SHAIKH MIR ASEDULLAH QUADRI
Al-Baqara | Sura # 2| 286 verses | Madinan
بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
In the name of Allah, the Most Compassionate and Most Merciful
Juz 1, Al-Baqara, Verse 022الَّذِي جَعَلَ لَكُمُ الْأَرْضَ فِرَاشًا وَالسَّمَاءَ بِنَاءً وَأَنزَلَ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مَاءً فَأَخْرَجَ بِهِ مِنَ الثَّمَرَاتِ رِزْقًا لَّكُمْ فَلَا تَجْعَلُوا لِلَّـهِ أَندَادًا وَأَنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ [ It is Allah who spread the Earth for your living and skies as covering and (He) sends down rain from the skies which produces fruits for you as your food. (After observing all these) do not concede peers for Allah as you are well aware of it. ]Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) is inviting peoples’ attention towards His signs in the cosmos. The Earth is spread for them and over their heads is the cover of Sky. They get rain from up which cultivates the land. From this cultivated land they get all kinds of grains and fruits as their food. Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) says that when these signs are manifest in front of you, then do not associate anyone as peer of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) and do not get involved in Idol worship.It is in Quran - وَإِلَـٰهُكُمْ إِلَـٰهٌ وَاحِدٌ ۖ لَّا إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الرَّحْمَـٰنُ الرَّحِيمُ [ And your God is one. There is no one worthy of worship except Him, He is Most compassionate and Most Merciful.] (Al-Baqara -163).It is in Quran - لَوْ كَانَ فِيهِمَا آلِهَةٌ إِلَّا اللَّهُ لَفَسَدَتَا ۚ فَسُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَرْشِ عَمَّا يَصِفُونَ [ If there had been (more) Gods other than Allah, the world would have been subjected to disorder. Glory be to Allah, the lord of the dominion, He is above from all that they ascribe for Him. ] (Al-Anbiya- 22)Juz 1, Al-Baqara, Verse 023وَإِن كُنتُمْ فِي رَيْبٍ مِّمَّا نَزَّلْنَا عَلَى عَبْدِنَا فَأْتُوا بِسُورَةٍ مِّن مِّثْلِهِ وَادْعُوا شُهَدَاءَكُم مِّن دُونِ اللَّـهِ إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ [ If you doubt (in this Quran) which has been sent down on Our Chosen Servant, (Apostle Mohammad ﷺ) then bring a chapter like it; and call all your helpers, other than Allah, if you are truthful.]
Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) has challenged the entire humanity and Jinns, many a time in Quran that if they doubt in Quran, they should bring a Surah like that of Quran. Since the word of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) and the word of His creature cannot be equated, this challenge remains unfulfilled and will remain so till the day of resurrection.
It is consensus (اِجماع) of all Islamic scholars that Quran is a miracle bestowed on Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), a like of which cannot be produced by any human or jinn.
The 'Inimitability' of Quran’ or ‘the Exception of Quran’ (اعجاز القرآن) has been a subject of discussion among Islamic scholars for a long time. Some view points in this context are given below.
(i) Some earlier people thought that Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) incapacitated competent people, or turned them away from taking up the challenge of imitating Quran. This hypothesis was wrong. If you accept this hypothesis, then Quran does not remain a miracle, rather Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) incapacitating the people to write a book like that of Quran becomes a miracle.
It is in Quran - قُل لَّئِنِ اجْتَمَعَتِ الْإِنسُ وَالْجِنُّ عَلَىٰ أَن يَأْتُوا بِمِثْلِ هَـٰذَا الْقُرْآنِ لَا يَأْتُونَ بِمِثْلِهِ وَلَوْ كَانَ بَعْضُهُمْ لِبَعْضٍ ظَهِيرًا [ Say, (O’Prophet ﷺ) If the mankind and the jinns were together to produce the like of this Qur'an, they could not produce the like thereof, even if they helped one another.] (Al-Israa - 88)
The above verse confirms that since Quran is the word of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ), a like of it, cannot be produced by a human being (a creature). The suspicion of disbelievers that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) might have authored it has been condemned by Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ).
It is in Quran - أَمْ يَقُولُونَ افْتَرَاهُ ۖ قُلْ فَأْتُوا بِعَشْرِ سُوَرٍ مِّثْلِهِ مُفْتَرَيَاتٍ وَادْعُوا مَنِ اسْتَطَعْتُم مِّن دُونِ اللَّهِ إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ [Or do they say, He ( the Prophet ﷺ) invented it? Say, Then bring ten chapters like it (that you claim to) have been invented, and call upon (for assistance) whoever you can, besides Allah, if you are truthful."] (Hood - 13)
It is in Quran - أَمْ يَقُولُونَ تَقَوَّلَهُ ۚ بَل لَّا يُؤْمِنُونَ - فَلْيَأْتُوا بِحَدِيثٍ مِّثْلِهِ إِن كَانُوا صَادِقِينَ [ Or do they say, "He (Prophet Mohammad ﷺ) has made it up"? Rather, they do not believe. Then let them produce a statement like it, if they are truthful.] (At-Tur - 33-34)
The Arabs of Prophet’s (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) time acknowledged the superiority of the speech of Quran. The smallest Surah in Quran is al-Kawthar that consists of 3 small verses - (إِنَّا أَعْطَيْنَاكَ الْكَوْثَرَ - فَصَلِّ لِرَبِّكَ وَانْحَرْ - إِنَّ شَانِئَكَ هُوَ الْأَبْتَرُ). In the past 1450 years no one has been able to bring a like of it. After seeing this Surah, a prominent Arabic poet of Quraish during Prophet’s (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) time wrote - مَا هذا كلام البشر [This is not from the speech of a servant].
