LET US CORRECT OUR ISLAMIC FAITH

دعونا نصحّح العقيدة الاسلامية

               

 

 

 

 

THE FACTS ABOUT ALLAH (سبحانه و تعالى)

 

Written   By

 
Shaikh Mir Asedullah Quadri 

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INTRODUCTION 

    

بِسم الله الرحمنِ الرحيم  

 الحمد لله رب العالمين ، والصلاة والسلام على سيدنا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين

 

If we are interested to know details about a thing, like our human body and its parts, which is one of the illimitable creations of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى), it requires special education, specific skills and years of dedicated research under competent Medical professors. Imagine the complexities in knowing details about Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) and this Cosmos. This is a specialized knowledge to be learnt in the company of Sufi Shuyookh of Ihsan.  People who are unaware of this knowledge,  have developed strange theories that have nothing to do with Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) and this Cosmos.

Correct faith about Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) is an essential requirement for salvation on the Day of Judgment.  If you are mislead by unrelated philosophies developed by people who are under veil from their Lord in this World, you run the risk of being rejected on the Day of Judgment. 

It is in Quran -  كَلَّا إِنَّهُمْ عَن رَّبِّهِمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ لَّمَحْجُوبُونَ [ It is never (as they consider it to be); rather they will be under veil from their Lord (they will not be able to see their Sustainer on the Day of Judgment)’. (Al-Mutaffifeen – 15).

This book contains very important information about Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) and His creation in the Cosmos. 

We supplicate -  O’ Allah (سبحانه و تعالى), kindly reveal the facts of things, as they are, and keep us Muslim while dying and unite us with the group of righteous people for the sake of the happiness of your beloved Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). Ameen.

We hope people will find this book very useful for their Sahih Iman.

 

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Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) is eternal.  He is there from the beginning and will be there when everything in this Cosmos will vanish.

It is in Quran -  هُوَ الْأَوَّلُ وَالْآخِرُ وَالظَّاهِرُ وَالْبَاطِنُ ۖ وَهُوَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ  [ He is the First, and the Last, He is the Manifest (apparent) and the Immanent (hidden and actually present through out the material world) and He knows about all the things.]  (Al-Hadeed – 3).

It is in Quran - كُلُّ مَنْ عَلَيْهَا فَانٍ  -  وَيَبْقَىٰ وَجْهُ رَبِّكَ ذُو الْجَلَالِ وَالْإِكْرَامِ [All that there is in the Cosmos shall vanish. The Countenance (stand alone) of your Lord (by Himself) shall endure, the Lord of Majesty and Glory’. (Ar-Rahman – 26-27).

What is the purpose of our creation? The answer is provided by Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) Himself. 

It is in Quran وَمَا خَلَقْتُ الْجِنَّ وَالْإِنسَ إِلَّا لِيَعْبُدُونِ [ And I did not create the jinn and mankind except to worship Me.]  (Adh-Dhaariyat - 56)

It is in Hadith -  كنت كنزاً مخفياً فأحببت أن أعرف فخلقت الخلق [The  Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) stated that Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) said : I was a Hidden Treasure; then I wanted to be known; therefore, I created the creatures).]

The content and meaning of the above Quranic verse and Hadith are exactly the same.  It is a very popular Hadith-e-Qudsi.  However, its chain of transmission is not recorded by Hadith scholars. Since the content of the Hadith are Sahih, and do not contradict with Quran and Sunnah, it is widely accepted by Muslims. 

Three things have been mentioned in the above Hadith, (i) Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) was a Hidden treasure (كنزاً مخفياً).  Indeed we only came to know about Him after our creation.  Before than He was known to Himself. (ii) He wanted to be known by His creatures. (iii) Therefore, He created all that available in this Cosmos.

What is meaning of 'Hidden Treasure' (كنزاً مخفياً)?

The first understanding of Allah’s (سبحانه و تعالى) Existence, which is referred to as 'Hidden Treasure' in the above Hadith is clearly stated in the Quran. 

