LET US CORRECT OUR ISLAMIC FAITH

دعونا نصحّح العقيدة الاسلامية

 

 

 

 

تفسيرِ اَسدي 

TAFSEER-E-ASEDI  

 

 BY

 

SHAIKH MIR ASEDULLAH QUADRI

 
 
 JUZ 15.1  SUBHANALLAZI (سُبْحَانَ الَّذِي)
 

 

سورة الإسراء

THE NIGHT JOURNEY
 

Al-Isra | Sura # 17| 111 verses | Makkan

 

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ 

In the name of Allah, the Compassionate and the Merciful

 

Juz 15,  Al-Isra, Verse 001

سُبْحَانَ الَّذِي أَسْرَى بِعَبْدِهِ لَيْلًا مِنَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ إِلَى الْمَسْجِدِ الْأَقْصَى الَّذِي بَارَكْنَا حَوْلَهُ لِنُرِيَهُ مِنْ آَيَاتِنَا إِنَّه هُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْبَصِيرُ   [ The Unity (ذات الہی) is pure who took His Servant during the night time from the honored mosque (the mosque of Makka al-Mukarrama which houses Ka'aba) to the far away mosque (Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem) around which We have abundant virtue (around all four sides of Al-Aqsa mosque, there is abundance of virtue) so that We show him our signs and traces of Omnipotence.  Indeed He is the (only) one who sees and listens.]

 Is Ascension possible?  Without doubt, it is possible.  The way Angel Gabriel's (عليه السلام) descent to the World of Manifestation (our world) is a fact, and for him it is possible to come to the World of Manifestation (عالم شہادت) by taking a form; Prophet Mohammad's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) ascent from this world, leaving behind the human necessities (worldly form) to the audience of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) is also a fact.  As it is possible for the  Angel to take a form and shape from his state of formlessness, so also it is not difficult for the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) to become formless from his (worldly) state of body and form.  Thus, this fact is undeniable.
 
When did the Ascension take place?
 
It occurred in the fifth year after the Apostleship. 
 
Where did the Ascension take place? 
 
The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) was in the house of Umme Haani (رضي الله تعالى عنها), the sister of Hadhrat Ali (رضي الله تعالى عنه), at Makkah al-Mukarrama, from where he came to to rest in Masjid-e-Haram. From the Quranic words  أَسْرَىٰ بِعَبْدِهِ  it is becoming clear that Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) took the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) along with Him during the night time. 
 
Why did the Ascension (معراج) took place in the night? 
  
Why it is  أَسْرَىٰ بِعَبْدِهِ, and not أَسْرَىٰ بِمٌحَمّدٍ ?  Whatever elevation a human being acquires (from Allah عَزَّ وَجَلَّ), it is because of his 'servant-hood'.  The exaltation of an individual is directly in proportion to the state of his servent-hood.  By stating the word أَسْرَىٰ بِعَبْدِهِ the cause and reason for Ascension has been described.  And it is also to emphasize that Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) is the Absolute virtuous Servant of Allah.  Asra ( أَسْرَىٰ ) means to remain awaken in the night, then why is لَيْلًا in the Quranic verse?  This is to show that there are exclusive divine favors for those who remain awaken for prayers in the night.
 
Was the auspicious Ascension with Corporeal body (جسمانی) or spiritual (روحانی)? 
 
It is clear from the word بِعَبْدِهِ,  the Ascension was with the body,  because wherever the Arabic word عبد comes, the purport is the sum of life and body, and not life and soul.  The Accession was both corporeal and spiritual.  As long as the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) was in the World of Corporeal Forms (عالم اجساد), it was Corporeal Ascension. When he turned his attention towards the upper (celestial) worlds, his purified corporeal body transformed itself to become suitable for those worlds and (from there) it became spiritual Ascension.  When Angel Gabriel (عليه السلام) (who is formless and free from facial consideration) can come to this world with a corporeal face; then it is not a difficult for  Prophet Mohammad's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) to give up his corporeal face and become formless.  Spiritual Ascension of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) used to take place frequently; rather this type of Ascension is normal even to the followers of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) who are very obedient.  Those Awliya Allah on whom the World of Similitude is uncovered, they could see things that cannot be  described in words.  The exclusive Awliya Allah are fortunate to have spiritual Ascension as a Sadaqa of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).
 