(ii) Some people thought that the 'choice and arrangement of the words of Quran' makes it exceptional. Scholars like (a) Abdul Qahir al-Jurjani (d. 1078 CE) in his Dala'il al-I'jaz, (b) Fakhr ad-Din al-Razi (d. 1209) in his book Nihayat al-I'jaz fi Dirayat al-I'jaz, and (c) al-Zamakhshari (d. 1144 CE) in his Tafseer al-Kashsaf have explained this uniqueness in detail.
(iii) Later scholars upheld the rhetorical superiority of Qur'an, but considered that the contents of the Quran are also a miracle.
We have briefly discussed the miraculous nature of Quran in (a) Style, (b) Literature, (c) Content, and (d) Effect.
QURAN'S STYLE - Quran comes out glaringly clear in terms of eloquence and rhetoric upon literate people; Arabs or non-Arabs alike.
What praise can be uttered about the comprehensiveness of eloquence and rhetoric of the noble Ahadith, the utterance of which is related with Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) whose behest is - اُتِيْتُ جَوامِعَ الْكَلِمْ - اَنَا اَفْصَحُ الْعَرَبِيْ وَ الْعَجَمْ [ The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said - I have been given the comprehensiveness of speech. My eloquence is unparalleled among Arabs and Non-Arabs.] (Abi Shaiba and Abu Ya'la). In spite of that, Quran is different altogether. Its style is distinct from the style of Ahadith. Thus, it is clear that Quran is not the speech of the Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).
It is in Quran - وَمَا كُنتَ تَتْلُو مِن قَبْلِهِ مِن كِتَابٍ وَلَا تَخُطُّهُ بِيَمِينِكَ ۖ إِذًا لَّارْتَابَ الْمُبْطِلُونَ [ (O' Prophet ﷺ) you did not recite before it (Quran), any scripture, nor did you inscribe one with your right hand. Otherwise the falsifiers would have had doubt. ] (Al-Ankaboot - 48)
QURAN'S LITERATURE - As a literary monument, the Quran stands unique. It has neither forerunners nor successors.
The Arabic language and speech is divided into two branches, (i) rhymed poetry, and (ii) prose. We will not go into details here, but the challenge of Quran is to produce a piece of work that does not fall into all the branches of Arabic poetry and prose. And it should also contain comprehensive meaning and rhetoric. The Arabs could not bring even 3 verses like that of Quran. They realized that Quran’s form does not fit into any of the Arabic literature categories.
During the early period of Prophet’s (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) declaration of prophet-hood, a prominent person from Quraish, Al-Qama bin Abdul Munaf, is reported to have addressed the leaders of Quraish in Makka in the following words
."O' Quraish, a new calamity has befallen upon you. When (Prophet) Mohammed (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) was young, he was the most liked among you, most truthful in speech, and most trustworthy, until, when you saw gray hairs on his temple, and he brought you his message, you said that he was a sorcerer, but he is not, for we have seen such people and their spitting and their knots. You said, he was a diviner, but we have seen such people and their behavior, and we have heard their rhymes. You said he was a soothsayer, but he is not a soothsayer, for we have heard their rhymes. You said he was a poet, but he is not a poet, for we have heard all kinds of poetry. You said he was possessed, but he is not, for we have seen the possessed, and he shows no signs of their gasping and whispering and delirium. O' people of Quraish, look to your affairs (realize the intensity/truthfulness of this new message). By God, a very serious thing has been sent down upon you."
QURAN'S CONTENT - It is evident that human beings neither have the knowledge of the past nor of future. A person knows only the thing which is in front of his eyes. It means his knowledge is limited to his observations. At most, he contemplates with his observation and tries to deduce things.
Tidings of the unknown can not the work of the material man. Until Allah's (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) help is not there in between, this can not be accomplished. There are details of the happenings in Quran about which the entire family of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) was unaware of; like Adam (علیه السلا م), Hawwa (علیها السلا م) and Satan's episode; the incident of Haabeel and Qabeel; the happening of Ibrahim (علیه السلا م), Ismail (علیه السلا م), Loot (علیه السلا م), Is'haq (علیه السلا م), Yaqub (علیه السلا م), Yusuf (علیه السلا م); episodes of Saleh (علیه السلا م) and the nation of Thamud; the happenings of Shuayb (علیه السلا م) and the people of Mada'in and Aika; Dawood (علیه السلا م) and Sulaiman (علیه السلا م), Musa (علیه السلا م), Haroon (علیه السلا م), Pharaoh, Hamaan, and the descendants of Israel and Qaroon's affairs; Zulqarnain, the people of Saba, As-hab al-Aqdood (اصحاب الاخدود), As-hab al-Kahaf (اصحاب الكهف), As-hab al-Raqeem (اصحاب الرّقيم) and As-hab Rus (اصحاب رس); all their incidents have been mentioned in the Quran that were recognized by the adversaries in the Prophet's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) time.
It is in Quran - وَلَـٰكِن تَصْدِيقَ الَّذِي بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ وَتَفْصِيلَ الْكِتَابِ لَا رَيْبَ فِيهِ مِن رَّبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ [But (Quran is) a confirmation of what was before it, and a detailed explanation of the (earlier) Scripture, about which there is no doubt, from the Lord of the worlds.] (Yunus - 37)
There are foretelling in Quran which, till now, continuously proving to be true and correct. A few of these are given below.
(a) It is in Quran - سَيُهْزَمُ الْجَمْعُ وَيُوَلُّونَ الدُّبُرَ [Soon their multitude will be put to fight and they will show their backs (run away).] ( Al-Qamar - 45)
This was the foretelling of the people of Badr, in which the Makkan pagans lost and ran away. This foretelling was fulfilled by Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ).
