SHAIKH MIR ASEDULLAH QUADRI
Al-Isra | Sura # 17| 111 verses | Makkan
بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
In the name of Allah, the Compassionate and the Merciful
Juz 15, Al-Isra, Verse 085وَيَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الرُّوحِ قُلِ الرُّوحُ مِنْ أَمْرِ رَبِّي وَمَا أُوتِيتُمْ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا [And they ask you about the soul. Say (O'Prophet ﷺ) the soul is the command of my Lord.]
What is Soul?
Allah's (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) existence is absolute (His own). Other than Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ), everything else is dependent upon Him. This is the reason He is called 'Independent Being' (واجبُ الوجود) and 'true worshipable' (حق معبود).
He has other attributes as well. He is 'Living' (حيّ), 'Knowledgeable' (عليم), 'Hearing' (سميع), 'Seeing' (بصير), 'Powerful' (قدير). He has 'will' (اراده), and He can speak (كليم). He also commands.
To create a thing, Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) gleams the refulgence (تجلی) of His attributes and epithets (اسماء و صفات) on the probate archetype (عينِ ثابته) and commands the (probate archetype) 'Be' (كُن), and there it comes into existence.
It is in Quran - إِنَّمَا قَوْلُنَا لِشَيْءٍ إِذَا أَرَدْنَاهُ أَن نَّقُولَ لَهُ كُن فَيَكُونُ [ For anything which We (Allah) have willed, We say, ‘Be’ and it is there! ] (An-Nahl - 40).What is created by the command 'Be'?The soul (روح) comes into existence from this command and gets associated with the Probate Archetype.
It is in Quran - فَإِذَا سَوَّيْتُهُ وَنَفَخْتُ فِيهِ مِن رُّوحِي فَقَعُوا لَهُ سَاجِدِينَ [And when I have proportioned him and breathed into him (something out of) My soul, then fall down in front of him in prostration.] (Al-Hijr - 29).
Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) is addressing the angels saying when He completes the body of Adam (عليه السلام) and associates his soul with his body, Adam (عليه السلام) will come into life. 'At that moment all of you (angels) bow down in front of him in prostration as a mark of respect'.From the above it is clear that when Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) wants to bring us into external existence (in this world), He first creates our material body as per the requirement of this world, then associated a specific soul with it. When these two are joined with our innate/person (ذات), we come into existence. Our innate/person (ذات) existing in Allah's knowledge before our creation is known as 'Probate Archetype'. Thus, there are three things involved in our creation, viz., (i) the 'human self' or 'person' (ذات), the human body (جسم), and human soul (روح).
What are Probate Archetypes (اعیان ثابتہ)
These are individual frames / sketches within Allah's (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) knowledge. Allah's (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) Knowledge is infinite and beyond the imagination of human beings. Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) knew before creating everything that 'the thing' will be born with a specific characteristics/nature. Thus Probate Archetypes (اعیان ثابہ) exist in Allah's (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) knowledge (علم الہی) as 'Evidence' or 'Probation' or 'Proof of things' before they are created.
Kinds of Probate Archetypes
Probate Archetypes (اعیان ثابہ) are of two kinds. (i) Facts of Allah (حقائق الہی), which are 'Effective' or 'Active'; and (ii) Facts of Universe or Facts of things or Facts of creatures' which are 'Affected' or 'Passive'. Existence of this Universe is dependent upon the refulgence (تجلّی) of the Facts of Allah (حقائق الہی) on the Facts of Creatures or things.
The difference between "Facts of Universe (حقایٔقِ کونیہ) and Facts of Allah (حقایٔقِ اِلٰہیہ)
The first is Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) knows about 'His own attributes'. The other is He knows the facts of the creatures. These two have different realities. One is knowledge ( عالِمیت - sum of what is known), the other is awareness ( معلومیت - subject knowledge).
We consider Facts of Universe always with reference to servants (human beings) and creatures about whom Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) was aware of.
What is the Evidence of Probate Archetypes (اعیانِ ثابِتہ) ?
Does Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) know the creatures before their birth or after they were born? If He knew the creatures after they were born, the attribute of pre creation ignorance will be associated with Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ). Astaghfirullah. Allah's (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) knowledge is eternally antiquated. It has neither increased nor decreased. Therefore, Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) knew individual creature and its abilities before it was created. The facts of things which Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) was aware of are described as 'Probate Archetypes (اعیانِ ثابِتہ).