It is being proved by  مِّنَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ  that Masjid al-Haram is more sacred than Masjid al-Aqsa. One gets more recompense for performing Salah in the Al-Haram mosque than performing the same in Al-Aqsa mosque.
It is in Quran -  إِنَّ أَوَّلَ بَيْتٍ وُضِعَ لِلنَّاسِ لَلَّذِي بِبَكَّةَ مُبَارَكًا وَهُدًى لِّلْعَالَمِينَ [ Indeed, the first House (for Allah's Ibadah)  established for mankind was that at Makkah - blessed and a guidance for the worlds.] (Aal-e-Imran - 96) 
From the above verse it is declared that the first place for prayers is the sacred Kabatullah and its mosque.  People consider that the sanctified Kabatullah was built by Prophet Abraham (عليه السلام).  Moreover, from the words, أَوَّلَ بَيْتٍ,  it is declared that the first prayer house on this planet is Kaaba only,  where Prophet Adam (عليه السلام) and mother Eve (عليها السلام) have met on the ground of Arafat, and where our mother Eve's (عليها السلام) sacred grave is also located.  The most important thing is that the sacred body of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) is also made up from the purified soil of Kaaba.
 
Why did the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) first reached the Al-Aqsa mosque during Accession? 
 
All prophets were gathered there.  It was necessary to meet with them at the beginning of this important journey.   It was also needed to be blessed with the abundant virtues of the Al-Aqsa mosque. 

The following Quranic verses and Hadith confirm that Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) saw  Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) during the night of ascension.

It is in Quran - وَٱلنَّجۡمِ إِذَا هَوَىٰ -  مَا ضَلَّ صَاحِبُكُمۡ وَمَا غَوَىٰ -  وَمَا يَنطِقُ عَنِ ٱلۡهَوَىٰٓ -  إِنۡ هُوَ إِلَّا وَحۡىٌ۬ يُوحَىٰ  عَلَّمَهُ ۥ شَدِيدُ ٱلۡقُوَىٰ  -  ذُو مِرَّةٍ۬ فَٱسۡتَوَىٰ . وَهُوَ بِٱلۡأُفُقِ ٱلۡأَعۡلَىٰ  -  ثُمَّ دَنَا فَتَدَلَّىٰ  -  فَكَانَ قَابَ قَوۡسَيۡنِ أَوۡ أَدۡنَىٰ  -  فَأَوۡحَىٰٓ إِلَىٰ عَبۡدِهِۦ مَآ أَوۡحَىٰ   -   مَا كَذَبَ ٱلۡفُؤَادُ مَا رَأَىٰٓ  -  أَفَتُمَـٰرُونَهُ ۥ عَلَىٰ مَا يَرَىٰ   -   وَلَقَدۡ رَءَاهُ نَزۡلَةً أُخۡرَىٰ  -   عِندَ سِدۡرَةِ ٱلۡمُنتَهَىٰ   -  عِندَهَا جَنَّةُ ٱلۡمَأۡوَىٰٓ   -  إِذۡ يَغۡشَى ٱلسِّدۡرَةَ مَا يَغۡشَىٰ  -  مَا زَاغَ ٱلۡبَصَرُ وَمَا طَغَىٰ  -  لَقَدۡ رَأَىٰ مِنۡ ءَايَـٰتِ رَبِّهِ ٱلۡكُبۡرَىٰٓ  [The Mighty in power (Allah –عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) has offered him (Prophet Mohammad – صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) the knowledge.  So (equipped), he stood well poised. (With the perfect vision attained) at the highest horizon. Then he (the Prophet – صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) approached closer and hung (by Allah - عَزَّ وَجَلَّ). Then (both) closed up like two bows, and indeed more closely. And He revealed to His servant (Prophet Mohammad – صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) what He wanted to reveal. The heart of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)  did not distrust what he saw. Will you people wrangle over what he beheld (saw). For indeed he beheld Him (Allah -  عَزَّ وَجَلَّ ) yet again. Near the 'Lote' tree lying farthest beyond which no one can go. Lying close to the Heaven of Rest. When the 'Lote' tree was being enveloped by what it was to be enveloped with (a mystery not disclosed). His (Prophet Mohammad's -  صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) sight did not blink or did it miss anything. Indeed he saw clearly the greatest of the signs of his Lord’]. (An-Najm – 1-18).
The verse  مَا كَذَبَ ٱلۡفُؤَادُ مَا رَأَىٰٓ [ Will you people wrangle over what he beheld (saw)] indicates there were some differences of opinion among Sahabah as to what was witnessed by Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) on the night of ascension?  Some thought it was  Jibreel (عليه السلام).  However, the statement of  Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) -  فَأَوۡحَىٰٓ إِلَىٰ عَبۡدِهِۦ مَآ أَوۡحَىٰ  [ He revealed to His Servant]  clearly shows that the conversation is between Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) and Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم); meaning Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) appeared to Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) in order to grant him revelation. The text does not say that Jibril (عليه السلام) appeared to Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).  If we take Jibril (عليه السلام), in place of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) in the above verse, it will mean that Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) is the Servant of Jibril (عليه السلام) (nauzubillahi), which is not correct.
It is in Hadith - Ibn Abbas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) reported that Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) saw Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی) on the 'Night of Ascension  ( Sahih Muslim)