(b) It is in Quran - قُل لِّلْمُخَلَّفِينَ مِنَ الْأَعْرَابِ سَتُدْعَوْنَ إِلَىٰ قَوْمٍ أُولِي بَأْسٍ شَدِيدٍ تُقَاتِلُونَهُمْ أَوْ يُسْلِمُونَ [ (O' Prophet ﷺ), tell the rural Arabs who were left out (at the journey of Hudaibiya), that 'you will be called in confrontation against the formidable fighters (Romans & Persians) and you will be fighting with them till they become Muslims.] (Al-Fath 16).
The wars with Romans and Persians were fought during the Caliphate of Hadhrat Abu Bakr (رضئ الله تعالی عنه) and Hadhrat Umar Farooq (رضئ الله تعالی عنه). This was the glad tiding of the caliphate of Abu Bakr and Umar (رضئ الله تعالی عنهما).
This was the foretelling about the victory of Makka, which Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) fulfilled.
(c) It is in Quran - لَّقَدْ صَدَقَ اللَّهُ رَسُولَهُ الرُّؤْيَا بِالْحَقِّ ۖ لَتَدْخُلُنَّ الْمَسْجِدَ الْحَرَامَ إِن شَاءَ اللَّهُ آمِنِينَ مُحَلِّقِينَ رُءُوسَكُمْ وَمُقَصِّرِينَ لَا تَخَافُونَ [Undoubtedly, Allah had shown His Apostle ﷺ a true dream that, by Allah's will, you (Muslims) will enter Masjid al-Haram (Kabatullah) without fear and peril (in all composure) and ( in there) you (some of you) will have your heads shaven and (some ) will have your hairs cut.] ( Al-Fath - 27 ).
QURAN'S EFFECT - Before Prophet Mohammad’s (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) immigration to Madina, the Chief of Medina Asad bin Zerarah, went out of his house, fully armed, with an ulterior motive of exiling Musab bin Umair (رضئ الله تعالى عنه), who was sent by the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) to preach Islam in Medina, but the voice of someone reciting the verses of the Quran fell on his ears. The effect of these verses was so great that he embraced Islam at the hand of Musab bin Umair (رضئ الله تعالى عنه), the very person he wanted to exile.
Khalid bin Aqba, who, while passing by, heard the verses of Quran being recited. He was mesmerized and said : 'By Allah there is a strange sweetness in it, there is a strange freshness. It’s roots are saturated with water and its branches are over-laden with fruits. Man cannot converse like this!'
Utba was an eminent leader of Quraish infidels. When Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) recited Quran, he placed both his hands on the ground and started swaying to and fro, weeping. When Waleed heard Quran, he said - اِنَّ عَلَيْهَا طَلاوَةٌ ، و فِيْهَا حَلَاوةٌ [ In it there is freshness and sweetness].
There are many instances when people accepted Islam just from listening to the verses.
The effects of Quranic verses are varied. They are also useful in 'answering of the objectives / wishes and prevention of disease and warding off, of evil touch. Many books have been written by Islamic scholars in this regard. The books like 'Shamsul Ma'arif by Booni and Muraqqa Kalimi of Kalimullah Jahanabadi, etc., are important in this context. In the invocations (ازکار) mentioned in these books, the supreme and the most effective invocations are invocation from the verses of Quran.
Juz 1, Al-Baqara, Verse 024فَإِن لَّمْ تَفْعَلُوا وَلَن تَفْعَلُوا فَاتَّقُوا النَّارَ الَّتِي وَقُودُهَا النَّاسُ وَالْحِجَارَةُ أُعِدَّتْ لِلْكَافِرِينَ [ If you cannot do it (a similar verse like the Quran), and you will never be able to do it, then save yourself from the (Hell) Fire whose fuel is stones and people, (and it is) prepared for disbelievers.]
Everything in the Cosmos is in perfect order. Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) is the creator of all the things in this Cosmos. Whatever He does, is a reflection of His perfection. Quran is His word, therefore, it is perfect in all respects. We are Allah’s (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) creatures therefore there are limitations in whatever we do.
The above Quranic verse clarifies this fact and invites human beings to be realistic in their claims.
The words (أُعِدَّتْ لِلْكَافِرِينَ) in the above verse clarify that Hell is prepared only for those who disbelieved and worked in open rebellion against Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) and His Apostles.
Juz 1, Al-Baqara, Verse 025وَبَشِّرِ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ أَنَّ لَهُمْ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ ۖ كُلَّمَا رُزِقُوا مِنْهَا مِن ثَمَرَةٍ رِّزْقًا ۙ قَالُوا هَـٰذَا الَّذِي رُزِقْنَا مِن قَبْلُ ۖ وَأُتُوا بِهِ مُتَشَابِهًا ۖ وَلَهُمْ فِيهَا أَزْوَاجٌ مُّطَهَّرَةٌ ۖ وَهُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ [ (O' Prophet ﷺ) Convey glad tidings to those who believe, and who acted righteously; for them there are gardens (in Paradise) beneath which rivers flow. When they will be provided with the fruits (of Heaven they will say that we were provided with this fruit earlier or something similar (in shape, in our life time, but the tastes of the fruits of paradise will be better) and for them are pure spouses and they will remain therein, for ever.]
The righteousness of deeds depends on the strength of Iman in heart. There is no need to talk here about the deviant sects as their basic beliefs are not in line with Sahih Iman.
As far as the followers of Ahle Sunnah, (the people of Sahih Iman) are concerned, it is generally observed that many are suffering from emptiness of deeds. As a matter of fact, sinful corruption has taken over their lives. Consistency in bad deeds show the weakness of their Iman. It is important that they seek forgiveness from their Lord and try to be sincere in their deeds.