It is in Quran -  قُلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ  -  اللَّهُ الصَّمَدُ - لَمْ يَلِدْ وَلَمْ يُولَدْ - وَلَمْ يَكُن لَّهُ كُفُوًا أَحَدٌ [ Say ( O’Prophet ﷺ) Allah is one. Allah is independent. He does not have children. Nobody has given birth to him. Nobody can match Him or equal Him.]  (Al-Ikhlas - 1- 4).

For this state of Divine Unity,  we use two terms, (i) Absolute Unity, and (ii) Absolute Being.  Everything in the Cosmos, every existence in the Cosmos is dependent upon His existence or His Being. Everything is derived  from Him.  His existence has the capacity to manifest/appear in limitless shapes and forms in consideration with the individual facts and natures of His creatures. All shapes and forms and bodies in this Cosmos are His creatures and the source and origin of these creatures is Allah's Unity (ذاتِ الہى) who is real worshipable God.

Does it mean that everything is God?.  

No, everything is creature. Their source is God. There is difference between the manifestation of the Being and Divinity (Uloohiyat - اُلوہيت). Divinity is the attribute of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى), who is the 'essence of all existence' in the Cosmos.  The Shapes and forms in this cosmos are, though manifestations of His Being, but are all creatures.  No shape, no body and no form in this Cosmos is Divine or worshipable.  Allah (سبحانه و تعالى), the creator of all these shapes and forms is the real worshipable God.

We are creatures and our attribute is ‘servant hood’. You, we or anything in this cosmos, though is the manifestation of His Being/existence, but not God.  The real worshipable God (Ilah) is Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) who is the source of our existence.

This is denoted in Islamic Testimony (Kalima Tayyiba) -  لا اله الا الله محمد رسول الله  [There is no (real) God, but Allah (سبحانه و تعالى), and Mohammed (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) is the Apostle of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى).]

We are born, we grow old and die. Similar is the case with planets, trees and everything in this cosmos. Scientist say that the crust of Sun is burning at certain speed and one day it will turn into dark ash and vanish into oblivion.

It is in Quran - كُلُّ مَنْ عَلَيْهَا فَانٍ  -  وَيَبْقَىٰ وَجْهُ رَبِّكَ ذُو الْجَلَالِ وَالْإِكْرَامِ [All that there is in the Cosmos shall vanish. The Countenance (stand alone) of your Lord (by Himself) shall endure, the Lord of Majesty and Glory’. (Ar-Rahman – 26-27).


All things in this cosmos remain for a specific period of time and vanish. If they were all gods, they would have lived indefinitely.

How do we understand the following verses and Ahadith?

 
It is in Quran - فَأَيْنَمَا تُوَلُّوا فَثَمَّ وَجْهُ اللَّهِ [Whichever side you turn, you will find Allah. ] (Al-Baqara - 115)
 
It is in Quran - وَهُوَ مَعَكُمْ أَيْنَ مَا كُنتُمْ [Wherever you are, He is with you.] (Al-Hadid - 4).
 
It is in Quran - وَنَحْنُ أَقْرَبُ إِلَيْهِ مِنْ حَبْلِ الْوَرِيدِ  [And We are nearer to him than his jugular vein.] (Qaf - 16)
 
It is in Quran -  وَفِي أَنفُسِكُمْ ۚ أَفَلَا تُبْصِرُونَ [ And Allah  is in your own self, will you not then see. ] (Adh-Dhariyat - 21)
 
It is in Hadith - Abdullah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) narrated that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said : 'Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی) is not hidden from you'. (Bukhari)
 
It is in Hadith - Allah's Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) was asked  "What is Ihsan?" He (the Prophet )   replied, 'Ihsan is to  pray seeing Allah (سبحانه و تعالى), and if you are unable to see Him (unable to focus our attention towards Him because of our too much attention on worldly things), know it well that He is seeing you.' (Bukhari, Muslim – part of the Hadith).
As we have described above, there are three aspects : (i) Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) was known to Himself, (ii) then, He wanted to be known by His Creatures, and (iii) therefore, He created this Cosmos. These aspects show the sequence of events unfolded in the shape of this cosmos.