 

Juz 15,  Al-Isra, Verse 002

وَآَتَيْنَا مُوسَى الْكِتَابَ وَجَعَلْنَاهُ هُدًى لِبَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ أَلَّا تَتَّخِذُوا مِنْ دُونِي وَكِيلًا   [ We gave Musa (عليه السلام) the Book, and made it a guide for the Children of Israel (saying) 'do not take any guardian besides Me'.]

 

Juz 15,  Al-Isra, Verse 003

ذُرِّيَّةَ مَنْ حَمَلْنَا مَعَ نُوحٍ إِنَّهُ كَانَ عَبْدًا شَكُورًا [ Descendants of those whom We carried (in the ark) with Nooh  (عليه السلام). Indeed he was a grateful servant.]

 

Juz 15,  Al-Isra, Verse 004

وَقَضَيْنَا إِلَى بَنِي إسْرائِيلَ فِي الْكِتَابِ لَتُفْسِدُنَّ فِي الْأَرْضِ مَرَّتَيْنِ وَلَتَعْلُنَّ عُلُوًّا كَبِيرًا [ We revealed to the Children of Israel in the Book : ‘Twice you will cause corruption on the earth, and you will perpetrate great tyranny (and twice you would be punished severely). ]

 

Juz 15,  Al-Isra, Verse 005

فَإِذَا جَاءَ وَعْدُ أُولَاهُمَا بَعَثْنَا عَلَيْكُمْ عِبَادًا لَنَا أُولِي بَأْسٍ شَدِيدٍ فَجَاسُوا خِلَالَ الدِّيَارِ وَكَانَ وَعْدًا مَفْعُولًا [ So when the first occasion of the two (prophecies) came, We aroused against you Our servants possessing great might, and they ransacked (your) habitations, and the promise was bound to be fulfilled.]

 

Juz 15,  Al-Isra, Verse 006

ثُمَّ رَدَدْنَا لَكُمُ الْكَرَّةَ عَلَيْهِمْ وَأَمْدَدْنَاكُمْ بِأَمْوَالٍ وَبَنِينَ وَجَعَلْنَاكُمْ أَكْثَرَ نَفِيرًا [ Then We gave back to you a return victory over them. And We reinforced you with wealth and sons and made you more numerous in manpower.]

 

Juz 15,  Al-Isra, Verse 007

إِنْ أَحْسَنْتُمْ أَحْسَنْتُمْ لِأَنْفُسِكُمْ وَإِنْ أَسَأْتُمْ فَلَهَا فَإِذَا جَاءَ وَعْدُ الْآَخِرَةِ لِيَسُئُواْ وُجُوهَكُمْ وَلِيَدْخُلُواْ الْمَسْجِدَ كَمَا دَخَلُوهُ أَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ وَلِيُتَبِّرُوا مَا عَلَوْا تَتْبِيرًا [ (We warned them) 'If you do good, you will do good to your yourselves, and if you do evil, it will be (evil) for them.' So when the occasion for the other (prophecy) comes, they will make your faces  wretched, and enter the Temple just as they entered it the first time, and utterly destroy whatever they come upon. ]

 

Juz 15,  Al-Isra, Verse 008

عَسَى رَبُّكُمْ أَنْ يَرْحَمَكُمْ وَإِنْ عُدْتُمْ عُدْنَا وَجَعَلْنَا جَهَنَّمَ لِلْكَافِرِينَ حَصِيرًا [ It may be that your Lord may (yet) show Mercy upon you; but if you revert (to your sins), We shall revert (to Our punishments) : And we have made Hell a prison for those who reject (Faith). ]

 

Juz 15,  Al-Isra, Verse 009

إِنَّ هَذَا الْقُرْآَنَ يَهْدِي لِلَّتِي هِيَ أَقْوَمُ وَيُبَشِّرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ الَّذِينَ يَعْمَلُونَ الصَّالِحَاتِ أَنَّ لَهُمْ أَجْرًا كَبِيرًا [ Indeed this Quran guides to what is most upright, and gives the good tidings to the believers who do righteous deeds that there is a great reward for them. ]

 

Juz 15,  Al-Isra, Verse 010

وَأَنَّ الَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْآَخِرَةِ أَعْتَدْنَا لَهُمْ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا [ And (the Quran warns) those who do not believe in the Hereafter (that) We have prepared for them a painful punishment. ]