There is another category among Ahle Sunnah. Some people focus on religious good deeds in order for a good life in Hereafter but they totally ignore about their responsibilities in this world. With this attitude, they may expect reward in Hereafter, but what about the current life in this world? You need to take care of your responsibilities in this world towards your family, kids and other dependents. You should strive to provide good living to your children and other family members. Give good education, both religious and scientific, to your children and make them competitive to stand on their feet. You also need to work for the betterment of your community/society in this world. Islam teaches us to be a complete and successful human being, in this world, as well as in Hereafter.
In this verse, Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) is giving glad tidings to the people who are believers, who act righteously that they will dwell permanently in paradise wherein there are gardens and rivers flow underneath. Why do the rivers flow beneath the gardens? It is to keep the gardens fresh and green all the time. This is to emphasize the fact that the comforts of the gardens in paradise are permanent. People will be provided with fruits of the gardens of heavens which will look similar to the ones they ate during their life time. But these fruits will be beautiful in sight and heavenly in taste.
One of the rewards to the righteous people of the paradise will be that they will have pure spouses for their company. This applies to both men and women.
A question that that is raised by many non-believers, hypocrites and some other people, is that, while men are allowed to have Houris in Paradise, why this facility is not given to women? They should know that paradise is a place for rewards. It is not a place to strain people with something which is against their nature. The things that a woman desires most from her husband is that he loves her, cherishes her, honors her and respects her. Women who enter paradise, will be restored their youth and they will be made far more beautiful than they were in this world.
We cannot look at things from our limited knowledge and understanding. You cannot question that why tiger does not eat grass or leafs? Why a goat does not eat meat? These are their individual natures and you cannot question their nature. Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) has created His creatures as per their natures. And His rewards in heaven will also be as per their natures.
It is in Quran - لَهُم مَّا يَشَاءُونَ فِيهَا وَلَدَيْنَا مَزِيدٌ [ There they (men and women of Paradise) shall have all that they will desire.] (Qaaf - 35)
It is in Quran - إِنَّ الْمُتَّقِينَ فِي جَنَّاتٍ وَعُيُونٍ - ادْخُلُوهَا بِسَلَامٍ آمِنِينَ - وَنَزَعْنَا مَا فِي صُدُورِهِم مِّنْ غِلٍّ إِخْوَانًا عَلَىٰ سُرُرٍ مُّتَقَابِلِينَ [ Surely those who are virtuous shall be in the midst of gardens and fountains. (They will be told) Enter it in peace, safe (and secure). And We will remove whatever is in their breasts of resentment, (so they will be) brothers, on thrones facing each other. ] (Al-Hijr - 45-47).
The above verses clarify that everyone in paradise, man or woman, will have everything they desire. Nothing will be there that is not liked by them or against their natures. Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) knows about the natures of men and women and they will get everything they desire.
It is in Hadith - Narrated by Abu Huraira (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) - The Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said, Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) said, ‘I have prepared for My pious servants (men and women) things which have never been seen by an eye, nor heard by an ear or imagined by a human being. (Bukhari)Juz 1, Al-Baqara, Verse 026إِنَّ اللَّـهَ لَا يَسْتَحْيِي أَن يَضْرِبَ مَثَلًا مَّا بَعُوضَةً فَمَا فَوْقَهَا ۚ فَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا فَيَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّهُ الْحَقُّ مِن رَّبِّهِمْ ۖ وَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا فَيَقُولُونَ مَاذَا أَرَادَ اللَّـهُ بِهَـٰذَا مَثَلًا ۘ يُضِلُّ بِهِ كَثِيرًا وَيَهْدِي بِهِ كَثِيرًا ۚ وَمَا يُضِلُّ بِهِ إِلَّا الْفَاسِقِينَ [ Allah does not hesitate from giving the example of gnat (mosquito) or of anything microscopic (which looks insignificant to people). Those who believe, know that the parable given by their Lord is the right one. Those who disbelieve say, what Allah means by this (insignificant) parable. Thus many get astray and many get guidance (from these parables). The ones who go astray are those who are wrong doers.]
The parable is to show the significance of a thing. When we refer to the bravery of a person, we say that ‘he is a tiger’. Here we mean to refer to his bravery. The real purpose of parables is to convey the meaning and there is no significance of the thing that is used for parable.
In the above verse, Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) says that He will not hesitate to give the examples of small creatures to convey the meaning. And those who believe, know that the example given by their Lord is the right one. But those who do not believe, their whole focus is to object on everything that is being explained. Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) says that from Quran many get guidance and many get astray. Who are the one’s who go astray? Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) say that the wrong doers are the ones who go astray.
It is in Quran - أَفَمَن زُيِّنَ لَهُ سُوءُ عَمَلِهِ فَرَآهُ حَسَنًا ۖ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ يُضِلُّ مَن يَشَاءُ وَيَهْدِي مَن يَشَاءُ ۖ فَلَا تَذْهَبْ نَفْسُكَ عَلَيْهِمْ حَسَرَاتٍ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ بِمَا يَصْنَعُونَ [ The one to whom the evil of his deed has been made attractive, so he considers it good? Indeed, Allah sends astray whom He wills and guides whom He wills. So (O' Prophet ﷺ) do not worry and hurt yourself for them in sorrow. Indeed, Allah is aware of what they do.] (Faatir - 8).
Juz 1, Al-Baqara, Verse 027الَّذِينَ يَنقُضُونَ عَهْدَ اللَّـهِ مِن بَعْدِ مِيثَاقِهِ وَيَقْطَعُونَ مَا أَمَرَ اللَّـهُ بِهِ أَن يُوصَلَ وَيُفْسِدُونَ فِي الْأَرْضِ ۚ أُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الْخَاسِرُونَ [ These are the people who break the covenant after ratifying it and sever what Allah wants to be joined, and spread mischief on Earth; they are the ones who are losers.]
