THE SHIA'ITES AND THEIR BELIEFS
If you are already familiar with standard Sunni beliefs, you will immediately notice the addition to the Shahadah regarding Imam Ali (RU), cousin of the Prophet (SAWS), husband of his daughter Fatima (RU), father of Hassan (RU) and Hussein (RU) and the second person ever to embrace Islam. The term Shia or Shi'ite derives from a shortening of Shiat Ali (RU) or partisans of Ali (RU).
Shias feel that Ali (RU) should have been the first Caliph and that the Caliphate should pass down only to direct descendants of Mohammed (SAWS)) via Ali (RU) and Fatima (RU), They often refer to themselves as ‘ people of the house’ (Ahl al Bayt) (of the Prophet – SAWS).
Sunnis regard Ali (RU) as the fourth of the Rightly Guided Caliphs (successors of Prophet Mohammed (SAWS) as leader of the Muslims following on from Abu Bakr (RU) (632-634), Omar (RU) (634-644) and Osman (644-656).
When Hazrat Osman (RU) was martyred during prayer at his home, Hazrat Ali (RU) finally succeeded to the caliphate. In 661 AD, Hazrat Ali (RU) was martyred.
The main Shai sect believe in 12 Imams, the last of whom was presumably disappeared in 873 AD. At the age of 4. Shias refused, however, to accept that he had died, preferring to believe that he was merely "hidden" and would return. They still think that he will return back. When after several centuries this did not happen, spiritual power passed to the Ulema, a council of twelve scholars who elected a supreme Imam. The best known modern example of the Shia supreme Imam is the late Ayyatollah Khomeni, whose portrait hangs in many Shia homes.
Shias believe that their supreme Imam is a fully spiritual guide, inheriting some of Prophet's (SAWS) inspiration. Their Imams are believed to be inerrant interpreters of law and tradition. Shia theology is distinguished by its glorification of Ali (RU). In Shias there is a strong theme of martyrdom and suffering, focusing on deaths of Ali (RU) and, particularly, Imam Hussein (RU) plus other important figures in the Shia succession.
Shias seem to take the fundamentals of Islam very much for granted, shunting them into the background and dwelling on the martyrdoms. This is best illustrated at Ashura when each evening over a period of ten days the Shias commemorate the Battle of Karbala, with a wailing Imam whipping the congregation up into a frenzy of tears and chest beating.
It looks Shia harbor a deep rooted disdain towards Sunni Islam and prefer to devote their attention to winning over other Muslims to their group. There is ongoing violent strife between Sunnis and Shias in Iraq and Pakistan. On the other hand, in recent years there has been signification co-operation between the two groups in the Lebanon.
On a practical daily level, Shias have a different call to prayer, they perform ablution (wudu) and Salah differently including placing the forehead onto a piece of hardened clay from Karbala, not directly onto the prayer mat when prostrating. They also tend to combine prayers, sometimes worshipping three times per day instead of five. The Shias also have some different Ahadith and prefer those narrated by Hazrat Ali (RU) and Fatima (RA) to those related by other companions of the Prophet (SAWS). Because of her opposition to Ali (RU), those narrated by Aisha (RA) count among the least favored. Shias also permits ‘Muttah’ (fixed-term temporary marriage) which is banned by the Sunnis.
About 90% of the population of Iran is predominantly Shia. They are also in majority in Yemen, Azerbaijan, Bahrain and Iraq. There are also predominent Shia communities along the East coast of Saudi Arabia and in Lebanon. Worldwide, Shias constitute ten to fifteen percent of the overall Muslim population.
Within Shias there are different sects. Most Shias are ‘Twelvers’, i.e. they recognize 12 Imams. There are also Sevener and Fiver Shias who don't recognize the later Imams.
The phrase ‘Al-Shia al-Imamiyyah al-Ithna Ashariyyah means the Twelver Imami Shi'ite School of thought which comprises the overwhelming majority of Shias today. The phrase ‘Twelver Shi'ites’ is used interchangeably with ‘Ja'fari Shi'ites’ and ‘Imami Shi'ites’ in various literature. These are different names for the same school of thought.
Al-Shia al-Zaidiyyah’ are a minority among the Shias, concentrated mainly in Yemen located in the Eastern part of Arabian peninsula. The book, ‘Shi'ite Islam’ written by the Shi'ite scholar, Allamah Tabataba'i, translated by Sayyed Hossein Nasr, and published by the State University of New York Press is a good book for detailed descriptions of Zaidis verses Twelver Shias.
