrat Abu Talib (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) wrote about this miracle, as follows:  

    (i)   وَ أَبْيَضُ يُسْتَسْقَى الْغَمَامُ بِوَجْهِهِ ثِمَالُ الْيَتَامَى عِصْمَةٌ لِلألْأَرَامِلِ  [ He is luminous-faced one and it is for him that the clouds pour down rain he is the shelter of the orphans and the protector of the widows.]

    (ii)   يَلُوْذُ بِهِ الْهُلاَّكُ مِنْ آلِ هَاشِمٍ. فَهُمْ عِنْدَهُ فِي نِعْمَةٍ وَ فَوَاضِلَلٍ  [Those from the Bani Hashim who face destruction seek refuge in him and it is by means of him that they find themselves receiving bounties and favors.]

    (iii)   وَ مِيْزَانُ صِدْقٍ لاَ يَخِيْسُ شَعِيْرَةً وَ وَزَّانٌ صِدْقٌ وَزْنُهُ غَيْرُ هَائِلٍل  [ He is that balance of justice,  that never violates (even) one grain of barley as he measures everything correctly.  His weight and measurement are not to be feared for error.  ] 

    ( Imam Qustulani, Imam Asakir, Imam Halabi, Allama Zaini Dhahlan, the Imam of Ka'aba, Allama Shahristani, etc.)

     

    (3) It is in Hadith - Narrated Al-Musaiyab : When Abu Talib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was on his death-bed, the  Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) went to him while Abu Jahl was sitting beside him. The Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم )  said to him : “O Uncle! Say Laa Ilaaha Illallah - an expression with which I will defend your case before Allah ( سبحانہ و تعا لی )”. Abu Jahl and Abdullah bin Umayyah said, “O Abu Talib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)! Will you leave the religion of Abdul-Muttalib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)?” They kept saying this till Abu Talib’s (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) last statement was, “I am on the religion of Abdul Muttalib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)”. So the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) said, “I will keep asking Allah ( سبحانہ و تعا لی ) for your forgiveness unless I am forbidden to do so”. Thereupon, verse 113 of Surah at-Tawbah was revealed, in which Allah ( سبحانہ و تعا لی ) says, “It does not befit the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) and the believers to ask Allah’s ( سبحانہ و تعا لی ) forgiveness for the pagans, even if they were their near relatives, after it has become clear to them that they are the dwellers of Hellfire”.] (Bukhari)

    The following are some important points in this context.

    (i) The last Narrator of the above Hadith, Al-Musaiyab, embraced Islam after the fall of Makka ( 11 years after the death of Hadhrat Abu Talib - رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ).  Also, he was not present at the time of Hadhrat Abu Talib's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) death.  It is on this account that al Aini, in his commentary has remarked that this tradition is Mursal (Dha'eef). (Al Aini, Chapter Janaiz, Vol 4, Page 200). 

    We cannot take Dha'eef Hadith to establish Kufr of Hadhrat Abu Talib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) (Astaghfirullah ).

     

    (ii) There is another, very serious issue with this Hadith. Verse 113 of Sura at-Tauba is mentioned in this Hadith and it is claimed that it was revealed at the time of the death of Hadhrat Abu Talib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ).  We have provided this verse below. 

    It is in Quran -  مَا كَانَ لِلنَّبِيِّ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَن يَسْتَغْفِرُوا لِلْمُشْرِكِينَ وَلَوْ كَانُوا أُولِي قُرْبَىٰ مِن بَعْدِ مَا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُمْ أَنَّهُمْ أَصْحَابُ الْجَحِيمِ [ Meaning - It does not befit the Prophet and the believers to ask Allah’s ( سبحانہ و تعا لی ) forgiveness for the pagans, even if they were their near relatives, after it has become clear to them that they are the dwellers of Hellfire ] (At-Tauba - 113) 

     

    It is a consensus (Ijma) of all scholars and A'imma  that the entire Surah at-Tauba (Bara'a) was revealed in 9th year of Hijra in Madinah.

    It is in Hadith - Narrated Al-Bara -The last Sura that was revealed was Bara'a.... (Bukhari, Kitabut Tafseer, Vol 6, # 129) 

    The above fact is also mentioned in (i) Tafseer-e-Qurtubi (Vol. 8, Page 49), Shawkani (Vol 3, Page 316) and many other Tafaaseer.