What is the covenant that these people break? It is described in the following verses.
It is in Quran - وَإِذْ أَخَذَ رَبُّكَ مِن بَنِي آدَمَ مِن ظُهُورِهِمْ ذُرِّيَّتَهُمْ وَأَشْهَدَهُمْ عَلَىٰ أَنفُسِهِمْ أَلَسْتُ بِرَبِّكُمْ ۖ قَالُوا بَلَىٰ ۛ شَهِدْنَا ۛ أَن تَقُولُوا يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ إِنَّا كُنَّا عَنْ هَـٰذَا غَافِلِينَ [ And when your Lord brought forth from the children of Adam, from their backs, their descendants, and made them bear witness against their own selves : Am I not your Lord? They said : Yes! we bear witness. Lest you should say on the day of resurrection : Surely we were heedless of this.] (Al-Araf - 172)
It is in Quran - وَإِذْ أَخَذَ اللَّهُ مِيثَاقَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ لَتُبَيِّنُنَّهُ لِلنَّاسِ وَلَا تَكْتُمُونَهُ فَنَبَذُوهُ وَرَاءَ ظُهُورِهِمْ وَاشْتَرَوْا بِهِ ثَمَنًا قَلِيلًا ۖ فَبِئْسَ مَا يَشْتَرُونَ [ And when Allah made a covenant with those who were given the Book : 'You shall certainly make it known to men and you shall not hide it'; but they cast it behind their backs and took a small price for it; so evil is that which they buy.] (Aal-e-Imran - 187)
What is that they sever, which Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) wants to be joined? It is described in the following verse.
It is in Quran - قُلْ يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ تَعَالَوْا إِلَىٰ كَلِمَةٍ سَوَاءٍ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَكُمْ أَلَّا نَعْبُدَ إِلَّا اللَّهَ وَلَا نُشْرِكَ بِهِ شَيْئًا وَلَا يَتَّخِذَ بَعْضُنَا بَعْضًا أَرْبَابًا مِّن دُونِ اللَّهِ ۚ فَإِن تَوَلَّوْا فَقُولُوا اشْهَدُوا بِأَنَّا مُسْلِمُونَ [Say : "O People of the Book! come to common terms as between us and you : That we worship none but Allah; that we associate no partners with him; that we erect not, from among ourselves, Lords and patrons other than Allah." If then they turn back, say, we bear witness that we are Muslims (bowing to Allah's Will)] (Aal-e-Imran - 64).
Thus, these are the people who spread mischief and tribulation on Earth. Indeed they are the losers in this world and in Hereafter.Juz 1, Al-Baqara, Verse 028كَيْفَ تَكْفُرُونَ بِاللَّـهِ وَكُنتُمْ أَمْوَاتًا فَأَحْيَاكُمْ ۖ ثُمَّ يُمِيتُكُمْ ثُمَّ يُحْيِيكُمْ ثُمَّ إِلَيْهِ تُرْجَعُونَ [ How can you deny (the existence of) Allah (when you know that) you were lifeless and He gave you life; then He will cause you to die and you will be brought back to life again and you will return to Him.]
Kufr (كفر) is, disbelieve in Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) or His attributes. It could be because of a doubt, suspicion, aversion, jealousy, arrogance, personal whims, etc. Denial of Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) is also Kufr.
Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) says, how can someone denies Allah’s (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) existence or His commandments when he knows that he was non-existent in the first place, then was lifeless in the shape of a fetus in his mother’s womb and them Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) gave him life and he came into this world. After a specific life span, he will die again and will be brought back in front of Him to answer for his deeds. These facts are obvious and are undeniable.Juz 1, Al-Baqara, Verse 029هُوَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ لَكُم مَّا فِي الْأَرْضِ جَمِيعًا ثُمَّ اسْتَوَىٰ إِلَى السَّمَاءِ فَسَوَّاهُنَّ سَبْعَ سَمَاوَاتٍ ۚ وَهُوَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ [ He is the one who created for you all that is on Earth and then turned to Skies and formed seven skies and He is aware of all the things.]
The above verse explains that, first the expanse of this Cosmos was created, and then individual creatures within them, were created in a perfect order.
It is in Quran - الَّذِي خَلَقَ سَبْعَ سَمَاوَاتٍ طِبَاقًا ۖ مَّا تَرَىٰ فِي خَلْقِ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ مِن تَفَاوُتٍ ۖ فَارْجِعِ الْبَصَرَ هَلْ تَرَىٰ مِن فُطُورٍ - ثُمَّ ارْجِعِ الْبَصَرَ كَرَّتَيْنِ يَنقَلِبْ إِلَيْكَ الْبَصَرُ خَاسِئًا وَهُوَ حَسِيرٌ - وَلَقَدْ زَيَّنَّا السَّمَاءَ الدُّنْيَا بِمَصَابِيحَ [Who created seven heavens in layers. You do not see in the creation of the Most Merciful any inconsistency. So look up again; do you see any disparity? Look up again. You will be humbled and your vision will be fatigued. And We have certainly beautified the nearest heaven with stars. ] (Al-Mulk 3-5)
It is in Quran - وَالسَّمَاءَ بَنَيْنَاهَا بِأَيْدٍ وَإِنَّا لَمُوسِعُونَ - وَالْأَرْضَ فَرَشْنَاهَا فَنِعْمَ الْمَاهِدُونَ [ And the heaven We constructed with strength, and indeed, We (keep) expanding it. And the earth We have spread out, and excellent is the Maker (of this Cosmos).] (Adh-Dhariyaat - 47-8)
There is a flawless harmony among the galaxies, stars and planets; a perfect balance in the Cosmos. From the smallest planets and stars to the greatest galaxies, they all rotate around each other in a balanced position and continue their journey in space.Juz 1, Al-Baqara, Verse 030وَإِذْ قَالَ رَبُّكَ لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ إِنِّي جَاعِلٌ فِي الْأَرْضِ خَلِيفَةً ۖ قَالُوا أَتَجْعَلُ فِيهَا مَن يُفْسِدُ فِيهَا وَيَسْفِكُ الدِّمَاءَ وَنَحْنُ نُسَبِّحُ بِحَمْدِكَ وَنُقَدِّسُ لَكَ ۖ قَالَ إِنِّي أَعْلَمُ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ [ And when Allah addressed the angels (saying) I am going to make a Vicegerent on Earth; (The Angels) submitted will you make (a vicegerent) who will create disorder and cause bloodshed while we hymn your praise and sanctify You. He said, I know that which you do not know. ]
All creation in the Cosmos are covered under Allah's (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) wisdom. And every single creation is appropriate in its place under their environment. When Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) informed the angels that He is going to create a vicegerent on Earth, what angels understood was the following.