As we have already described, the first perception (understanding) of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) is known as ‘Absolute Unity’. In this perception, His attributes and His creatures are not taken into consideration. He is one and one all the way. His Being does not contain elements. He is not a compound.
 
It is in Quran – قُلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ [ Say (O’Prophet ﷺ), Allah is one.] (Al-Ikhlas – 1)
The second aspect is He wanted to be known'. Known to whom? Obviously He wanted to be known to His creatures.

Where were the creatures?

The creatures were their in His knowledge.

Since the Being of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) is ‘Manifest’ (apparent – Zaher), (هُوَ الظَّاهِرُ),  He wanted His creatures to become 'apparent' so that they recognize Him, praise His omnipotent Majesty and Worship Him.

 It is in Quran –  الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ - الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ - مَالِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّينِ - إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ - اهْدِنَا الصِّرَاطَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ - صِرَاطَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا الضَّالِّينَ   [ All praise is for Allah  who is the Cherisher of all Worlds. Who is most Beneficent and Most Merciful. The Lord of the Day of Retribution. We pray (worship) You (our servitude is only for You) and seek help from You only. Lead us to the straight path. The path of those whom You have awarded Your bestowal. And not the path of those who have been subjected to your Wrath and the path of those who have gone astray ] (Al-Fatiha – 1-7).

Carpenter knows in his mind how the table will look like and what will be its dimensions and color etc.  Then he crafts it and sees the table and appreciates its beauty.  Look here, knowing in mind (knowledge) is different from seeing it in working condition on the floor of Office. The table is existed in the shape of a ‘fact’ in carpenter’s mind. When he crafted it, it came into external existence.

Similarly, we all were there in Allah’s (سبحانه و تعالى) knowledge as individual ‘facts’. When He wanted to bring us into external existence, He commanded ‘Be’, and there we were (born).

The entire cosmos is within the expanse of Divine Knowledge. Many things are manifest, many more will become manifest (come into external existence) at their appropriate time. Whatever it is, there is nothing outside Allah’s (سبحانه و تعالى) knowledge. Allah’s (سبحانه و تعالى) knowledge is encircling us from all directions.

 It is in Quran -  وَكَانَ اللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ مُّحِيطًا  [And Allah encompasses all the things.] (An-Nisa - 126)

 

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) knew about Himself (His potentialities and attributes) as well as knew about each of His creation. These two aspects are known as (i) Facts of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى), and (ii) Facts of creatures.

What are Facts (attributes) of Allah (
سبحانه و تعالى)?

There are 7 basic attributes of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى).

(i) 'Life',  He is alive (Hayyi - حي).

(ii) 'Knowledge', He is knowledgeable (Aleem - عليم).

(iii) 'Seeing', He sees every thing in this cosmos (Baseer - بصير).

(iv) 'Hearing', He hears all our  supplications  (Same'e - سميع).

(v) 'Speech', He commands (Kaleem - كليم)

(vi) 'Omnipotent' He is all powerful (Qadeer - قدير).

(vii) 'Will',  Before creating creatures He 'wills' (أَرَدْنَاهُ).

 

Where did we find the above information?

Everything we are discussing in this book is taken from Quran and Ahadith.

It is in Quran -  اللَّهُ لَا إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الْحَيُّ الْقَيُّومُ ۚ لَا تَأْخُذُهُ سِنَةٌ وَلَا نَوْمٌ ۚ لَّهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ [Allah, there is no god but He, the alive, the Self-subsisting, Eternal. No slumber can seize Him nor sleep. Whatever is in the Heavens and whatsoever is in the Earth belongs to Him.]  (Al-Baqara – 255).

It is in Quran - وَاللَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ [ Allah is ‘Hearer’, ‘Knower.  (Al-Baqara – 256).