Panjatan (The five holy ones) are (i) Prophet Mohammad (SAWS), (ii) Fatima Az-Zahra (RA), (iii) Ali (RU), Hassan (RU) and Husain (RU).
The fourteen (14) ‘Rightly Guided (Ma'sumin) are the above 5 plus the twelve Imams, as follows.
1. Together with the testifying of the Oneness of Allah and accepting the Prophethood of Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam), it is also a condition of Imaan to testify to the Imaamat of the 12 Imaams.
2. It is Fardh to follow the A'IMMA in the same manner as a Muslim ought to follow Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam).
3. MU'TAH (Temporary Marriage) is not only JAA'IZ but also a source of great blessings and Sawaabs. Temporary marriage amongst the SHIAS does not require the procedure of Nikah as shown to us by Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). It is just a temporary agreement between a man and a woman either to spend the night, a week, a month or a year together for the purposes of satisfying their lust.
4. The chain of Prophethood is not complete, but rather it is still in progress in the form of the appearance of Imaams from time to time.
5. The QURAN SHAREEF has two-thirds of its volume missing. The present form only represents one-third of the original Quran.
6. The original Quran was that which was compiled by Sayyiduna Ali (radi Allahu anhu) and Imaam-e-Ghaib, the hidden Imaam who will appear with it in the future.
7. TAQIYYAH is Fardh. Taqiyyah is a Shia'ite practice of concealing the truth for the purposes of misleading unsuspecting people into the Shia'ite fold.
8. After Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) left this world only few Sahabas were steadfast in spreading Islam. The rest turned apostate or MURTADDS (one who is out of the fold of Islam). The four Sahabah accepted by the Shi'ites are as follows
a. Sayyiduna Salman Farsi (radi Allahu anhu),
b. Sayyiduna Abu Zarr Ghaffari (radi Allahu anhu),
c. Sayyiduna Miqdad bin Aswad (radi Allahu anhu) and
d. Sayyiduna Amaar bin Yaasir (radi Allahu anhu)
e. Imaamat is the fifth pillar of Islam, the rejection of which amounts to Kufr.
"From the examples I (Khomeini) have given, it shows that the Sheiks Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) and Umar (radi Allahu anhu) had acted against the Quran. For these people to behave in such a manner amongst the Muslims was not surprising. The Muslims (Sahaba-e-Kiraam) were also in such a state that they were either part of the same group (Abu Bakr - radi Allahu anhu - and Umar -radi Allahu anhu) or they had similar intentions of becoming the government in power.
"If they (the Muslims) did not side them (Abu Bakr - radi Allahu anhu - and Umar - radi Allahu anhu) then it was certain that they did not have the courage to speak out against those who behaved badly towards Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) and his beloved daughter (Fathima - radi Allahu anha).
"In short, even if mention was made in the Quran in clear words on this matter (The succession of Ali - radi Allahu anhu - as Caliph), they would not have changed their intentions, and even at the Command of Allah they would not have given up the seat (of Government).
"Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu), who had harboured pre-meditated plans, if anything, would have falsely forged a Hadith to put an end to this matter, just as he had done so to prevent Sayyiduna Fathima (radi Allahu anha) from receiving her inheritance. And it was not impossible for Umar (radi Allahu anhu) in the matter regarding the Imaamat and Khilaafat of Ali (radi Allahu anhu) to negate such a verse (regarding the Khilaafat of Ali - radi Allahu anhu) either by saying that there was a mistake in Allah's Revelation of the Ayah, or that Gibraeel had erred in transmitting (Allah's Message) correctly to Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam)." (KASHFUL ASRAR, PAGES 119-120)
ABOUT THOSE WHO CURSE THE THREE KHALIFAS
IMAM-I-RABBANI, SHAIKH AHMAD SIRHINDI MUJADDID ALF THANI (alaihir rahmah), in his famous book, "RADD -E-RAWAAFID", says:'
It is disbelief to curse the Shaikhayn (Sayyiduna Abu Bakr and Sayyiduna Umar) - radi Allahu Ta'ala anhuma. The Hadith Shareefs show that it is disbelief. It is declared, as follows, in a Hadith Shareef reported by Tabarani [Suleyman bin Ahmad, 260-360 (C.E. 941), in Isfahan] and by Hakim [Muhammad bin Abdullah, 321-405 (C.E.1014), in Nishapur]: "Allahu Ta'ala has chosen me. And He has chosen the best ones of mankind as my Ashaab (Companions). From among my Ashaab, He has selected viziers, assistants, and relatives for me. If a person curses them, may Allah Ta'ala and angels and human beings curse him! Allah Ta'ala will not accept the Fardh or Sunnat worships of those persons who curse them."
