LET US CORRECT OUR ISLAMIC FAITH

دعونا نصحّح العقيدة الاسلامية

 

 

 

 

تفسيرِ اَسَدی

TAFSEER-E-ASEDI
 

BY

SHAIKH MIR ASEDULLAH QUADRI

 
 
JUZ 1.6  ALIF LAAM MEEM  (الم)
 
 

 

سورة البقرة

The Cow
 

Al-Baqara | Sura # 2| 286 verses | Madinan

 

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ 

In the name of Allah, the Most Compassionate and Most Merciful
 
 
Juz 1, Al-Baqara, Verse 083
 
وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِيثَاقَ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ لَا تَعْبُدُونَ إِلَّا اللَّهَ وَبِالْوَالِدَيْنِ إِحْسَانًا وَذِي الْقُرْبَى وَالْيَتَامَى وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَقُولُوا لِلنَّاسِ حُسْنًا وَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآَتُوا الزَّكَاةَ ثُمَّ تَوَلَّيْتُمْ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا مِنْكُمْ وَأَنْتُمْ مُعْرِضُونَ  [ And (remember) when We took the covenant from the Children of Israel, 'Do not worship except Allah; and do good to parents and relatives, orphans and needy. And talk to people good;  establish prayer and pay Zakat.' Then you turned away, except a few of you, and (most of you) refused.].

Covenant is a pledge and a solemn vow.  Once a person solemnly pledges something, it becomes imperative for him to uphold that pledge.  If you do not stand by your pledge made to Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) and His Apostles, it shows you are a rebel, following Taghut (Devils). 
 
To seek the truth about our Creator, know about Him and follow His commandments is part of the nature of human beings.  A person who follows Taghut (Devils) and evil desires, is indeed going against his own nature.  If you go against your own nature, surely you will  suffers in this world and in Hereafter.  It is important that we realize this fact.  Some of us realize it in the company of the Prophets of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ), while others fall victim to Devils and evil desires.
 
Who has instilled this nature in us?   It is Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ), our Creator who has instilled in us the drive to seek truth.
It is in Quran - وَإِذْ أَخَذَ رَبُّكَ مِن بَنِي آدَمَ مِن ظُهُورِهِمْ ذُرِّيَّتَهُمْ وَأَشْهَدَهُمْ عَلَىٰ أَنفُسِهِمْ أَلَسْتُ بِرَبِّكُمْ ۖ قَالُوا بَلَىٰ ۛ شَهِدْنَا ۛ أَن تَقُولُوا يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ إِنَّا كُنَّا عَنْ هَـٰذَا غَافِلِينَ [And when your Lord took out the offspring from the loins of the Children of Adamؑ and made them bear witness about themselves, He said, Am I not your Lord? and they replied, Yes, we bear witness. So you cannot say on the Day of Resurrection, We were not aware of this. ] (Al-Araaf - 172)
It is obvious from the above verse that to seek the truth about our Creator and walk on His way has been instilled in our nature by Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ).  We all existed in Allah's (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) knowledge before our birth and it is there we have promised Him that we will walk on His way after our births.  To assist us in following His path, Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) has sent many Prophets/Apostles who have guided us to His path.
It is in Quran - وَلَقَدْ بَعَثْنَا فِي كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ رَّسُولًا أَنِ اعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ وَاجْتَنِبُوا الطَّاغُوتَ ۖ فَمِنْهُم مَّنْ هَدَى اللَّهُ وَمِنْهُم مَّنْ حَقَّتْ عَلَيْهِ الضَّلَالَةُ ۚ فَسِيرُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ فَانظُرُوا كَيْفَ كَانَ عَاقِبَةُ الْمُكَذِّبِينَ  [And We certainly sent into every nation an Apostle, (saying), 'Worship Allah and avoid Taghut' (devils).  And among them were those whom Allah guided, and among them were those upon whom error was (deservedly) decreed. So proceed through the Earth and observe how was the end of the deniers (who followed Taghut). ] (An-Nahl - 36)  
Every Prophet took solemn pledges from their followers individually and collectively on the instance of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ). Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) also took collective and individual pledges from Sahabah.
 