Juz 15, Al-Isra, Verse 086وَلَئِنْ شِئْنَا لَنَذْهَبَنَّ بِالَّذِي أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ ثُمَّ لَا تَجِدُ لَكَ بِهِ عَلَيْنَا وَكِيلًا [ And if We so will, We can erase this (Book) which We have revealed to you, (from people's minds and from the written copies) then you will not find a way to bring it back, except through Us. (But this will never happen because,) ]
Juz 15, Al-Isra, Verse 087إِلَّا رَحْمَةً مِنْ رَبِّكَ إِنَّ فَضْلَهُ كَانَ عَلَيْكَ كَبِيرًا [ (We have left it) as a Mercy from your Lord (on the mankind). His favor upon you (O' Prophet ﷺ) is indeed boundless. ]
Juz 15, Al-Isra, Verse 088قُلْ لَئِنِ اجْتَمَعَتِ الْإِنْسُ وَالْجِنُّ عَلَى أَنْ يَأْتُوا بِمِثْلِ هَذَا الْقُرْآَنِ لَا يَأْتُونَ بِمِثْلِهِ وَلَوْ كَانَ بَعْضُهُمْ لِبَعْضٍ ظَهِيرًا [ Say (O' Prophet ﷺ) 'Should all humans and jinn rally to bring the like of this Quran, they will not bring the like of it, even if they assisted one another.' ]
Juz 15, Al-Isra, Verse 089وَلَقَدْ صَرَّفْنَا لِلنَّاسِ فِي هَذَا الْقُرْآَنِ مِنْ كُلِّ مَثَلٍ فَأَبَى أَكْثَرُ النَّاسِ إِلَّا كُفُورًا [ We have given examples of every kind to men in this Qur'an in various ways, but the majority of men refuse (to receive the Quran) except with disbelief. ]
Juz 15, Al-Isra, Verse 090وَقَالُوا لَنْ نُؤْمِنَ لَكَ حَتَّى تَفْجُرَ لَنَا مِنَ الْأَرْضِ يَنْبُوعًا [ And say : "We will not believe you until you make a spring of water gush forth from the earth for us; ]
Juz 15, Al-Isra, Verse 091أَوْ تَكُونَ لَكَ جَنَّةٌ مِنْ نَخِيلٍ وَعِنَبٍ فَتُفَجِّرَ الْأَنْهَارَ خِلَالَهَا تَفْجِيرًا [ Or, until you acquire an orchard of date-palm trees and grapes, and produce rivers flowing through it; ]
Juz 15, Al-Isra, Verse 092أَوْ تُسْقِطَ السَّمَاءَ كَمَا زَعَمْتَ عَلَيْنَا كِسَفًا أَوْ تَأْتِيَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْمَلَائِكَةِ قَبِيلًا [ Or, let chunks of sky fall over us, as you assert; Or until you bring Allah and the angels (right) in front of us. ]
Juz 15, Al-Isra, Verse 093أَوْ يَكُونَ لَكَ بَيْتٌ مِنْ زُخْرُفٍ أَوْ تَرْقَى فِي السَّمَاءِ وَلَنْ نُؤْمِنَ لِرُقِيِّكَ حَتَّى تُنَزِّلَ عَلَيْنَا كِتَابًا نَقْرَؤُهُ قُلْ سُبْحَانَ رَبِّي هَلْ كُنْتُ إِلَّا بَشَرًا رَسُولًا [ Or a house made of gold comes into being for you; or you ascend to the sky. We shall not even believe in your ascendance until you bring down to us a book that we can read.' (O' Prophet ﷺ), tell them : 'Glory be to my Lord! Have I ever claimed anything other than a I am a human being and the Apostle of Allah. ]
It is in Hadith - Ibn Jarir at-Tabari recorded a Hadith from Muhammad bin Ishaq (saying), 'An old man from among the people of Egypt who came to us forty-odd years ago told me, from 'Ikrimah, from Ibn 'Abbas, that Makkan influential leaders consisting of (i) Utbah and Shaybah, the two sons of Rabi'ah, (ii) Abu Sufyan bin Harb, (iii) a man from Bani Abdud Dar, (iv) Abu Al-Bakhtari, the brother of Bani Asad, (v) Aswad bin Al-Muttalib bin Asad, (vi) Zam'ah bin Al-Aswad, (vii) Walid bin Al-Mughirah, (viii) Abu Jahl bin Hisham, (ix) Abdullah bin Abi Umayyah, (x) Umayyah bin Khalaf, (xi) Al-Aas bin Wa'il, and (xii) Nabih and Munabbih, the two sons of Al-Hajjaj As-Sahmin, (a total of 14 persons) gathered behind the Ka`bah after sunset. Some of them said to others, 'Send for (Prophet) Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and (let us) talk to him and argue with him, so that nobody will think we are to be blame.' So they sent for him saying, 'The nobles of your people have gathered for you to speak to them.' The Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) hurriedly came thinking that maybe they were going to change their minds, for he was very keen that they should be guided, and it upset him to see their stubbornness. So he came and sat with them, and they said, 'O Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), we have sent for you so that nobody will think we are to blame. By Allah we do not know any man among the Arabs who has brought to his people what you have brought to your people. You have slandered our forefathers, criticized our religion, insulted our reason, slandered our gods and caused division. There is no objectionable thing that you have not brought between us. If you are preaching these