A Hadith Shareef reported by the Hadith scholar, Ali bin Umar Daraqutni, declares: "After me, some people will appear. If you meet them, kill them! For they are polytheists (disbelievers)." Sayyiduna Ali (radi Allahu anhu) asked, "What is their sign?" He (Rasoolullah - sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) declared, "They will make an excessive display of attachment to you. They will say about you what you do not have. They will censure the religions superiors coming before them."
In the same book, he (Rasoolullah - sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) declared, "These people censure Abu Bakr and Umar (radi Allahu anhum ajma'in). They swear at them. May Allahu Ta'ala and angels and all human beings curse those who swear at my Ashaab." There are very many similar Hadith Shareefs, and since most of them are well-known, it is unnecessary to quote them here.
Cursing the Shaikhayn means enmity towards them. And enmity towards them, in its turn, is disbelief. For it is declared in a Hadith Shareef, "Enmity towards them is enmity towards me. To hurt them means to hurt me. And to hurt me is to torment Allahu Ta'ala."It is declared in a Hadith Shareef reported by Hassan ibni Asakir [499-571, in Damascus], "It is Imaan to love Abu Bakr and Umar (radi Allahu anhuma). Enmity towards them if Kufr (disbelief)."
It is declared in a Hadith Shareef, "If a person says to a Believer something which states that he is a disbeliever, (If he says, for instance,`O you the enemy of Allahu Ta'ala!'), he himself becomes a disbeliever." Then a person who calls the Shaikhayn disbelievers or considers them to be disbelievers will become a disbeliever himself. We know for certain that Sayyiduna Abu Bakr and Sayyiduna Umar (radi Allahu anhuma) are Believers. They are not enemies of Allahu Ta'ala. They have been blessed with the good news (that they shall attain) Paradise. Then, a person who calls them disbelievers will become a disbeliever. It is true that the Hadith Shareef quoted above is reported by only one person. Yet, it shows that a person who calls a Believer a disbeliever will become a disbeliever. Nevertheless, a person who denies this will not become a disbeliever. Abu Zur'a Razi, a great contemporary scholar, states, "If a person vituperates one of Rasoolullah's (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) Ashaab, he is a Zindiq. For Quran al-Kareem is certainly true. Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) certainly tells the truth. The information we have been receiving from them is certainly true. All this information praise, laud the Ashab-i-Kiraam. To speak ill of them means to deny the Quran al-Kareem and the Hadith Shareefs. And this, in its turn, is blasphemy, heresy, and abberation."
Sehl bin Abdullah Tusturi [200-283 (C.E. 896), in Basra] states, "A person who does not esteem the Ashaab-i-kiram has not had Imaan in Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam)."Abdullah bin Mubarak [116-181 (C.E. 797), in Iraq] was asked, "Which person is higher - Muawiyyah, or Umar bin Abd-ul-Aziz?" He replied, "The dust that entered the nose of Muawiyyah's [d.60 (C.E. 680), when he was 79 years old] horse as he escorted Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam), is as many times higher than Umar bin Abd-ul-Aziz."
Thus, he informed that no degree of highness could reach the level attained by being in Rasoolullah's (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) Sohbat and seeing his blessed face. [Umar bin Abd-ul-Aziz, the 8th Umayyad Khalifa, was profoundly learned and an extremely pious person. He was martyred in the year 101, when he was 41 years old. He bought Malatya from the Byzantine Greeks in return for a thousand slaves]. This kind of superiority, which is the sheer result of Sohbat with the exclusion of all other personal virtues is common in all the Ashaab-i-Kiraam. When the other types of virtues are added to this superiority; for instance, a Sahabi who made Jihad with Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam), and who taught the Believers coming after him what he had learned from him, and who devoted his property for his sake, must be even more superior, higher. There is no doubt that the (first) two Khalifas were among the higher ones of the Ashaab-i-Kiraam. They were even the highest ones. Then, it would be disbelief to attribute the slightest inferiority to the Shaikhayn, nonetheless for calling them disbelievers. It would mean blasphemy, aberration.
