LET US CORRECT OUR ISLAMIC FAITH

دعونا نصحّح العقيدة الاسلامية

 

 

 

 

تفسيرِ اَسدي 

TAFSEER-E-ASEDI  

 

 BY

 

SHAIKH MIR ASEDULLAH QUADRI

 
 
 JUZ 10.2  WA A'ALAMU (وَاعْلَمُوا)
 

 

سورة التوبة

The Repentance
 

At-Tawbah | Sura # 9| 129 verses | Madina


In the beginning of Sura at-Tawba,  Tasmia is not written.  It is most likely that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) did not dictate it at the beginning of this Sura.   Sura at-Tawba consists of 3 discourses, the first, verse 1-37 was revealed in Zil Qa'dah, 9 AH when Muslims had departed for Hajj. This discourse consists of new regulations for the Mushrikeen of Arabian Peninsula.  The second discourse, verse 38-72 was revealed in Rajab 9 AH when the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) was preparing for the campaign of Tabuk.  The third discourse, verses 73-129 was revealed after the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) returned from the campaign of Tabuk.  

 

 

Juz 10,  At-Tauba verse 001

بَرَاءَةٌ مِنَ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ إِلَى الَّذِينَ عَاهَدْتُمْ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ [ (This is) a declaration of complete absolution on the part of Allah and His Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) (from all obligations) to those of the polytheists with whom you had entered into a treaty (which was broken by them repeatedly).

 

Juz 10,  At-Tauba verse 002

فَسِيحُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ أَرْبَعَةَ أَشْهُرٍ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّكُمْ غَيْرُ مُعْجِزِي اللَّهِ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ مُخْزِي الْكَافِرِينَ  [ (O' breakers of the treaties) you may go about  in the land freely for four months, but bear in mind that you cannot escape from Allah, and that Allah will (surely) humiliate the disbelievers. ]

It is reported that verses 1-37 of Sura at-Tauba were revealed in 9 AH when Muslims had departed for Hajj under the leadership of Abu Bakr Siddique (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ). When these verses were revealed, Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) decided to declare the conditions laid down in the verses openly.  Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was despatched to proclaim the following new regulations in front of the large gathering of pilgrims. 

(i) No disbeliever will enter Paradise.

(ii) No disbeliever should perform Hajj after this.

(iii) It is forbidden to move around Kaaba in a naked state.

(iv) Those who have not violated the treaties with Muslim and whose term is still in force will be honored till the expiry of their terms. 

 

Brief History

After the conquest of Makka in Ramadhan, 8 AH,  Hajj was performed by Muslims.  The Mushrikeen participated in it as per their customs. The second Hajj in 9 AH was performed as per pure Islamic way by Muslims. The Mushrikeen participated in Hajj as well as per their own customs. The above declarations were made during this Hajj disallowing Mushrikeen to participate in Hajj from the following year. The Hajj in 10 AH, known as  'Hajja-tul-Widaa', was performed under the guidance of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) in a purely Islamic way in which Mushrikeen were not allowed to participate.

 

Juz 10,  At-Tauba verse 003

وَأَذَانٌ مِنَ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ إِلَى النَّاسِ يَوْمَ الْحَجِّ الْأَكْبَرِ أَنَّ اللَّهَ بَرِيءٌ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ وَرَسُولُهُ فَإِنْ تُبْتُمْ فَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لَكُمْ وَإِنْ تَوَلَّيْتُمْ فَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّكُمْ غَيْرُ مُعْجِزِي اللَّهِ وَبَشِّرِ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بِعَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ   [ A proclamation is (made) this day of the Greater Pilgrimage on the part of Allah and His Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), that Allah is not bound (by any contract) to idolaters, nor is His Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). It is, therefore, better for you to repent. If you do not, remember that you cannot elude (the grip of) Allah. So announce to those who deny the truth the news of painful punishment. ]

 