things because you want wealth, we will collect some of our wealth together for you and make you the wealthiest man among us.If you are looking for a position, we will make you our leader. If you are looking for kingship, we will make you our king. If what has come to you is a type of Jinn that has possessed you, then we can spend our money looking for the medicine that will rid you of it so that no one will think we are to blame.The Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said : 'My case is not as you say. I have not brought what I have brought to you because I want your wealth or to be your leader or king. But Allah has sent me to you as an Apostle and has revealed to me a Book and has commanded me to bring you good news and a warning. So, I have conveyed to you the Messages of my Lord and have advised you accordingly. If you accept what I have brought to you, then this is your good fortune in this world and the Hereafter, but if you reject it, I shall wait patiently for the command of Allah until Allah judges between me and you.'They said, 'O Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), if you do not accept what we have offered you, then you know that there is no other people whose country is smaller, whose wealth is less and whose life is harder than ours, so ask your Lord Who has sent you with what He has sent you, to move away these mountains for us that are compressing us, to make our land wider and cause rivers to gush forth in it like the rivers of Syria and Iraq, and to resurrect for us those of our forefathers who have passed away. Let there be among those whom He resurrects, Qusayy bin Kilab, for he was a truthful old man, and we will ask them whether what you are saying is true or false. If you do what we are asking, and they (the people who are resurrected) say that you are telling the truth, then we will believe you and acknowledge your status with Allah and believe that He has sent you as an Apostle as you say.The Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said : 'I was not sent for this purpose. I have brought to you from Allah that with which He has sent me, and I have conveyed to you the Message with which I was sent to you. If you accept what I have brought to you, then this is your good fortune in this world and the Hereafter, but if you reject it, I shall wait patiently for the command of Allah until Allah judges between me and you.'They said, 'If you will not do this for us, then at least do something for yourself. Ask your Lord to send an angel to confirm that what you are saying is the truth and to speak up on your behalf. Ask Him to give you gardens and treasures and palaces of gold and silver, and to make you independent so that you will not have to do what we see you doing, for you stand in the marketplaces seeking provision just as we do. Then we will know the virtue of your position with your Lord and whether you are an Apostle as you claim.'The Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) told them : ' I will not do that, and I will not ask my Lord for this. I was not sent to you for this reason. But Allah has sent me to you to bring you good news and a warning. If you accept what I have brought to you, then this is your good fortune in this world and the Hereafter, but if you reject it, I shall wait patiently for the command of Allah until Allah judges between me and you.'They said, 'Then cause the sky to fall upon us, as you claim that if your Lord wills, He can do that. We will not believe in you until you do this.' The Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said : 'That is for Allah to decide. If He wills, He will do that to you.'They said, 'O Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), 'did your Lord not know that we would sit with you and ask you what we have asked and make the requests that we have made. He should have told you beforehand and taught you how to reply to us, and informed you what He would do to us if we do not accept what you have brought to us. We have heard that the one who is teaching you this, is a man in Al-Yamamah called Ar-Rahman. By Allah, we will never believe in Ar-Rahman. We are warning you, O' Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), that we will not let you do