It is in Quran - وَهُوَ الَّذِي جَعَلَكُمْ خَلَائِفَ الْأَرْضِ وَرَفَعَ بَعْضَكُمْ فَوْقَ بَعْضٍ دَرَجَاتٍ لِّيَبْلُوَكُمْ فِي مَا آتَاكُمْ ۗ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ سَرِيعُ الْعِقَابِ وَإِنَّهُ لَغَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ [ And He is Who has made you successors upon the Earth and has raised some of you above others in ranks that He will see you through what He has given you. Indeed, your Lord is swift in penalty; and He is (also) Forgiving and Merciful.] (Al-An'aam - 165)
What angels understood was, a new creature was being created on Earth. Since they had the experience of various creatures before human beings, they said, we pray and sanctify you, whereas this creature, as has been the case with others, will cause disorder and bloodshed on Earth. Then Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) said, I know that which you do not know. What Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) was referring to, from His statement? As per our understanding, He was telling them that His real Khalifa, Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) was to come from among human beings.
It is in Hadith - Umar bin al-Khattab (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) narrated that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said, when Prophet Adam (عليه السلام) said, O' my Lord, I ask you for the sake of Mohammad (بحق محمد صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) to forgive me. He (Allah - عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) said, How did you know Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)? He said, because when you created me with Your hands and blew into me from Your spirit, I raised my head and I saw on the Arsh it was written لا إله إلا الله ، محمد رسول الله [ There is no god, but Allah, and Mohammad is the Apostle of Allah]. So I knew You would not put next to your name except the one who is the most beloved to You. 'He said, you have said the truth, O'Adam (عليه السلام) and if it were not for Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), I would not have created you.] (Al-Mustadrak al-Hakim, who said it is Sahih)
It is in Hadith - The Prophet said, Allah gives and I distribute. (Bukhari, Muslim).
It is in Hadith - Abu Hurairah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) narrated, 'they asked, O'Allah's Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), when was prophet-hood established for you? He said, while Adam (عليه السلام) was between the soul and body' (Tirmidhi).Juz 1, Al-Baqara, Verse 031وَعَلَّمَ آدَمَ الْأَسْمَاءَ كُلَّهَا ثُمَّ عَرَضَهُمْ عَلَى الْمَلَائِكَةِ فَقَالَ أَنبِئُونِي بِأَسْمَاءِ هَـٰؤُلَاءِ إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ [And He taught Adam (علیھ السلا م) the names of all the things and placed them before the Angels and asked them "tell Me the names of these things if you are truthful in your claim. ]
To emphasize the eminence of Adam (عليه السلام), Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) taught him the names of all the things among his creation. Then these things were placed in front of the angels and they were asked to identify all these things by their names.
Juz 1, Al-Baqara, Verse 032قَالُوا سُبْحَانَكَ لَا عِلْمَ لَنَا إِلَّا مَا عَلَّمْتَنَا ۖ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْعَلِيمُ الْحَكِيمُ [ The Angels submitted, You are glorified; we know only what You have taught us. Indeed, You are Knowledgeable and Wise.]