     

    As-Sawi has written on the  Hashiya (gloss) on the tafseer Jalalayn, as follows:

    "This sura (at-Tauba) was sent down as a whole. The Messenger of Allah ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) said, "The Qur'an was sent down ayat by ayat except for Surat Bara'a (sura at-Tauba) and the sura 'Say: He is Allah, One' (112). They were sent down accompanied by seventy thousand angels."

     

    The death of Hadhrat Abu Talib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) occurred in 619 AD,  the year of sorrow ( عام الحزن ), which was three years before Hijra.

    Thus the difference between the death of Hadhrat Abu Talib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and revelation of Sura at-Tauba (and of course the above verse) is  12 long years. 

    How this verse got added in the narration of the above Hadith is not known?  We will leave this issue to our respected Muhadditheen for their wise counsel and interpretation.

    Therefore, the correct understanding of the above Hadith is as follows: 

    (i) We have proved, beyond doubt, in the light of Quran and Ahadith, that all ancestors of Prophet Mohammad ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ), from Adam ( علیھ السلا م ) till Abdullah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), were either Prophets or virtuous Momineen and were best among their people.  Therefore, they are the recipients of plentiful bounties in Hereafter. We consider it a sin to even discuss about their salvation.  Read more...

    (ii) As per the above Hadith, Hadhrat Abu Talib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) confirms that he is on the religion of Hadhrat Abdul Muttalib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ). This is more than sufficient proof that he died as Momin. Read more...

    (iii) Hadhrat Abu Talib's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) understanding about the faith of Hadhrat Abdul Muttalib's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was different from the understanding of Makkan Pagans, like Abu Jahel, Abu Lahab, etc.  

    Look at the difference between them.  Abu Jahel, Abu Lahab and other pagan chieftains were Idol worshipers who misled innocent Arabs into Idol worship. They claimed Idol worship was the religion of their forefathers. As against this, Hadhrat Abu Talib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was a monotheist. 

    Hadhrat Abu Talib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) supported Prophet Mohammad ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) during the propagation of Islam.  He performed the solemn marriage of Prophet Mohammad ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ).  He was with him during the worst three-year torture of Muslims in the hands of Makkan Pagans. He supported Prophet Mohammad ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) when he became orphan in his childhood. As a matter of fact, he was a father figure for Prophet Mohammad ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ). The bond of love between the two was unique and ever lasting. 

    Look at Abu Jahel and other Makkan pagans.  They did everything in their power to stop the spread the Islam. They were the enemies of Allah ( سبحانہ و تعا لی ) and His Apostle ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ).  Whereas, Hadhrat Abu Talib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was the supporter and follower of Allah ( سبحانہ و تعا لی ) and His Apostle ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) even in testing times.

    Why would Hadhrat Abu Talib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) support Prophet Mohammad ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) in propagating Islam if he did not believe in it?  He had seen the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) very closely since his childhood. He loved him more than his own sons.  He knew the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) was honest and every word coming out of his mouth was truthful.  He knew Makkan pagans were wrongdoers and Idol worshipers. Therefore he stood as a solid rock in supporting the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) and Deen-e-Islam.  

    (iv) The question arises, if Hadhrat Abu Talib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was the follower of Prophet Mohammad ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) and Islam, then why Prophet Mohammad ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) went to him when he was on the death bed and asked him to say Laa Ilaaha Illallah

    The reason was, Prophet Mohammad ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) wanted Makkan Pagans to know that Abu Talib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was Muslim.  When Prophet Mohammad ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) wanted Hadhrat Abu Talib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) to declare Laa Ilaaha Illallah in front of Makkan Pagans, Abu Jahel and others, who were present there, tried to mislead him and repeatedly told him that he should not convert himself from the Deen of Hadhrat Abdul Muttalib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ).  In answer to this, Hadhrat Abu Talib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) confirmed that he was on the Deen of Hadhrat Abdul Muttalib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), who was also a Muslim.  He uttered the last words to instill some sanity into Pagans' minds and to lead them into Islam.  Alas, they did not understand the wise counsel of Hadhrat Abu Talib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ).

    (v) Another question arises, why Prophet Mohammad ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) said, “I will keep asking Allah ( سبحانہ و تعا لی ) for your forgiveness unless I am forbidden to do so”. 