Juz 10,  At-Tauba verse 004

إِلَّا الَّذِينَ عَاهَدْتُمْ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ ثُمَّ لَمْ يَنْقُصُوكُمْ شَيْئًا وَلَمْ يُظَاهِرُوا عَلَيْكُمْ أَحَدًا فَأَتِمُّوا إِلَيْهِمْ عَهْدَهُمْ إِلَى مُدَّتِهِمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُتَّقِينَ   [ Except those idolaters with whom you have a treaty, who have not failed you in the least, nor helped anyone against you. Fulfill your obligations to them during the term (of the treaty). Allah loves those who take heed for themselves. ]

 

Juz 10,  At-Tauba verse 005

فَإِذَا انْسَلَخَ الْأَشْهُرُ الْحُرُمُ فَاقْتُلُوا الْمُشْرِكِينَ حَيْثُ وَجَدْتُمُوهُمْ وَخُذُوهُمْ وَاحْصُرُوهُمْ وَاقْعُدُوا لَهُمْ كُلَّ مَرْصَدٍ فَإِنْ تَابُوا وَأَقَامُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآَتَوُا الزَّكَاةَ فَخَلُّوا سَبِيلَهُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ   [ But when these months, prohibited (for fighting), are over, kill the idolaters (who have broke the treaties and double crossed Muslims) wheresoever you find them, and take them captive or besiege them, and lie in wait for them at every likely place. But if they repent and fulfill their devotional obligations and pay the Zakat, then let them go their way, for Allah is forgiving and kind. ]

 

Juz 10,  At-Tauba verse 006

وَإِنْ أَحَدٌ مِّنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ اسْتَجَارَكَ فَأَجِرْهُ حَتَّى يَسْمَعَ كَلاَمَ اللّهِ ثُمَّ أَبْلِغْهُ مَأْمَنَهُ ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ قَوْمٌ لاَّ يَعْلَمُونَ   [ If an idolater seeks protection, then give him asylum that he may hear the word of Allah. Then escort him to a place of safety, for they are people who do not know. ]

 

Juz 10,  At-Tauba verse 007

كَيْفَ يَكُونُ لِلْمُشْرِكِينَ عَهْدٌ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ وَعِنْدَ رَسُولِهِ إِلَّا الَّذِينَ عَاهَدْتُمْ عِنْدَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ فَمَا اسْتَقَامُوا لَكُمْ فَاسْتَقِيمُوا لَهُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُتَّقِينَ   [ How can there be for the polytheists a treaty in the sight of Allah and with His Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), except for those with whom you made a treaty near al-Masjid al-Haram? So as long as they are upright toward you, be upright toward them. Indeed, Allah loves the righteous.]

 

Juz 10,  At-Tauba verse 008

كَيْفَ وَإِنْ يَظْهَرُوا عَلَيْكُمْ لَا يَرْقُبُوا فِيكُمْ إِلًّا وَلَا ذِمَّةً يُرْضُونَكُمْ بِأَفْوَاهِهِمْ وَتَأْبَى قُلُوبُهُمْ وَأَكْثَرُهُمْ فَاسِقُونَ   [ Therefore how (can there be a treaty when they are such that if they overpower you, they would not have regard for any relations nor for any treaty? They please you with their mouths whereas their hearts contain rejection; and most of them are disobedient. ]

 

Juz 10,  At-Tauba verse 009

اشْتَرَوْا بِآَيَاتِ اللَّهِ ثَمَنًا قَلِيلًا فَصَدُّوا عَنْ سَبِيلِهِ إِنَّهُمْ سَاءَ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ   [ They barter away the words of Allah for a petty price, and obstruct (others) from His path. How evil indeed are the things they do? ]

 

Juz 10,  At-Tauba verse 010

لَا يَرْقُبُونَ فِي مُؤْمِنٍ إِلًّا وَلَا ذِمَّةً وَأُولَئِكَ هُمُ الْمُعْتَدُونَ   [ They have no regard for kinship or treaties with believers, for they are transgressors. ]

 

Juz 10,  At-Tauba verse 011

فَإِنْ تَابُوا وَأَقَامُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآَتَوُا الزَّكَاةَ فَإِخْوَانُكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ وَنُفَصِّلُ الْآَيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَعْلَمُونَ  [ But if they repent and are firm in devotion and pay the Zakat, then they are your brothers in faith. We explain Our commands distinctly for those who understand. ]
 