 
Juz 1, Al-Baqara, Verse 084
 
وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِيثَاقَكُمْ لَا تَسْفِكُونَ دِمَاءَكُمْ وَلَا تُخْرِجُونَ أَنْفُسَكُمْ مِنْ دِيَارِكُمْ ثُمَّ أَقْرَرْتُمْ وَأَنْتُمْ تَشْهَدُونَ [And (remember) when We took your covenant, 'Do not shed each other's blood or evict one another from homes. Then you acknowledged it and you can testify to it.]
 
 
Juz 1, Al-Baqara, Verse 085
 
ثُمَّ أَنْتُمْ هَؤُلَاءِ تَقْتُلُونَ أَنْفُسَكُمْ وَتُخْرِجُونَ فَرِيقًا مِنْكُمْ مِنْ دِيَارِهِمْ تَظَاهَرُونَ عَلَيْهِمْ بِالْإِثْمِ وَالْعُدْوَانِ وَإِنْ يَأْتُوكُمْ أُسَارَى تُفَادُوهُمْ وَهُوَ مُحَرَّمٌ عَلَيْكُمْ إِخْرَاجُهُمْ أَفَتُؤْمِنُونَ بِبَعْضِ الْكِتَابِ وَتَكْفُرُونَ بِبَعْضٍ فَمَا جَزَاءُ مَنْ يَفْعَلُ ذَلِكَ مِنْكُمْ إِلَّا خِزْيٌ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَيَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ يُرَدُّونَ إِلَى أَشَدِّ الْعَذَابِ وَمَا اللَّهُ بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا تَعْمَلُونَ - Yet here you are, killing one another and driving some of your own people from their homes, helping one another in sin and aggression against them. If they come to you as captives, you still pay to set them free, although you had no right to drive them out. So do you believe in some parts of the Scripture and not in others? The punishment for those of you who do this will be nothing but disgrace in this life, and on the Day of Resurrection they will be condemned to the harshest torment: Allah is not unaware of what you do. ]
 
The above verse describes the situation of Jews in Madina during Prophet's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) time. How they were breaking the pledges they willing made.  They claim to follow certain commands while they conveniently forget about the others. 
 
Before Islam reached Medina, the Arab residents of Medina were consisted of two tribes, viz,  'Aus', and 'Khazarj'.  The Jews of Madina were active in creating hatred, disputes and war between these tribes. Jews were clandestinely  aligned with both the tribes and used to supply  arms to both of them.  They also gained political leverage in view of fights between these two tribes. Whenever fighting started between these two tribes, factions among Jews supported both and in the process some of their men were also killed and displaced from their homes.   The wealthy and powerful among  Jews did not mind killing and hurting their own people in these disputes. Because, overall it benefited them financially and politically.  Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) is  cautioning them in this verse about their wrong doings. 
 
Jews' long standing habit of promoting division, hatred and war between groups of people and nations was clearly displayed in Madina during Prophet's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) time as well. When Jews sensed that the Arab tribes may unite under the banner of Islam, they doubled their efforts to create division. In this verse, Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) has revealed their behavior and motives.
 
 
Juz 1, Al-Baqara, Verse 086
 
أُولَئِكَ الَّذِينَ اشْتَرَوُا الْحَيَاةَ الدُّنْيَا بِالْآَخِرَةِ فَلَا يُخَفَّفُ عَنْهُمُ الْعَذَابُ وَلَا هُمْ يُنْصَرُونَ   [Such are the ones who have bought the present worldly life in exchange for the Hereafter. So their punishment will not be reduced, nor will they be helped.]
   
 
Juz 1, Al-Baqara, Verse 087
 
وَلَقَدْ آَتَيْنَا مُوسَى الْكِتَابَ وَقَفَّيْنَا مِنْ بَعْدِهِ بِالرُّسُلِ وَآَتَيْنَا عِيسَى ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ الْبَيِّنَاتِ وَأَيَّدْنَاهُ بِرُوحِ الْقُدُسِ أَفَكُلَّمَا جَاءَكُمْ رَسُولٌ بِمَا لَا تَهْوَى أَنْفُسُكُمُ اسْتَكْبَرْتُمْ فَفَرِيقًا كَذَّبْتُمْ وَفَرِيقًا تَقْتُلُونَ [And we gave Musaؑ  the Scripture and We sent Apostles after him in succession.  We gave Isa Ibn Maryamؑ   clear signs and strengthened him with the Holy Spirit (Jibreelؑ ).  So how is it that, whenever an Apostle brings you something you do not like, you become arrogant, calling some (of them as) impostors and killing others (prophets)?]
 