    The reason was Prophet Mohammad ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) wanted many bounties for Hadhrat Abu Talib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) in Hereafter for his extraordinary services to Islam.  

    It is in Quran - وَلَسَوْفَ يُعْطِيكَ رَبُّكَ فَتَرْضَىٰ [ Meaning - "And your Lord shall give you so that you will be pleased".] (Ad-Duha - 5)

    When Prophet Mohammad ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) prays for something, Allah's ( سبحانہ و تعا لی ) rewards come as a showering rain.  The Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) says "I will keep on asking for Hadhrat Abu Talib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) to an extent that he gets plentiful;  and he ( the Prophet صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) is forced to stop asking for more bounties for him

    Thus, the above Hadith provides authentic prove, beyond doubt, that Hadhrat Abu Talib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) lived and died as Muslim.

     

    (4) It is in Quran - أَلَمْ يَجِدْكَ يَتِيمًا فَآوَىٰ  [ Meaning - Did he not find you Orphan and give you Shelter.] (Ad-Dhuha - 6)

    The above Quranic verse testifies that Allah ( سبحانہ و تعا لی ) provided Shelter to Prophet Mohammad ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) when he was orphaned in childhood.

    Who were the people chosen by Allah ( سبحانہ و تعا لی ) for this purpose?

    The Prophet's ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) father died when he was not even born.  His mother died when he was six years old. At the tender age of 6, he became orphan.

    The first person chosen by Allah ( سبحانہ و تعا لی ) to shelter the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) was his grandfather Hadhrat Abdul Muttalib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ). But Hadhrat Abdul Muttalib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) died two years later.

    At the age of 8, the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) came under the guardianship of Hadhrat Abu Talib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) who provided shelter to him and loved him more than his own sons till he died in Makka, during the year of sorrow, three years before Hijra.  If Abu Talib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was a Mushrik (nauzubillah, Astaghfirullah), Allah ( سبحانہ و تعا لی ) would not have given the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) under his guardianship and would not have mentioned about it in Quran as an act of kindness.

    It is in Hadith - Bukhari narrated that Prophet Mohammad ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) said :  "I and the custodian of an orphan are like this (together) in Paradise", and he joined his forefinger and middle finger together. (Bukhari)

    It is in Hadith - Ibn Majah also narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) that Prophet Muhammad ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) said:  "The best Muslim house is a house in which an orphan is well treated; and the worst Muslim house is a house in which an orphan is badly treated." (Ibn Maja)

    The death of Hadhrat Abu Taleb (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) occurred at the end of 3-year torturous boycott of Prophet Mohammad ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) and Sahabah by Makkan Pagans.  During this boycott, safety of the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) was a major concern. It is reported that Hadhrat Abu Talib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) played a key role in this context.  At nights Hadhrat Abu Talib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) used to switch Prophet’s ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) bed with his own sons’ beds to save Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) from Pagans' attacks.  

    It is reported that Fatima bint Asad (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) (mother of Hadhrat Ali - رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ ), was the second woman to accept Islam, after Khadijatul Kubra (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا).  Abu Talib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and Fatima bint Asad (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) loved Prophet Muhammad ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) more than they loved their own children. Both were ready to sacrifice their sons for Prophet Muhammad ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ). Such love could have only one source - trust in Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) and faith in Islam.

     

    It is in Hadith  -  عن أنس بن مالك قال‏:‏ لما ماتت فاطمة بنت أسد بن هاشم أم علي رضي الله عنهمادخل عليها رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فجلس عند رأسها فقال‏:‏ ‏"‏رحمك الله يا أمي، كنت أمي بعد أمي، تجوعين وتشبعيني، وتعرين وتكسيني، وتمنعين نفسك طيباً وتطعميني، تريدين بذلك وجه الله والدار الآخرة‏"‏‏.‏ ثم أمر أن تغسل ثلاثاً فلما بلغ الماء الذي فيه الكافور سكبه رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم بيده، ثم خلع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قميصه فألبسها إياه، وكفنها ببرد فوقه، ثم دعا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أسامة بن زيد وأبا أيوب الأنصاري وعمر بن الخطاب وغلاماً أسود يحفرون، فحفروا قبرها، فلما بلغوا اللحد حفره رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم بيده وأخرج ترابه بيده، فلما فرغ دخل رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فاضطجع فيه فقال‏:‏ ‏"‏الله الذي يحيي ويميت، وهو حي لا يموت، اغفر لأمي فاطمة بنت أسد، ولقنها حجتها، ووسِّع عليها مدخلها بحق نبيك والأنبياء الذين من قبلي فإنك أرحم الراحمين‏"‏‏.‏ وكبر عليها أربعاً، وأدخلوها اللحد هو والعباس وأبو بكر الصديق رضي الله عنهم‏.‏
    - رواه الطبراني في الكبير والأوسط، وفيه روح بن صلاح، وثقه ابن حبان والحاكم وفيه ضعف، وبقية رجاله رجال الصحيح
    -