It is stated as follows in the book "Muhit", written by Shams-ul-A'imma, Muhammad bin Ahmad Serahsi [483 (C.E.1090), in Turkistan]: "It is not permissible to perform Namaaz behind an Imaam (who is notorious for his) vituperating the Shaikhayn. For that person denies the fact that Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) was the Khalifa. On the other hand, the fact that he (Abu Bakr) was rightfully elected the Khalifa has been acknowledged unanimously by all the Ashaab-i-Kiraam."
It is stated as follows in the book of fatwa named "Hulasa," written by Tahir bin Ahmad Bukhari: "If a person denies the Caliphate of Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu), he becomes a disbeliever. It is Makruh (not liked by Rasoolullah, though not forbidden) to perform the Namaaz conducted by a bid'at holder. If the bid'at he holds is so bad as to cause disbelief, the Namaaz conducted by him will not be Sahih (accepted). If it is not so bad as disbelief the Namaaz will be Sahih but Makruh. It is almost equally true that a person who denies the Caliphate of Sayyiduna Umar (radi Allahu anhu) will become a disbeliever."
In the light of the fact that a person who denies their Caliphates will become a disbeliever, one should imagine the destiny awaiting those people who vilify and curse them. As it is seen, to call such eccentricities disbelief is exactly concordant with the Hadith Shareefs and the statements made by the Islamic Ulama. When some of the Ahl As-sunna scholars (rahmatullahi Ta'ala alaihim ajma'in) said that these people should not be called disbelievers, they meant those who were not excessive in their eccentricities. Their statements are therefore in agreement with the Hadith Shareefs and the statements of the (other Islamic) Ulama.
IMAM AHMED RAZA'S (ALAIHIR RAHMAH) FATAWA ON HAVING CONTACT WITH SHIA INDIVIDUALS
A Translation of the Fatawa - Mas'ala No. 87, page 179 of "Ahkaam-e-Shariat"
What advice do the Ulema of Deen have to offer to the members of the Ahle Sunnat Wal Jamaat (Sunnis) regarding their relationship with the Shias (Rawafiz), as to whether they should maintain a friendly association with Shias; or eat and drink with Shias; and whether the maintaining of trade relationship with Shias is permissable? Furthermore, what is the Shar'an ruling against these Sunnis that have such relationships with Shias? Do such Sunnis fall out of the folds of the Ahle Sunnat Wal Jamaat? (Should such Sunnis be excluded from the Ahle Sunnat Wal Jamaat?) And should the rest of the Sunni Muslims severe all religious and social ties with the Sunni Muslim that associates with Shias?
Shias (Rawafiz) have commonly been known throughout the ages as apostates (Murtadd) as it has been clearly outlined in "Raddur Rufaza" (A Fatwa published in the form of a booklet by A'la Hadrat). It is not Halaal to have any form of contact or maintain any type of relationship with them in any manner that you would normally have with a fellow Muslim. It is Haraam to maintain any form of social contact with them; accord them in any form of social etiquette; greet them (make Salaam to them); and even speak to them. Almighty Allah says in the Holy Quran, Surah 6, Verse 68 (Surah An'aam): "If Satan ever makes thee forget, then after reflection, sit not thou in the company of those who do wrong."
Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) has stated in a Hadith that, "Shortly there will appear a group of people (in the Ummah) whose name would be synonymous with evil; they will be known as Raavzi (meaning Heretics or Shias). They will revile the virtuous predecessors (Salf-o-Saleheen); and they will not attend the Jumu'a Salaah, and they will not adhere to the Jamaat (mainstream body of Muslims). Neither sit in their company not join them for meals, or drink water with them. Do not intermarry with them or visit them when they are sick. Do not attend the funerals of their dead; and neither join them in the Salaatul Janazah nor perform the Salaatul Janazah for their deceased."
The Muslim youth, in their eagerness to see the downfall of the enemies of Islam and to see the rise of Islamic Power worldwide, have become restless. In their love for Islam, they are easily drawn to the Iranian revolution and Mr. Khomeini. After becoming aware of Shia'ite beliefs, the new generation of Muslims should keep far away from the LOST (GUMRAH) sect in order to protect their Imaan.
Regarding this sect, the Muslim Revivalist (Mujaddid) of the 14th Century, A'LA Hadrat, ASH SHAH IMAM AHMED RAZA AL-QADERI ( ALAIHIR RAHMAH) has stated in his fatawah that this sect, i.e. SHIA and RAWAFIZ, are disassociated from the boundary of Islam (Millat-e-Islamia) and they are regarded as APOSTATES. (FATAWAH RAZVEEIAH, VOL. 6, PAGE 25)