It is in Quran - إِنَّ اللَّهَ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ [Allah is all-embracing, ‘all knowing’.] (Al-Baqara – 115).

It is in Quran - إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ [ Allah, only Allah is ‘Mighty’ and ‘Wise.] ( Al-Baqara – 129)

It is in Quran - إِنَّمَا قَوْلُنَا لِشَيْءٍ إِذَا أَرَدْنَاهُ أَن نَّقُولَ لَهُ كُن فَيَكُونُ [A thing We want to create, We only say 'Be', and there it is (it comes into existence)] (An Nahl - 40).


When we take into consideration the attributes of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى), His names are derived. Name is the combination of the Unity of Allah (ذاتِ الہى) and His attribute. Like Wisdom (Hikmah) is Allah’s (سبحانه و تعالى) attribute, and Wise (Hakeem) is His name. Similarly, Mercy is His attribute and ‘Merciful’ (Raheem) and ‘Compassionate’ (Rahman) are His names. In the same way, ‘knowledge’ is His attribute and ‘Knowledgeable (Aleem) is His name.  There are 99 famous names of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى).

 It is in Quran – قُلِ ادْعُوا اللَّهَ أَوِ ادْعُوا الرَّحْمَـٰنَ ۖ أَيًّا مَّا تَدْعُوا فَلَهُ الْأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَىٰ  [ Call upon Allah, or call upon Rahman, by whatever name you call upon Him, ( it is well ), to Him belong the Most Beautiful Names’. (Al-Isra – 110).

 

What is the meaning of name of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى)?

As we have described above, names signify various potentialities of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى). Like ‘Sustainer’ (رب). This potentiality of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) sustains all that is there in Heavens and Earth.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) is Sustainer, and we are ‘Sustainables’.  Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) is permanent, independent, self subsisting and eternal. We are temporary, contingent and dependent servants.

It is in Quran - وَسِعَ كُرْسِيُّهُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ ۖ وَلَا يَئُودُهُ حِفْظُهُمَا ۚ وَهُوَ الْعَلِيُّ الْعَظِيمُ [ His authority spreads over the heavens and Earth and He feels no fatigue in guarding and preserving them (His creatures), for He is the Most High, the Supreme (in glory)’. (Al-Baqara – 255).

 
What are facts of creatures?


From the tiny invisible particles (like proton, electron) to the mighty stars and heavens, everything is known to Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) prior to their creation. He created them with His prior knowledge. Individual facts of these creatures along with their individual characteristics were their in Allah’s (سبحانه و تعالى) knowledge.

When Allah (SWT) wants to create a thing, He looks at its ‘fact’ which is there in His knowledge and commands ‘Be’, and there it comes into existence. This is external existence of that fact (thing).

 It is in Quran - إِنَّمَا قَوْلُنَا لِشَيْءٍ إِذَا أَرَدْنَاهُ أَن نَّقُولَ لَهُ كُن فَيَكُونُ [A thing We want to create, We only say 'Be', and there it is (it comes into existence)] (An Nahl - 40).

Before the command of ‘Be’, the things were in internal existence or in Allah’s (سبحانه و تعالى) knowledge. Internal or external existence, both are within the Knowledge of Almighty.

Why the things are seen by us only in external existence and not seen when they are in Allah’s (سبحانه و تعالى) knowledge?

When Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) commands ‘Be’ to a fact, a contact with Allah’s potentiality of being ‘Apparent’ is established and we become noticeable.

Our facts in Allah’s (سبحانه و تعالى) knowledge can be seen only by Him. Generally, there is no access for us to see those facts.

It is in Quran - [And they (Humans) will never compass anything of His Knowledge except that which He wills. ] (Al-Baqara – 255).

The whole cosmos is not separately independently existing on its own. Every moment, every instant, we require Allah’s (سبحانه و تعالى) assistance to survive in the world.

It is in Quran لَا تَأْخُذُهُ سِنَةٌ وَلَا نَوْمٌ [ No slumber can seize Allah nor sleep.] (Al-Baqara – 255).