Juz 10,  At-Tauba verse 012

وَإِنْ نَكَثُوا أَيْمَانَهُمْ مِنْ بَعْدِ عَهْدِهِمْ وَطَعَنُوا فِي دِينِكُمْ فَقَاتِلُوا أَئِمَّةَ الْكُفْرِ إِنَّهُمْ لَا أَيْمَانَ لَهُمْ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَنْتَهُونَ [ But if they break their pledges after their having made a treaty and revile your religion, then fight the leaders of disbelievers so that they may desist (from aggression). Indeed, they have no (regard) to their pledges.  ]

 

Juz 10,  At-Tauba verse 013

أَلاَ تُقَاتِلُونَ قَوْمًا نَّكَثُواْ أَيْمَانَهُمْ وَهَمُّواْ بِإِخْرَاجِ الرَّسُولِ وَهُم بَدَؤُوكُمْ أَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ أَتَخْشَوْنَهُمْ فَاللّهُ أَحَقُّ أَن تَخْشَوْهُ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤُمِنِينَ [ Will you not fight those who broke their pledge and plotted to expel the Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), and who were the first to attack you? Are you afraid of them? Allah has more right that you should fear Him, if you have faith. ]

 

Juz 10,  At-Tauba verse 014

قَاتِلُوهُمْ يُعَذِّبْهُمُ اللَّهُ بِأَيْدِيكُمْ وَيُخْزِهِمْ وَيَنْصُرْكُمْ عَلَيْهِمْ وَيَشْفِ صُدُورَ قَوْمٍ مُؤْمِنِينَ [ Fight them; Allah will punish them by your hands and will disgrace them and give you victory over them and He will soothe the hearts of the believers. ]

 

Juz 10,  At-Tauba verse 015

وَيُذْهِبْ غَيْظَ قُلُوبِهِمْ وَيَتُوبُ اللَّهُ عَلَى مَنْ يَشَاءُ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ [ And remove the anger from their (believers) hearts; for Allah turns to whosoever He desires. Allah is All Knowing and All Wise. ]
 
The proclamation of abrogation of the treaties was necessitated against those tribes who were trying to harm Muslims in spite of their peace treaties. After the abrogation of the treaties, the Mushrikeen in Arabian Peninsula realized that they had become outlaws and have no options left for them.  They also realized that they cannot incite the neighboring Roman or Persian empires against Muslims or create anarchy in the State. The declaration had  far reaching effects and helped Islamic State during the caliphate of Hadhrat Abu Bakr Siddique (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) during the wars of Apostasy (حروب الردة) in which the last traces of Shirk were eliminated from the Islamic State.    
 
 

Juz 10,  At-Tauba verse 016

أَمْ حَسِبْتُمْ أَن تُتْرَكُواْ وَلَمَّا يَعْلَمِ اللّهُ الَّذِينَ جَاهَدُواْ مِنكُمْ وَلَمْ يَتَّخِذُواْ مِن دُونِ اللّهِ وَلاَ رَسُولِهِ وَلاَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَلِيجَةً وَاللّهُ خَبِيرٌ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ [ Or did you think that you would be left (without being tried through suffering and hardship) unless Allah marks out those among you who really strive (in His way), and relied on no one other than Allah and His Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and the believers, to seek help and solidarity? Allah is fully aware of all that you do. ]

 

Juz 10,  At-Tauba verse 017

مَا كَانَ لِلْمُشْرِكِينَ أَنْ يَعْمُرُوا مَسَاجِدَ اللَّهِ شَاهِدِينَ عَلَى أَنْفُسِهِمْ بِالْكُفْرِ أُولَئِكَ حَبِطَتْ أَعْمَالُهُمْ وَفِي النَّارِ هُمْ خَالِدُونَ [ The idolaters have no right to visit the mosques of Allah while bearing testimony to their disbelief. Meaningless will be their acts, and in Hell they will be in Hell for ever, ]

 

Juz 10,  At-Tauba verse 018

إِنَّمَا يَعْمُرُ مَسَاجِدَ اللَّهِ مَنْ آَمَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآَخِرِ وَأَقَامَ الصَّلَاةَ وَآَتَى الزَّكَاةَ وَلَمْ يَخْشَ إِلَّا اللَّهَ فَعَسَى أُولَئِكَ أَنْ يَكُونُوا مِنَ الْمُهْتَدِينَ [ Only those who believe in Allah and the Last Day, who establish Salah, pay Zakat, and fear no one but Allah, can maintain the mosques of Allah.  It is likely that they will be among the people of guidance.]