Indeed many prophets appeared among the children of Israel after Prophet Musa (عليه السلام), including  Isa (عليه السلام). All these prophets and Apostles faced arrogance and torture in the hands of the children of Israel.  While every prophet was ridiculed and opposed, some of them were even killed by them. Isa's (عليه السلام) torture in the hands of Jews is well known. 
 
 
Juz 1, Al-Baqara, Verse 088
 
وَقَالُوا قُلُوبُنَا غُلْفٌ بَلْ لَعَنَهُمُ اللَّهُ بِكُفْرِهِمْ فَقَلِيلًا مَا يُؤْمِنُونَ  And they said, 'Our hearts are encased.'  No,  indeed, Allah has cursed them for their disbelief; so, little do they believe. ]
 
What is the meaning of 'our hearts are encased (قُلُوبُنَا غُلْفٌ)'? There can be two meanings of this phrase, as follows. (i) We have full faith and sufficient knowledge and we do not need any sermon from any prophet. (ii) Allah has seized our hearts that is preventing us from being pious.  This was the excuse of some of the Jews to blame Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) for their state of affairs. For both the  connotations, Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) provides the answer in this verse.  He says. in fact 'it is the curse of their disbelief'.
 
It is important to note that Allah's (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) does not guide (i) disbelievers, (ii) unjust oppressors and (iii) corrupt people.    
It is in Quran -  وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الْكَافِرِينَ  [ And Allah  does not guide disbelieving people. ] (An-Nahl - 107)

It is in Quran -  وَاللَّهُ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِينَ [ And Allah  does not guide unjust oppressing people. ]  (Al-Baqara - 258)

It is in Quran -  وَاللَّهُ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الْفَاسِقِينَ [ Allah  does not guide those who are corrupt.]  (At-Tawba - 24)

Some people try to dissociate themselves from the responsibility of faith and deed, and blame Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) for their state.  They should know that Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) has made His commandments clear to humanity.  If you choose to oppress others, rob them of their rights and cheat them, then your hearts will get sealed.   Similarly, if you indulge in sin and prefer Haram over halal, you will be  deprived of divine mercy. Remember, you are not forced for anything.  Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) has given you free will.  If you use this free will to disbelieve in Him, this is your choice.  Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) will not force you, rather He will inform you of the consequences of your disbelieve. 
 
If you want to benefit from Allah's (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) guidance,  follow Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).  This is the only way to success in this world and in Hereafter. 
 
 
Juz 1, Al-Baqara, Verse 089
 
وَلَمَّا جَاءَهُمْ كِتَابٌ مِنْ عِنْدِ اللَّهِ مُصَدِّقٌ لِمَا مَعَهُمْ وَكَانُوا مِنْ قَبْلُ يَسْتَفْتِحُونَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا فَلَمَّا جَاءَهُمْ مَا عَرَفُوا كَفَرُوا بِهِ فَلَعْنَةُ اللَّهِ عَلَى الْكَافِرِينَ  [ Now that Allah has sent them this Book (the Quran), which confirms their Scriptures, they deny it! even though before that they were praying for victory over the disbelievers, Yet, when it was sent to them, they recognized it and chose to disbelieve in it!  The disbelievers are cursed by Allah.]
 
Before the advent of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) Jewish tribes of Medina used to tell  Arab residents that a new prophet and a new divine book was soon to come.  They proclaimed their belief in the new Prophet and the new book even before arrival.  They went a step further and declared themselves ready to lay their lives for the new cause against the disbelievers.  Islam arrived shortly after,  and the Quran confirmed the teachings of the Torah, and resolved many issues that were not clear to them.  They recognized it fully, but ironically, they opposed it.  
 
 
Juz 1, Al-Baqara, Verse 090
 
بِئْسَمَا اشْتَرَوْا بِهِ أَنْفُسَهُمْ أَنْ يَكْفُرُوا بِمَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ بَغْيًا أَنْ يُنَزِّلَ اللَّهُ مِنْ فَضْلِهِ عَلَى مَنْ يَشَاءُ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ فَبَاءُو بِغَضَبٍ عَلَى غَضَبٍ وَلِلْكَافِرِينَ عَذَابٌ مُهِينٌ  [What an evil thing (grudge) they have sold themselves for by rejecting what Allah has sent down. He chose to bestow His gracious bounty (of revelation and prophet-hood) on some of His servants whom He willed. But they have brought down anger upon anger on themselves. (Surely) there is a humiliating punishment for the disbelievers.]
 