Juz 1, Al-Baqara, Verse 033قَالَ يَا آدَمُ أَنبِئْهُم بِأَسْمَائِهِمْ ۖ فَلَمَّا أَنبَأَهُم بِأَسْمَائِهِمْ قَالَ أَلَمْ أَقُل لَّكُمْ إِنِّي أَعْلَمُ غَيْبَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَأَعْلَمُ مَا تُبْدُونَ وَمَا كُنتُمْ تَكْتُمُونَ [ Allah said O'Adam (علیھ السلا م)! tell them their names. And when Adam (علیھ السلا م) told them their names, Allah said, did I not tell you that I know what is hidden in Heavens and Earth and what you show and conceal. ]Juz 1, Al-Baqara, Verse 034وَإِذْ قُلْنَا لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ اسْجُدُوا لِآدَمَ فَسَجَدُوا إِلَّا إِبْلِيسَ أَبَىٰ وَاسْتَكْبَرَ وَكَانَ مِنَ الْكَافِرِينَ [ And (remember Our beneficence) when We asked the Angels to 'prostrate before Adam (علیھ السلا م) (Sajda-e-Tahiyya), they all prostrated except Iblis (Satan) and he was a disobedient (disbeliever). ]
All present (angels) were asked to bow in front of Adam (عليه السلام) as a mark of respect. All did, except Iblis. He showed arrogance and did not join the angels in prostration and became open Kafir. What he argued was a sheer stupidity. He became the first one to give importance to the reasoning of mind with limited knowledge, over the divine command. But this reasoning of his mind was also not appropriate on that occasion. When he saw that the angels, who are a better creation than him (he was from Jinns) were prostrating to Adam (عليه السلام), he should have realized that there is something important about Adam (عليه السلام) which is hidden from his mind. He also had seen that Adam's (عليه السلام) knowledge surpassed the knowledge of all other creatures, including the angels. In such a scenario, to reject divine command was a sheer stupidity and arrogance for which he was punished by Allah's (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ). It is important to note that Allah's (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) beneficence had gone to his head as he was given assignment to teach angels. He started thinking that he was better than even angels. And in that arrogance he considered even Hadhrat Jibreel (عليه السلام) as his rival. Surely, Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) was aware of what Iblis was up to.Juz 1, Al-Baqara, Verse 035وَقُلْنَا يَا آدَمُ اسْكُنْ أَنتَ وَزَوْجُكَ الْجَنَّةَ وَكُلَا مِنْهَا رَغَدًا حَيْثُ شِئْتُمَا وَلَا تَقْرَبَا هَـٰذِهِ الشَّجَرَةَ فَتَكُونَا مِنَ الظَّالِمِينَ [ And We said O'Adam (علیھ السلا م), dwell in Paradise, you and your wife and eat freely in the Garden but do not go near this tree as you will become (from) the ones who hurt themselves. ]
After the episode of prostration of obeisance by angels, Hadhrat Adam (عليه السلام) lived in Paradise. Since he was the first from human species, he felt lonely sometimes.
It is in Quran - يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اتَّقُوا رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُم مِّن نَّفْسٍ وَاحِدَةٍ وَخَلَقَ مِنْهَا زَوْجَهَا [O mankind, be dutiful to your Lord, who created you from one Nafs and created from it its mate.]
It is clear from the above verse that our mother Hawwa (عليها السلام) was created from Adam (عليه السلام).
It is in Hadith - Abu Huraira (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) narrated that Allah's Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said, 'treat women nicely, for a woman is created from a rib, and the most curved portion of the rib is its upper portion, so, if you should try to straighten it, it will break, but if you leave it, as it is, it will remain crooked. So treat women nicely' (Bukhari)
As per divine command, Hadhrat Adam (عليه السلام) and Hawwa (عليها السلام) started living in the Paradise in tranquility except that they were forbidden from going near a specific tree. They were told that if they go near that tree, they will harm themselves.
Juz 1, Al-Baqara, Verse 036فَأَزَلَّهُمَا الشَّيْطَانُ عَنْهَا فَأَخْرَجَهُمَا مِمَّا كَانَا فِيهِ ۖ وَقُلْنَا اهْبِطُوا بَعْضُكُمْ لِبَعْضٍ عَدُوٌّ ۖ وَلَكُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ مُسْتَقَرٌّ وَمَتَاعٌ إِلَىٰ حِينٍ [ Then Satan tempted them and caused them to err and became the cause of their ouster from Paradise. And We said get down you all to be the enemies of one another. For you, Earth will be the dwelling place where you will find the provisions for living for a specific time. ]
Satan is from Jinn. The Jinn are a creation of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) made from fire. Jinn are different from both, Angels and humans. But, like humans, they are given the power of reason to choose between good and evil. The Jinn existed before the creation of Adam (عليه السلام).
Satan was the most famous scholar and teacher among Jinns who were dwelling in specific places/planets assigned to them by Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ). His popularity grew among jinns slowly to an extent that even angels started listening to his sermons. The popularity and respect among Jinns and angels went to his head and he started considering the knowledge given by Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) as his own. This was the reason for his downfall.
When Iblis refused to prostrate to Adam (عليه السلام), all his privileges were withdrawn. He was expelled and not allowed to teach angels. He started living in places where Jinns lived. However, freedom of movement for him was not withdrawn because he became a test for people between good and evil.
It is in Quran - قَالَ مَا مَنَعَكَ أَلَّا تَسْجُدَ إِذْ أَمَرْتُكَ ۖ قَالَ أَنَا خَيْرٌ مِّنْهُ خَلَقْتَنِي مِن نَّارٍ وَخَلَقْتَهُ مِن طِينٍ - قَالَ فَاهْبِطْ مِنْهَا فَمَا يَكُونُ لَكَ أَن تَتَكَبَّرَ فِيهَا فَاخْرُجْ إِنَّكَ مِنَ الصَّاغِرِينَ - قَالَ أَنظِرْنِي إِلَىٰ يَوْمِ يُبْعَثُونَ - قَالَ إِنَّكَ مِنَ الْمُنظَرِينَ - قَالَ فَبِمَا أَغْوَيْتَنِي لَأَقْعُدَنَّ لَهُمْ صِرَاطَكَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ - ثُمَّ لَآتِيَنَّهُم مِّن بَيْنِ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمِنْ خَلْفِهِمْ وَعَنْ أَيْمَانِهِمْ وَعَن شَمَائِلِهِمْ ۖ وَلَا تَجِدُ أَكْثَرَهُمْ شَاكِرِينَ - قَالَ اخْرُجْ مِنْهَا مَذْءُومًا مَّدْحُورًا ۖ لَّمَن تَبِعَكَ مِنْهُمْ لَأَمْلَأَنَّ جَهَنَّمَ مِنكُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ - [Allah said (to Iblis) what prevented you from prostrating when I commanded you (to do so)? (Iblis) said, 'I am better than him (Adam عليه السلام). You created me from fire and created him from clay.' Allah said, 'descend from Paradise, there is no place for arrogant to live therein. So get out; indeed, you are of the debased. Iblis said, 'reprieve me until the Day they are resurrected.' Allah said, "indeed, you are of those reprieved.' Satan said, "because You have put me in error, I will surely sit in and wait for them on Your straight path. Then I will come to them from before them and from behind them and on their right and on their left, and You will not find most of them grateful (to You)." Allah said, "Get out of Paradise, reproached and expelled. Whoever follows you among them (humans) I will surely fill Hell with all of you together."] (Al-Araaf - 12-18)
Since Iblis was a great scholar earlier, he knew the art of explaining things. After he was expelled, he started using his skills in drawing people away from Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) by his deceptive talk. He also had the freedom and ability to insinuate the minds and hearts of people. He used these powers to deceive the innocent, unsuspecting and virtuous Nufoos of Adam (عليه السلام) and Hawwa (عليها السلام). He did it meticulously, consistently. And over a long period of time he managed to convince them. What Hadhrat Adam (عليه السلام) and mother Hawwa (عليها السلام) wanted was to be close to Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) every moment of their lives, never ever to go away from Him. Iblis exploited this love of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ). He swore to them that there is only one way to remain in the company of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ), ie., to go near that tree and taste its fruit.