 

Juz 10,  At-Tauba verse 019

أَجَعَلْتُمْ سِقَايَةَ الْحَاجِّ وَعِمَارَةَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ كَمَنْ آَمَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآَخِرِ وَجَاهَدَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ لَا يَسْتَوُونَ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ وَاللَّهُ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِينَ [ Do you consider providing water to the pilgrims and serving the Sacred Mosque as equal in value to one who believes in Allah and the Last Day, and strives in Allah's cause? They are not equal in Allah's sight. And Allah does not guide the oppressing folk.]

 

Juz 10,  At-Tauba verse 020

أَجَعَلْتُمْ الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا وَهَاجَرُوا وَجَاهَدُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنْفُسِهِمْ أَعْظَمُ دَرَجَةً عِنْدَ اللَّهِ وَأُولَئِكَ هُمُ الْفَائِزُونَ   [ Those who have believed and migrated, and waged jihad in the way of Allah with their possessions and persons have a greater rank near Allah, and it is they who are successful.]

 

Juz 10,  At-Tauba verse 021

يُبَشِّرُهُمْ رَبُّهُمْ بِرَحْمَةٍ مِنْهُ وَرِضْوَانٍ وَجَنَّاتٍ لَهُمْ فِيهَا نَعِيمٌ مُقِيمٌ   [ Their Lord gives them the good news of His Mercy and acceptance.  There will be gardens for them with lasting bliss. ]

 

Juz 10,  At-Tauba verse 022

خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا أَبَدًا إِنَّ اللَّهَ عِنْدَهُ أَجْرٌ عَظِيمٌ  [ They will abide therein for ever. Indeed with Allah is the great reward. ]

 

Juz 10,  At-Tauba verse 023

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا لَا تَتَّخِذُوا آَبَاءَكُمْ وَإِخْوَانَكُمْ أَوْلِيَاءَ إِنِ اسْتَحَبُّوا الْكُفْرَ عَلَى الْإِيمَانِ وَمَنْ يَتَوَلَّهُمْ مِنْكُمْ فَأُولَئِكَ هُمُ الظَّالِمُونَ [ O' you who believe, do not hold your fathers and brothers as friends if they hold disbelief more dear than faith; and those of you who do so are unjust. ]

 

Juz 10,  At-Tauba verse 024

قُلْ إِنْ كَانَ آَبَاؤُكُمْ وَأَبْنَاؤُكُمْ وَإِخْوَانُكُمْ وَأَزْوَاجُكُمْ وَعَشِيرَتُكُمْ وَأَمْوَالٌ اقْتَرَفْتُمُوهَا وَتِجَارَةٌ تَخْشَوْنَ كَسَادَهَا وَمَسَاكِنُ تَرْضَوْنَهَا أَحَبَّ إِلَيْكُمْ مِنَ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَجِهَادٍ فِي سَبِيلِهِ فَتَرَبَّصُوا حَتَّى يَأْتِيَ اللَّهُ بِأَمْرِهِ وَاللَّهُ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الْفَاسِقِينَ [ Say : 'If your fathers, and your children, and your brothers and sisters, and your spouses, and your kindred and clan, and the wealth you have acquired, and the business you fear may suffer, and the dwellings that you love to live in, are dearer to you than Allah and His Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and striving in His way, then wait until Allah brings about His decree. Allah does not guide the transgressing people. ]

 