    Narrated by Anas bin Malik (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ). He said: When the mother of ‘Ali bin Abu Talib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) — Fatimah bint Asad bin Hashim (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) died, Allah’s Messenger ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) called on her and sat down by the head of the bed and said, “O dear mother, may Allah ( سبحانہ و تعا لی ) have mercy on you. After my mother, you were the one I regarded as my mother. When I was hungry you fed me to the point of saturation while you yourself remained hungry. Then you helped me put on clothes and instead of eating yourself, you gave me nice things to eat. You did all this for Allah’s ( سبحانہ و تعا لی ) pleasure and for a good reward in the Hereafter.” Then he (the Prophet- صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) commanded to bathe her three times. When camphor water was brought, Allah’s Messenger ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) poured some water into his hands. Then Allah’s Messenger( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم )  took off his shirt and clothed her with it and used his own sheet of cloth as her coffin.  Then Allah’s Messenger ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) sent for Usamah bin Zayd, Abu Ayyub al-Ansari and ‘Umar bin al-Khattab and the negro slave (رضي الله عنهما ) to dig up the grave. So they dug her grave. When they reached near the lahd, Allah’s Messenger ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) dug it up and drew the soil out with his own hands. When he finished, Allah’s Messenger ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) entered and lay down in (the grave), and said, “It is Allah ( سبحانہ و تعا لی ) Who controls life and death, and He is Ever living and will never die. (O Allah -  سبحانہ و تعا لی ) forgive my mother—Fatimah bint Asad (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) and help her answer properly at the time of questioning and through the mediation of Your Prophet (Muhammad - صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and the former prophets, make her grave capacious. Surely You are infinitely Merciful.” Then he repeated, “God is Great” four times (i.e. led the funeral prayer). Then he, ‘Abbas and Abu Bakr as-Siddiq (رضي الله عنهما ) lowered her into the grave. (Tabarani Mu'jam Al-Ausat Volume 001, Page Number 67-68, Hadith Number 189)

     

    Hadhrat Abu Talib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) used to write poetry in praise of Prophet Mohammad ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) which was very popular among Sahabah.

     

    (5) It is in Hadith - Narrated Abdullah bin Dinar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ): My father said, I heard Ibn ‘Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) reciting the poetic verses of Abu Talib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) :

    And a white (person) (i.e. the Prophet -
    صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) who is requested to pray for rain and who takes care of the orphans and is the guardian of widows.

    Salim’s father (Ibn Umar -
    رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said, “The following poetic verse occurred to my mind while I was looking at the face of the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) while he was praying for rain.

    He did not get down till the rain water flowed profusely from every roof, water passage:

    And a white (person) ( Prophet Mohammad - 
    صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) who is requested to pray for rain and who takes care of the orphans and is the guardian of widows.... And these were the words of Abu Talib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ).” (Bukhari, Book 2, Volume 17, Hadith 122)

    Read the above Hadith once more.  Every word of the poetry written by Hadhrat Abu Talib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) shows his Iman in both the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) and Islam.  If he did not have Iman, if he was not one of the greatest among the Sahaba, other Sahabah would not have repeated his poetry among themselves. 

     

    (6) It is in Hadith -  Hadhrat Abbas bin Abdul-Muttalib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said to the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ), “You have not been of any benefit to your uncle Abu Talib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) (though) by Allah ( سبحانہ و تعا لی ), he protected you and used to become angry for your sake”. The Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) said, “He is in shallow fire, and had it not been for me, he would have been in the bottom of Hell fire”. (Bukhari)

    Muhadditheen have mentioned that the chain of narrators of the above Hadith is weak. Therefore, some Ahle Sunnah scholars say that to establish Kufr on Hadhrat Abu Talib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) on the basis of such narrations may cause grief to Prophet Mohammad ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ). Becoming a source of grief for the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) means inviting Allah's ( سبحانہ و تعا لی ) wrath in both the worlds.