 

Juz 15,  Al-Isra, Verse 011

وَيَدْعُ الْإِنْسَانُ بِالشَّرِّ دُعَاءَهُ بِالْخَيْرِ وَكَانَ الْإِنْسَانُ عَجُولًا [ Man prays for evil as he prays for good, for man is hasty. ]
 

Juz 15,  Al-Isra, Verse 012

وَجَعَلْنَا اللَّيْلَ وَالنَّهَارَ آَيَتَيْنِ فَمَحَوْنَا آَيَةَ اللَّيْلِ وَجَعَلْنَا آَيَةَ النَّهَارِ مُبْصِرَةً لِتَبْتَغُوا فَضْلًا مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ وَلِتَعْلَمُوا عَدَدَ السِّنِينَ وَالْحِسَابَ وَكُلَّ شَيْءٍ فَصَّلْنَاهُ تَفْصِيلًا [ We have created night and day as two signs, then We efface the sign of the night, and make the sign of the day resplendent that you may seek the bounty of your Lord, and know the calculations of years and numbers. We have explained all the things in detail. ]

 

Juz 15,  Al-Isra, Verse 013

وَكُلَّ إِنْسَانٍ أَلْزَمْنَاهُ طَائِرَهُ فِي عُنُقِهِ وَنُخْرِجُ لَهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ كِتَابًا يَلْقَاهُ مَنْشُورًا [ Round each man's neck We have hung his account of deeds, and We shall bring out for him a scroll, which he will see spread open. ]

 

Juz 15,  Al-Isra, Verse 014

اقْرَأْ كِتَابَكَ كَفَى بِنَفْسِكَ الْيَوْمَ عَلَيْكَ حَسِيبًا [ (We will say) 'Read your book!  Today you suffice as your own reckoner.' ]

 

Juz 15,  Al-Isra, Verse 015

مَنِ اهْتَدَى فَإِنَّمَا يَهْتَدِي لِنَفْسِهِ وَمَنْ ضَلَّ فَإِنَّمَا يَضِلُّ عَلَيْهَا وَلَا تَزِرُ وَازِرَةٌ وِزْرَ أُخْرَى وَمَا كُنَّا مُعَذِّبِينَ حَتَّى نَبْعَثَ رَسُولًا [ Whoever chooses to be guided, it is only for their own good. And whoever chooses to stray, it is only to their own loss. No bearer shall bear other's burden. We do not punish (any community) until We have sent (them) an Apostle. ]

 

Juz 15,  Al-Isra, Verse 016

وَإِذَا أَرَدْنَا أَنْ نُهْلِكَ قَرْيَةً أَمَرْنَا مُتْرَفِيهَا فَفَسَقُوا فِيهَا فَحَقَّ عَلَيْهَا الْقَوْلُ فَدَمَّرْنَاهَا تَدْمِيرًا [ And (before) We destroy a town,  We command (warn) its people living the life of ease (to obey Allah); But when they commit transgression, Our command becomes due against them, and We destroy the town utterly. ]

 

Juz 15,  Al-Isra, Verse 017

وَكَمْ أَهْلَكْنَا مِنَ الْقُرُونِ مِنْ بَعْدِ نُوحٍ وَكَفَى بِرَبِّكَ بِذُنُوبِ عِبَادِهِ خَبِيرًا بَصِيرًا [ We have destroyed many generations after Nooh (عليه السلام). Your Lord is All knowing and Well Aware of the sins of His servants. ]

 

Juz 15,  Al-Isra, Verse 018

مَنْ كَانَ يُرِيدُ الْعَاجِلَةَ عَجَّلْنَا لَهُ فِيهَا مَا نَشَاءُ لِمَنْ نُرِيدُ ثُمَّ جَعَلْنَا لَهُ جَهَنَّمَ يَصْلَاهَا مَذْمُومًا مَدْحُورًا [ Whoever desires the enjoyment of this life will receive it, if We want it to be so. Then We will make Hell his reward wherein he will suffer, despised and driven away from Our mercy. ]

 

Juz 15,  Al-Isra, Verse 019

وَمَنْ أَرَادَ الْآَخِرَةَ وَسَعَى لَهَا سَعْيَهَا وَهُوَ مُؤْمِنٌ فَأُولَئِكَ كَانَ سَعْيُهُمْ مَشْكُورًا [ But he who desires the Hereafter, and strives for it with a will, and is a believer, will be favored for his endeavor. ]

 