Juz 10,  At-Tauba verse 025

لَقَدْ نَصَرَكُمُ اللَّهُ فِي مَوَاطِنَ كَثِيرَةٍ وَيَوْمَ حُنَيْنٍ إِذْ أَعْجَبَتْكُمْ كَثْرَتُكُمْ فَلَمْ تُغْنِ عَنْكُمْ شَيْئًا وَضَاقَتْ عَلَيْكُمُ الْأَرْضُ بِمَا رَحُبَتْ ثُمَّ وَلَّيْتُمْ مُدْبِرِينَ [ Allah has certainly helped you in many situations, and on the day of Hunayn, when your great number elated you, but it did not avail you in any way, and the earth became narrow for you in spite of its expanse, whereupon you turned your backs and retreated.  ]
 

The battle of Hunain took place in the valley of Hunain that lies between Taaif and Makkah in Shawwal, 8 AH, a few days after the fall of Makka. The Muslim army consisted of 12000 fighters while the Hawazin fighters were 4000. Since Muslims outnumbered the Mushrikeen, some of them  showed pride on the numerical strength of Muslims over the enemy.  However, this did not help Muslims as the archers of the Hawazin tribe wrought havoc among the Muslim army and compelled them to retreat in panic. But the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) stood the ground along with a few of his  bravest companions.  The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) called the fighters to the battle field. They regrouped and rallied and routed the enemy.  In this battle also, Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) helped Muslims by sending angels to help them win the war.  

 

Juz 10,  At-Tauba verse 026

ثُمَّ أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ سَكِينَتَهُ عَلَى رَسُولِهِ وَعَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَأَنْزَلَ جُنُودًا لَمْ تَرَوْهَا وَعَذَّبَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَذَلِكَ جَزَاءُ الْكَافِرِينَ [ Thereafter Allah sent down His peace and composure upon His Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and the believers, and He sent down invisible troops you did not see and punished those who  disbelieved.  Such is the retribution of the infidels. ]

 

Juz 10,  At-Tauba verse 027

ثُمَّ يَتُوبُ اللَّهُ مِنْ بَعْدِ ذَلِكَ عَلَى مَنْ يَشَاءُ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ [ Yet Allah may turn (even) after this to whomsoever He pleases, for Allah  is compassionate and kind (to the believers). ]

 

Juz 10,  At-Tauba verse 028

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا إِنَّمَا الْمُشْرِكُونَ نَجَسٌ فَلَا يَقْرَبُوا الْمَسْجِدَ الْحَرَامَ بَعْدَ عَامِهِمْ هَذَا وَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ عَيْلَةً فَسَوْفَ يُغْنِيكُمُ اللَّهُ مِنْ فَضْلِهِ إِنْ شَاءَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ [ O you who believe, the polytheists are indeed unclean.  Let them not approach the Holy Mosque after this year. Should you fear poverty, Allah will enrich you out of His grace, if He wishes. Indeed Allah is All Knowing, All Wise. ]

 

Juz 10,  At-Tauba verse 029

قَاتِلُوا الَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَلَا بِالْيَوْمِ الْآَخِرِ وَلَا يُحَرِّمُونَ مَا حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَلَا يَدِينُونَ دِينَ الْحَقِّ مِنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ حَتَّى يُعْطُوا الْجِزْيَةَ عَنْ يَدٍ وَهُمْ صَاغِرُونَ [ Fight those who do not have faith in Allah nor in the Last Day, nor forbid what Allah and His Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) have forbidden, nor follow the true religion, from among those who were given the Book, until they pay the Jizyah (tax for protection and exemption from military service) with a willing hand in the state of submission.]

 

Juz 10,  At-Tauba verse 030

وَقَالَتِ الْيَهُودُ عُزَيْرٌ ابْنُ اللَّهِ وَقَالَتِ النَّصَارَى الْمَسِيحُ ابْنُ اللَّهِ ذَلِكَ قَوْلُهُمْ بِأَفْوَاهِهِمْ يُضَاهِئُونَ قَوْلَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنْ قَبْلُ قَاتَلَهُمُ اللَّهُ أَنَّى يُؤْفَكُونَ [ The Jews say, 'Uzair (عليه السلام) is the son of Allah'; and the Christians say, 'The Isa (عليه السلام) is the son of Allah.'  That is their statement from their mouths; they imitate the saying of those who disbelieved (before them). May Allah destroy them; how are they deluded?]