After the advent of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) everyone who was invited to Islam,  faced the same dilemma.  They were asked to forego Idol worship and worldly desires  in exchange for success in this world in Hereafter. They could earn paradise for such a small price.  Indeed it was a profitable deal for them.  But, as the verse describes, many chose the opposite. They bought disbelief and temporary worldly comforts in exchange for salvation and Paradise.  It was indeed a huge loss.  Not only did they earn disgrace and humiliation in this world, but severe punishment in the Hereafter.  
 
 
Juz 1, Al-Baqara, Verse 091
 
وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ آَمِنُوا بِمَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ قَالُوا نُؤْمِنُ بِمَا أُنْزِلَ عَلَيْنَا وَيَكْفُرُونَ بِمَا وَرَاءَهُ وَهُوَ الْحَقُّ مُصَدِّقًا لِمَا مَعَهُمْ قُلْ فَلِمَ تَقْتُلُونَ أَنْبِيَاءَ اللَّهِ مِنْ قَبْلُ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ مُؤْمِنِينَ  [And when they are told: 'Believe in that which He has sent down,' they retort : 'We believe in only what was sent down on us,' and they disbelieve in what is beyond that, though it is the truth, confirming what they already possess.  Say : 'Why then did you kill the Prophets of Allah  before, if indeed you are believers?']
 
 
Juz 1, Al-Baqara, Verse 092
 
وَلَقَدْ جَاءَكُمْ مُوسَى بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ ثُمَّ اتَّخَذْتُمُ الْعِجْلَ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ وَأَنْتُمْ ظَالِمُونَ  [And Musaؑ had certainly brought you clear proofs. Then you took the calf for worship after that, while you were wrongdoers.]
 
 
Juz 1, Al-Baqara, Verse 093
 
وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِيثَاقَكُمْ وَرَفَعْنَا فَوْقَكُمُ الطُّورَ خُذُوا مَا آَتَيْنَاكُمْ بِقُوَّةٍ وَاسْمَعُوا قَالُوا سَمِعْنَا وَعَصَيْنَا وَأُشْرِبُوا فِي قُلُوبِهِمُ الْعِجْلَ بِكُفْرِهِمْ قُلْ بِئْسَمَا يَأْمُرُكُمْ بِهِ إِيمَانُكُمْ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ مُؤْمِنِينَ [Remember when We took your pledge, making the mountain tower above you, and said, 'Hold on firmly to what We have given you, and listen.' But (their forefathers) said: 'We hear, but we disobey' for their hearts were overflowing with love for the calf because of their disbelief.  Say, 'If you are believers, what an evil thing your faith has made you do.' ]
 
 
Juz 1, Al-Baqara, Verse 094
 
قُلْ إِنْ كَانَتْ لَكُمُ الدَّارُ الْآَخِرَةُ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ خَالِصَةً مِنْ دُونِ النَّاسِ فَتَمَنَّوُا الْمَوْتَ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ صَادِقِينَ  [ Say: 'If the abode of the Hereafter with Allah is reserved for you alone, excluding other people, then long for death, if you are sincere and truthful in your claim.' ]
 
The Jews claimed that no one will enter paradise unless he or she is of the Jewish faith.  Christians also made similar claim.  Both claimed that heaven is made exclusive for them. Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) is asking Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) to ask them to wish for death if they are truthful in their claims. Then Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) says in the following verse (95) that they will never do it because they know in their hearts that they are wrongdoers.
 
Juz 1, Al-Baqara, Verse 095
 
وَلَنْ يَتَمَنَّوْهُ أَبَدًا بِمَا قَدَّمَتْ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ بِالظَّالِمِينَ   [ But they will never wish for it, ever, because of what their hands have put forth. And Allah is Knowing of the wrongdoers. ]
 
Who has the fear of death?  Indeed the one who knowingly and repeatedly transgresses Allah's (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) teachings.  He will be afraid of  his meeting with Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) on the day of Judgement.  Jewish leaders who opposed and fought the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) could not dare to come forward and say 'O Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), invoke your Lord to give us death.  Because they knew that Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) is truthful Apostle of Allah and if they invoked death, they would have certainly got it. 
 