It is in Quran - فَوَسْوَسَ لَهُمَا الشَّيْطَانُ لِيُبْدِيَ لَهُمَا مَا وُورِيَ عَنْهُمَا مِن سَوْآتِهِمَا وَقَالَ مَا نَهَاكُمَا رَبُّكُمَا عَنْ هَـٰذِهِ الشَّجَرَةِ إِلَّا أَن تَكُونَا مَلَكَيْنِ أَوْ تَكُونَا مِنَ الْخَالِدِينَ (Satan whispered to them to make apparent to them that which was concealed from them of their private parts. He said, 'your Lord did not forbid you this tree except that you become angels or become immortal.'] (Al-Araaf - 20).
Since the love Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) was more than their own selves, and they wanted to remain close to Him, Hadhrat Adam (عليه السلام) and mother Hawwa (عليها السلام) fell for Satan's deceitful logic and were swayed, momentarily.
It is in Quran - فَدَلَّاهُمَا بِغُرُورٍ ۚ فَلَمَّا ذَاقَا الشَّجَرَةَ بَدَتْ لَهُمَا سَوْآتُهُمَا وَطَفِقَا يَخْصِفَانِ عَلَيْهِمَا مِن وَرَقِ الْجَنَّةِ ۖ وَنَادَاهُمَا رَبُّهُمَا أَلَمْ أَنْهَكُمَا عَن تِلْكُمَا الشَّجَرَةِ وَأَقُل لَّكُمَا إِنَّ الشَّيْطَانَ لَكُمَا عَدُوٌّ مُّبِينٌ [ So Satan made them fall, by deception. And when they tasted (the fruit) of the tree, their private parts became apparent to them, and they began to fasten together over themselves from the leaves of Paradise. And their Lord called them, "Did I not forbid you from that tree and tell you that Satan a clear enemy to you? ] (Al-Araaf - 22)
After they tasted that fruit, the destiny took over their lives, and they were sent down to Earth for the remainder of their lives.
When we look at the entire episode, we know that it was the love of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) in the heart of Hadhrat Adam (عليه السلام) and mother Hawwa (عليها السلام) which remained paramount all through their lives.
Since, Satan had the freedom of movement, he followed Hadhrat Adam (عليه السلام) to Earth, made it his residence as well, to deceive the children of Adam till the end times.Juz 1, Al-Baqara, Verse 037فَتَلَقَّىٰ آدَمُ مِن رَّبِّهِ كَلِمَاتٍ فَتَابَ عَلَيْهِ ۚ إِنَّهُ هُوَ التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيمُ [ Then Adam (علیھ السلا م) found out the wordings of the Dua from His Lord. And Allah turned back on him with Mercy. Indeed He is the one who forgives and is Most Merciful. ]
After their descent to Earth, Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) taught Hadhrat Adam (عليه السلام) and our mother Hawwa (عليها السلام) Dua and forgave them.
It is in Quran - قَالَا رَبَّنَا ظَلَمْنَا أَنفُسَنَا وَإِن لَّمْ تَغْفِرْ لَنَا وَتَرْحَمْنَا لَنَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِينَ [ They supplicated, 'Our Lord, we have wronged ourselves, and if You do not forgive us and have mercy upon us, we will surely be among the losers.] (Al-Araaf - 23)
It is in Hadith - Umar bin al-Khattab (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) narrated that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said, when Prophet Adam (عليه السلام) said, O' my Lord, I ask you for the sake of Mohammad (بحق محمد صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) to forgive me. He (Allah - عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) said, How did you know Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)? He said, because when you created me with Your hands and blew into me from Your spirit, I raised my head and I saw on the Arsh it was written لا إله إلا الله ، محمد رسول الله [There is no god, but Allah, and Mohammad is the Apostle of Allah]. So I knew You would not put next to your name except the one who is the most beloved to You. 'He said, you have said the truth, O'Adam (عليه السلام) and if it were not for Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), I would not have created you.] (Al-Mustadrak al-Hakim, who said it is Sahih).
Juz 1, Al-Baqara, Verse 038قُلْنَا اهْبِطُوا مِنْهَا جَمِيعًا ۖ فَإِمَّا يَأْتِيَنَّكُم مِّنِّي هُدًى فَمَن تَبِعَ هُدَايَ فَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ [ We said, get down all of you from this Paradise and whenever Guidance comes from Me and whoever follows, there shall be no fear for them and they shall not grieve. ]
Juz 1, Al-Baqara, Verse 039وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَكَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِنَا أُولَـٰئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ ۖ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ - [ Those who disbelieve and reject our signs, they are the people of Hell and they will dwell therein. ]