    Salafis and their like minded Groups try to mislead innocent Muslims citing the textual meanings of the above Hadith. If we take the literal (textual) meaning of this Hadith, we will have to deny many authentic Ahadith and Quranic verses mentioned above.

    We know both Hadhrat Abu Talib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and Hadhrat Abdul Muttalib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) were monotheists, and belong to the chain of people who are the recipients of exclusive bounties in Hereafter. Therefore, we consider it a sin to even discuss about their salvation. (Read important details on this link).  

    In view of overwhelming facts and authentic Ahadith , it is important that we understand the above Hadith in its correct perspective.

    Therefore, the correct interpretation of the Hadith is as follows.

    Hadhrat Abbas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) asked the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) (what would have happened if) you had not been able to benefit your uncle Abu Talib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) who protected you throughout his life. The answer of the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) was, (even in such a case) I would have taken him out of the bottom of Hell fire to the shallow minimum prescribed for Hell dwellers.

    How did we reach to the above interpretation? Read the following Hadith which confirms our above interpretation and understanding.

    (7) It is in Hadith -
    Affan Ibn Muslim told us: Hammad ibn Salama told us: From Thabit (ibn Aslam al-Bunani): From Ishaq ibn `Abd Allah ibn al-Harith (ibn Nawfal) who said: al-`Abbas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said: "I said: 'Messenger of Allah ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ), do you hope anything for Abu Talib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)?'  He (the Prophet -  صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) replied: 'I hope for everything good (for him) from my Lord.'" (Tabaqat , Ibn Sa'd - 1 : 118)

    The above Hadith clearly establishes the fact that Hadhrat Abu Talib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was a Muslim.

    The following Hadith (#6) is mentioned in Seerah Ibn Hisham (compiled by Ibn Ishaq), the first Seerah book (Biography of Prophet Mohammad -  صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) which is over 150 years older than Bukhari and Muslim and his rijal (narrators) are much more stronger. (See Abu Zahra, Shaykh of Al-Azhar's book "Khatam Un Nabiyeen").

    (8) It is in Hadith - Abdul Haq Muhaddith Dehalwi (r) has narrated from Ibn-e-Ishaq:  When the time of death of Abu Talib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) drew near; Hadhrat Abbas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) noticed that he is moving his lips silently. He brought his ears close to Hadhrat Abu Talib's (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) mouth and said to Rasulullah ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) "O nephew, I swear upon Allah ( سبحانہ و تعا لی ), my brother has recited that Kalima, which you were telling him to recite".

    (9) Shaikh Abdul Haq Muhaddis Dehalwi (r) wrote in another narration,  it has also been recorded that Rasulullah ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) said in reply: "I have heard it." 

     

    SCHOLARS'  OPINIONS

     

    (1) Many well known Imams like al-Qurtubi, al-Subki, and al-Sha`rani, etc., have written that Abu Talib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was saved.

    (2) Shaikh Ul Islam, Mufti of Makka al-Mukarrama, Sayyid Ahmad Zayni Dahlan in his book Asna al-Matalib fi Najaat Abi Talib (The Purest Claims of the Salvation of Abu Talib) proved that  Hadhrat Abu Talib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was indeed a Momin. He cited the opinions of  Imam al-Suhaymi,  Shaykh Ahmad ibn `Abd Allah al-Mirghani, Mufti of Makka and others in this context. (Cairo: Muhammad Effendi Mustafa, 1305/1886)

    (3) Seerah Ibn Hisham
    (compiled by Ibn Ishaq), is the first Seerah book (biography of Prophet Mohammad -  صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) which is over 150 years older than Bukhari and Muslim and his rijal (narrators) are much more stronger. (See Abu Zahra, Shaykh of Al-Azhar's book "Khatam Un Nabiyeen"). 

    As a matter of fact, Ibn Hisham (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) is the Grand Shaikh of Bukhari and Muslim and they have taken many narrations from him.  Ibn Hisham (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was born in 70 AH (10 years before Imam Abu Hanifah - رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) so he was a Tabi'i, who took narrations directly from Sahaba.