what you want to do until you or we are destroyed.' One of them said, `We worship the angels who are the daughters of Allah.' Another said, `We will never believe in you until you bring Allah and the angels before (us) face to face.'When they said this, the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) got up and left them.Abdullah bin Abi Umayyah bin Al-Mughirah bin Abdullah bin Umar bin Makhzum, the son of Prophet's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) paternal aunt 'Atikah, the daughter of Abdul-Muttalib (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), also got up and followed him. He said to him, 'O Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), your people have offered you what they have offered you, and you did not accept it. Then they asked for things for themselves so that they would know your position with Allah, and you did not do that for them. Then they asked you to hasten on the punishments with which you are scaring them. By Allah, I will never believe in you unless you take a ladder to heaven and ascend it while I am watching, then you bring with you an open book and four angels to testify that you are as you say. By Allah, even if you did that, I think that I would not believe you.' Then he turned away from the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) , and the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) went home to his family, grieving over having missed out on what he had hoped for when his people had called him, because he saw that they were resisting him even more. (Ibn Jarir at-Tabari)
It is in Hadith - Quraish offered the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) (in addition to other things) 10 most beautiful women of Arabia and a promise to make him the most richest person in Arabia in exchange for stopping the preaching of Islam. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) rejected all their offers. (Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaiba 37715, Sirah of Ibn Hisham Volume 1 pgs. 265-266)
Juz 15, Al-Isra, Verse 094وَمَا مَنَعَ النَّاسَ أَنْ يُؤْمِنُوا إِذْ جَاءَهُمُ الْهُدَى إِلَّا أَنْ قَالُوا أَبَعَثَ اللَّهُ بَشَرًا رَسُولًا [ Nothing prevented people from belief when guidance came to them except the excuse : 'What! Has Allah sent a man like us to be an Apostle? ]
Juz 15, Al-Isra, Verse 095قُلْ لَوْ كَانَ فِي الْأَرْضِ مَلَائِكَةٌ يَمْشُونَ مُطْمَئِنِّينَ لَنَزَّلْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مَلَكًا رَسُولًا [ Tell (them) ‘Had there been angels on the earth, walking around and residing (in it like humans do), We would have sent down to them from the heaven an angel as Apostle.' ]
Juz 15, Al-Isra, Verse 096قُلْ كَفَى بِاللَّهِ شَهِيدًا بَيْنِي وَبَيْنَكُمْ إِنَّهُ كَانَ بِعِبَادِهِ خَبِيرًا بَصِيرًا [ Say : 'Sufficient is Allah as a witness between me and you. He is the One Who is Aware and Observant of His servants.' ]
Juz 15, Al-Isra, Verse 097وَمَنْ يَهْدِ اللَّهُ فَهُوَ الْمُهْتَدِ وَمَنْ يُضْلِلْ فَلَنْ تَجِدَ لَهُمْ أَوْلِيَاءَ مِنْ دُونِهِ وَنَحْشُرُهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ عَلَى وُجُوهِهِمْ عُمْيًا وَبُكْمًا وَصُمًّا مَأْوَاهُمْ جَهَنَّمُ كُلَّمَا خَبَتْ زِدْنَاهُمْ سَعِيرًا [ He is guided whom Allah guides. As for him He allows to go astray, you will not find a protector other than Him. We shall raise them on the Day of Resurrection in their own image, blind and dumb and deaf : Their habitation will be Hell. Every time (its fire) subsides We will intensify its flames.]
Juz 15, Al-Isra, Verse 098ذَلِكَ جَزَاؤُهُمْ بِأَنَّهُمْ كَفَرُوا بِآَيَاتِنَا وَقَالُوا أَئِذَا كُنَّا عِظَامًا وَرُفَاتًا أَئِنَّا لَمَبْعُوثُونَ خَلْقًا جَدِيدًا [ That is their retribution because they defied Our signs and said, ‘What! when we have become bones and dust, shall we really be raised as a new creation?’]
Juz 15, Al-Isra, Verse 099أَوَلَمْ يَرَوْا أَنَّ اللَّهَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ قَادِرٌ عَلَى أَنْ يَخْلُقَ مِثْلَهُمْ وَجَعَلَ لَهُمْ أَجَلًا لَا رَيْبَ فِيهِ فَأَبَى الظَّالِمُونَ إِلَّا كُفُورًا [ Have they not realized that Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth, can re-create them? He has set for them a time, about which there is no doubt. But the wrongdoers persist in denial.]