It is His perpetual attention towards us that keeps us going. His Unity is encircling us from all sides. No one is outside the circle of His knowledge. This is the meaning of the verse, ‘wherever we turn, we find Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) only’. Indeed He is nearer to us than our jugular vein.

What is the meaning of the following verses?

It is in Quran -  فَإِذَا سَوَّيْتُهُ وَنَفَخْتُ فِيهِ مِن رُّوحِي فَقَعُوا لَهُ سَاجِدِينَ [(When Adam's عليه السلام body was created, Allah says) I breathed something (into it) out of My Soul.] (Al-Hijr – 29).

It is in Quran -  وَإِذْ تَخْلُقُ مِنَ الطِّينِ كَهَيْئَةِ الطَّيْرِ بِإِذْنِي فَتَنفُخُ فِيهَا فَتَكُونُ طَيْرًا بِإِذْنِي  [(Allah says to Isa – عليه السلام) And when you make a bird-like shape from the mud and blow into it your breath and it gets to life on My behest.] (Al-Ma’ida – 110). 

It is giving life. What is the meaning of giving life?

It is the reflection of Allah’s (سبحانه و تعالى) Being on the fact of the creature. No sooner the command of ‘Be’ is given, the thing appears in a specific shape.

What is the meaning of reflection of Allah’s (سبحانه و تعالى) Being?

It is in Quran - هُوَ الظَّاهِرُ وَالْبَاطِنُ ۖ وَهُوَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ [He is the Manifest (apparent) and the Immanent (hidden - but actually present through out the material world) and He is the knower of all things ’ . (Al-Hadeed – 3).

The reflection of Allah’s (سبحانه و تعالى) Being means, the connection of the fact of the creature with Allah’s (سبحانه و تعالى) potentiality of being ‘Apparent’.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) is Manifest (apparent). When He reflects this potentiality on the fact of a creature, it also becomes apparent or it comes into life (for a specific period of time).

This is the reason our world is known as ‘the World of manifestation ' ( Aalam - e - Shahadat -  عالمِ شہادت).

The World of Manifestation (or our physical world) is made up of matter. To appear in this world, our Nufoos needed bodies of matter, which were provided to us.

After our death, these bodies have to remain here. This is the reason our bodies are buried under the ground in this world.  Later they get decomposed and become part of earth.

After our deaths, we are required to move to another world which is known as ‘Hereafter’ or ‘world after death’.

The world after death is also made up of matter. But that matter is different from ours. When we move there, we are provided with another body made up of that matter.

Our shapes remain the same in both these worlds. A formal contact between the dead and the alive remains at the place where they were buried.

 It is in Hadith -  Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said ‘when you go the graves of the dead, say -  السَّلامُ عَلَيكُمْ يَا أَهْلَ القُبُورِ [peace be on you O’ people of graves]. 

When we meet each other in this world also, we are required to say ‘Assalamu Alaikum’ (السَّلامُ عَلَيكُمْ). This greeting is returned by ‘Wa’alaikum Assalam’ (وَعَلَيكُمْ السَّلامُ).

Our existence is the gift of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى). He has given us our life, He has provided us our bodies as per the requirements of this physical world. We will die when our life span is over.

Everything came out of His Being and it will eventually return there. This is the meaning of the verse - اللَّهُ نُورُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ [He is the light or existence of everything in this cosmos.] (An-Noor - 35)

The gist of the above description is : One who considers the Unity of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) as the source of all manifestation, and he considers the real source to be the Unity of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) and gains Allah’s (سبحانه و تعالى) visualization in such a way that he considers himself a place of manifestation of the Being and sees the reflection of His Being ( Wajood-e-Elahi ) on the facts of creatures; certainly he recognizes his Sustainer (Rab).

This is the meaning of Hadith of Ihsan in which Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said - ‘ you worship Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) seeing Him, and in case you fail to see Him, do your prayer knowing fully well that He is seeing you’.

This is true Islamic monotheism explained to us by Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).