    In Seerah Ibn Hisham, which is the most authentic book,  a Hadith has been mentioned in which Hadhrat 'Abbas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), confirmed that Abu Talib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) recited the Shahadah


    (4) Hadhrat Abu Talib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) is reported to have said to Prophet Mohammad ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) :

    "By the falling stars! You never once lied to me"

    Hadhrat Abu Talib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)  persuaded and forced the Quraish until they rescinded their 3-year embargo of the Muslims in Makka and annulled their pact. On that occasion Abu Talib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) is reported to have informed the Prophet Mohammad ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) as follows:

    "Did the news not reach you that the charter was torn to pieces and that everything Allah ( سبحانہ و تعا لی ) dislikes is destined to ruin"

    [Narrated mursal from al-Zubayr ibn Bakkar (d. 256) by Ibn `Asakir in Tarikh Dimashq (66:320) and by Ibn Is-haq (#209) and, through him, Ibn Hisham (2:222) cf. Isti`ab (2:660), Bidaya (3:97), Khasa'is (1:251), Iktifa' (1:271)]

     

    (5) Ibn Abd al-Wahhab an-Najdi states, when Prophet Mohammad, ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) was a child, rain had not fallen upon Makkah for a long period of time. His Uncle Hadhrat Abu Talib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), prayed for rain through the Waseela of the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ). (Seeratur Rasul, By Ibn Muhammad bin Abd al-Wahhab al Najdi).

    It is reported that before the advent of Prophet Mohammad ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ), people, who followed Hadhrat Ibrahim's ( علیھ السلا م ) religion, and even Christians and Jews, used to pray with the Waseelah of Prophet Mohammad ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) (who, they knew was coming). 

    As against this, the Makkan Pagans used to ask their Idols, like Laat and Uzza for favors.

    (6) Some people quote adulterated versions of Imam Abu Hanifa's theological booklet al-Fiqh al-Akbar, which is an outstanding statement of Sunni doctrine, the Imam wrote to clarify the Sunni `Aqida. There seems to be some discrepancies in this booklet about Prophet's ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) parents.

    Regarding the discrepancies in the text (matn), of Fiqh al-Akbar, it is observed that in some of the manuscripts (nusakh) of al-Fiqh al-Akbar some words are there that differ from what is in other manuscripts. 

    For example, we find in some of them -  "... and the two parents of the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) died on the innate  nature" (Mata `ala al-Fitra). In some others, it is mentioned - ".... did not die on disbelief" (Ma mata `ala al-Kufr). While in other ones, we find -  ".... died on disbelief"  (Mata `ala al-Kufr) (Astaghfirullah).

    Allama al-Kawthari noted that the word fitra can easily be altered to kufr in 'Kufic Arabic calligraphy'. Therefore, it is highly probable that the copy with "died on the innate nature" was changed to "died on disbelief".
    Read more  

    Let Allah's - سبحانہ و تعا لی  curse be on them who altered Fiqh al-Akbar.

    [Reference - Dr. `Inayatullah Iblagh al-Afghanistani, Doctorate thesis: al-Imam al-A`zam Abu Hanifa al-Mutakallim (The Greatest Imam: Abu Hanifa, The Theologian), 2nd edition, with supervision of Dr. Muhammad Ali Mahjub, Minister of Awqaf and President of the Supreme Council for Religious Affairs, Cairo, 1987.]

    The devils who changed this booklet to prove Kufr (Astaghfiruallah - Nauzubillah) for the parents of the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) may have also attempted it in the case of Hadhrat Abu Talib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ).  A detailed research may establish facts in this context.

    As we have mentioned above, Shaykh al Islam, Mufti of Makka al Mukarrama Sayyid Ahmad Zayni Dahlan (r) in his precious book Asna al-Matalib fi Najat Abi Talib - “The Purest Claims of the Salvation of Abu Talib” (Cairo: Muhammad Effendi Mustafa, 1305/1886) wrote that Hadhrat Abu Talib
    (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) died as Muslim. However, his student, Ala Hadhrat Ahmed Radha Khan (r) differed with Shaikh Dahlan (r).

    Shaikh Abdul Haq Muhaddith Dehalwi (r) and most of the Ahle Sunnah Ulema of the last two to three centuries believed that Hadhrat Abu Talib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) is one of the greatest Sahabi-e-Rasool ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ). 

      

     

     

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    السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

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