Juz 15, Al-Isra, Verse 100قُلْ لَوْ أَنْتُمْ تَمْلِكُونَ خَزَائِنَ رَحْمَةِ رَبِّي إِذًا لَأَمْسَكْتُمْ خَشْيَةَ الْإِنْفَاقِ وَكَانَ الْإِنْسَانُ قَتُورًا [ Say, 'Even if you possessed the treasures of my Lord’s Mercy, you would withhold them for fear of being spent, and man is very niggardly.’ ]
Juz 15, Al-Isra, Verse 101وَلَقَدْ آَتَيْنَا مُوسَى تِسْعَ آَيَاتٍ بَيِّنَاتٍ فَاسْأَلْ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ إِذْ جَاءَهُمْ فَقَالَ لَهُ فِرْعَوْنُ إِنِّي لَأَظُنُّكَ يَا مُوسَى مَسْحُورًا [ Certainly We gave Musa (عليه السلام) nine manifest signs. So ask the Children of Israel. When he came to them, Pharaoh said to him, ‘O Musa (عليه السلام), indeed I think you are bewitched.’ ]
Juz 15, Al-Isra, Verse 102قَالَ لَقَدْ عَلِمْتَ مَا أَنْزَلَ هَؤُلَاءِ إِلَّا رَبُّ السَّمَوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ بَصَائِرَ وَإِنِّي لَأَظُنُّكَ يَا فِرْعَوْنُ مَثْبُورًا [ Musa (عليه السلام) said, ‘You certainly know that no one has sent these (signs) except the Lord of the heavens and the earth as eye-openers, and I, O' Pharaoh, think you are surely doomed.’ ]
Juz 15, Al-Isra, Verse 103فَأَرَادَ أَنْ يَسْتَفِزَّهُمْ مِنَ الْأَرْضِ فَأَغْرَقْنَاهُ وَمَنْ مَعَهُ جَمِيعًا [ He (Pharaoh) wanted to exterminate them from the land, so We drowned him and all those who were with him. ]
Juz 15, Al-Isra, Verse 104وَقُلْنَا مِنْ بَعْدِهِ لِبَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ اسْكُنُوا الْأَرْضَ فَإِذَا جَاءَ وَعْدُ الْآَخِرَةِ جِئْنَا بِكُمْ لَفِيفًا [ And We said after Pharaoh, to the Children of Israel, 'Dwell in the land (Palestine), and when there comes the promise of the Hereafter, We will bring you forth in (one) gathering.' ]
Juz 15, Al-Isra, Verse 105وَبِالْحَقِّ أَنْزَلْنَاهُ وَبِالْحَقِّ نَزَلَ وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ إِلَّا مُبَشِّرًا وَنَذِيرًا [ We have sent it down with truth, and with truth has (the Quran) come down. and We did not send you except as a bearer of good tidings and a warner. ]
Juz 15, Al-Isra, Verse 106وَقُرْآَنًا فَرَقْنَاهُ لِتَقْرَأَهُ عَلَى النَّاسِ عَلَى مُكْثٍ وَنَزَّلْنَاهُ تَنْزِيلًا [ We have sent the Quran in parts so that you may read it to the people a little at a time, and We have sent it down piecemeal. ]
Juz 15, Al-Isra, Verse 107قُلْ آَمِنُوا بِهِ أَوْ لَا تُؤْمِنُوا إِنَّ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْعِلْمَ مِنْ قَبْلِهِ إِذَا يُتْلَى عَلَيْهِمْ يَخِرُّونَ لِلْأَذْقَانِ سُجَّدًا [ Say, ‘Whether you believe in it, or do not believe in it; indeed those who were given knowledge before it when it is recited to them, fall down in prostration on their faces, ]
Juz 15, Al-Isra, Verse 108وَيَقُولُونَ سُبْحَانَ رَبِّنَا إِنْ كَانَ وَعْدُ رَبِّنَا لَمَفْعُولًا [ And (they) say : 'Glory be to our Lord. The promise of our Lord has indeed been fulfilled.' ]
Juz 15, Al-Isra, Verse 109وَيَخِرُّونَ لِلْأَذْقَانِ يَبْكُونَ وَيَزِيدُهُمْ خُشُوعًا [ And weeping they kneel down, and this increases their humility. ]
Juz 15, Al-Isra, Verse 110قُلِ ادْعُوا اللَّهَ أَوِ ادْعُوا الرَّحْمَنَ أَيًّا مَا تَدْعُوا فَلَهُ الْأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَى وَلَا تَجْهَرْ بِصَلَاتِكَ وَلَا تُخَافِتْ بِهَا وَابْتَغِ بَيْنَ ذَلِكَ سَبِيلًا [ Say : 'Call Him Allah or call Him Ar-Rahman; whatever the name you call Him by, all His names are beautiful. And do not recite (too) loudly in your prayer or (too) quietly, but follow the middle course.']
Juz 15, Al-Isra, Verse 111وَقُلِ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِي لَمْ يَتَّخِذْ وَلَدًا وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ شَرِيكٌ فِي الْمُلْكِ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ وَلِيٌّ مِنَ الذُّلِّ وَكَبِّرْهُ تَكْبِيرًا [ And say : 'All praise is for Allah, Who has neither taken a son (for Himself), nor is there any partner (for Him in His) dominion and authority, nor has He an aide to help Him. (O' Prophet ﷺ) keep extolling His Greatness and Magnify Him with all His Magnificence.']