Juz 15,  Al-Isra, Verse 020

كُلًّا نُمِدُّ هَؤُلَاءِ وَهَؤُلَاءِ مِنْ عَطَاءِ رَبِّكَ وَمَا كَانَ عَطَاءُ رَبِّكَ مَحْظُورًا [ We provide both (the groups) the former and the latter,  from the generosity of your Lord.  And the generosity of your Lord can never be withheld. ]
 
The above verse clarifies that whatever you wish, will be given to you in this world.  Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) knows His servants who will be virtuous and who will act evil.  If you want to act evil, and rebel against the commandments of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ), your wish will be awarded accordingly.  If you want to act good, your wish  will be awarded accordingly. However, the consequences for both these acts are different.  One will be rewarded with Paradise, the other will be rewarded with Hell. These consequences have been clearly described to people  clearly by the Apostles of Allah in the world.
 

Juz 15,  Al-Isra, Verse 021

انْظُرْ كَيْفَ فَضَّلْنَا بَعْضَهُمْ عَلَى بَعْضٍ وَلَلْآَخِرَةُ أَكْبَرُ دَرَجَاتٍ وَأَكْبَرُ تَفْضِيلًا [ Look, how We have given some of them an advantage over some others; yet the Hereafter is greater in respect of ranks and greater in respect of merit. ]

 

Juz 15,  Al-Isra, Verse 022

لَا تَجْعَلْ مَعَ اللَّهِ إِلَهًا آَخَرَ فَتَقْعُدَ مَذْمُومًا مَخْذُولًا [ (O' People) Do not set up another god besides Allah, or you will sit blameworthy, forsaken. ]

 

Juz 15,  Al-Isra, Verse 023

وَقَضَى رَبُّكَ أَلَّا تَعْبُدُوا إِلَّا إِيَّاهُ وَبِالْوَالِدَيْنِ إِحْسَانًا إِمَّا يَبْلُغَنَّ عِنْدَكَ الْكِبَرَ أَحَدُهُمَا أَوْ كِلَاهُمَا فَلَا تَقُلْ لَهُمَا أُفٍّ وَلَا تَنْهَرْهُمَا وَقُلْ لَهُمَا قَوْلًا كَرِيمًا [ Your Lord has decreed that you shall not worship anyone except Him, and (He has enjoined) kindness to parents. Should they reach old age at your side, one of them or both, do not say to them, ‘Fie (أُفٍّ)’ (Do not behave with them showing displeasure and irritation). And do not chide them, but speak to them noble words. ]

 

Juz 15,  Al-Isra, Verse 024

وَاخْفِضْ لَهُمَا جَنَاحَ الذُّلِّ مِنَ الرَّحْمَةِ وَقُلْ رَبِّ ارْحَمْهُمَا كَمَا رَبَّيَانِي صَغِيرًا [ And lower the wings of tenderness (be humble with them out of mercy), and pray, 'My Lord! Be merciful to them as they raised me when I was young.' ]

 

Juz 15,  Al-Isra, Verse 025

رَبُّكُمْ أَعْلَمُ بِمَا فِي نُفُوسِكُمْ إِنْ تَكُونُوا صَالِحِينَ فَإِنَّهُ كَانَ لِلْأَوَّابِينَ غَفُورًا [ Your Lord knows what is in your heart. If you are righteous, then He is indeed forgiving to those who turn (to Him) in repentance. ]

 

Juz 15,  Al-Isra, Verse 026

وَآَتِ ذَا الْقُرْبَى حَقَّهُ وَالْمِسْكِينَ وَابْنَ السَّبِيلِ وَلَا تُبَذِّرْ تَبْذِيرًا [ Give the relatives their (due) right, and the needy and the traveler (as well), and do not dissipate (your wealth) extravagantly. ]

 

Juz 15,  Al-Isra, Verse 027

إِنَّ الْمُبَذِّرِينَ كَانُوا إِخْوَانَ الشَّيَاطِينِ وَكَانَ الشَّيْطَانُ لِرَبِّهِ كَفُورًا [ Indeed the extravagant are brothers of Satans, and Satan is ungrateful to his Lord.]

 

Juz 15,  Al-Isra, Verse 028

وَإِمَّا تُعْرِضَنَّ عَنْهُمُ ابْتِغَاءَ رَحْمَةٍ مِنْ رَبِّكَ تَرْجُوهَا فَقُلْ لَهُمْ قَوْلًا مَيْسُورًا [ But if you must turn (the needy) down (because you lack the means to give) while hoping to receive your Lord’s bounty, then speak to them with kind words.]
  
 

 

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Juz 15.2 Subhanallazi

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Juz 15.4 Subhanallazi

Juz 15.5 Subhanallazi

Juz 15.6 Subhanallazi

Juz 15.7 Subhanallazi