 
Juz 1, Al-Baqara, Verse 096
 
وَلَتَجِدَنَّهُمْ أَحْرَصَ النَّاسِ عَلَى حَيَاةٍ وَمِنَ الَّذِينَ أَشْرَكُوا يَوَدُّ أَحَدُهُمْ لَوْ يُعَمَّرُ أَلْفَ سَنَةٍ وَمَا هُوَ بِمُزَحْزِحِهِ مِنَ الْعَذَابِ أَنْ يُعَمَّرَ وَاللَّهُ بَصِيرٌ بِمَا يَعْمَلُونَ   [ You are sure to find them clinging to (worldly) life, more eagerly than any other people even the polytheists. Any of them would wish to be given a life of a thousand years, though even such a long life would not save them from the torment.  Allah sees everything they do.]
 
 
Juz 1, Al-Baqara, Verse 097
 
قُلْ مَنْ كَانَ عَدُوًّا لِجِبْرِيلَ فَإِنَّهُ نَزَّلَهُ عَلَى قَلْبِكَ بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ مُصَدِّقًا لِمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ وَهُدًى وَبُشْرَى لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ  [ Say (O' Prophet ﷺ) whoever is an enemy to Jibreelؑ (is in fact the enemy of Allah) - it is he who has brought the Qur'an down upon your heart by Allah's permission, confirming that which was before it,  and as guidance and good news to the believers.]

Jews hated angels, and showed special enmity towards  Jibreel (عليه السلام). They claimed that Jibreel (عليه السلام) is their enemy because he always comes down with punishment for them.  

It is in Hadith - Ibn Abbas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said, a group of Jews came to Allah’s Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and said, 'Talk to us about some things we will ask you and which only a Prophet would know.' He said, 'Ask me about whatever you wish.  However, give your pledge to Allah, similar to the pledge that Yaqoob (عليه السلام) took from his children, that if I tell you something and you recognize its truth, you will follow me in Islam.' They said, 'Agreed.'  The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said, 'Ask me about whatever you wish'. 

It is a long Hadith.  They asked him a few questions and they agreed that the Prophet's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) replies were correct. 

The last question they asked was 'tell us about your Wali among the angels, for this is when we (will) either follow or leave you.' The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said, 'My Wali (who brings down the revelation from Allah) is Jibreel (عليه السلام), and Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) never sent a Prophet, but Jibreel (عليه السلام) is his Wali.'  They said, 'We then leave you. Had you a Wali other than Jibreel (عليه السلام), we would have followed you.' On that, Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) revealed this verse. (Musnad Imam Ahmad) 

 
Juz 1, Al-Baqara, Verse 098
 
مَنْ كَانَ عَدُوًّا لِلَّهِ وَمَلَائِكَتِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَجِبْرِيلَ وَمِيكَالَ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ عَدُوٌّ لِلْكَافِرِينَ    [Whoever is an enemy to Allah and His angels and His Apostles and Jibreel and Michael (عليهم السلام), then indeed, Allah is an enemy to the disbelievers.]
 
This verse clarifies that the truth is one.  There is no conflict or division in it. Whoever is an enemy to any of the angels, or Jibreel (عليه السلام), Michael (عليه السلام), or any of Allah's Apostles, then he is, in fact, an enemy of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ). All Apostles, Prophets, His angels and His Awliya, represent the truth. And as far as truth is concerned, there is no room for picking and choosing in it.  

 
Juz 1, Al-Baqara, Verse 099
 
وَلَقَدْ أَنْزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ آَيَاتٍ بَيِّنَاتٍ وَمَا يَكْفُرُ بِهَا إِلَّا الْفَاسِقُونَ   [And  indeed We have revealed to you clear signs, and none disbelieves in them except the rebellious.]
 
 
Juz 1, Al-Baqara, Verse 100
 
أَوَكُلَّمَا عَاهَدُوا عَهْدًا نَبَذَهُ فَرِيقٌ مِنْهُمْ بَلْ أَكْثَرُهُمْ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ  [ How is it that whenever they make a covenant or a pledge, some of them throw it away?  In fact, most of them do not believe. ]  
 
 
Juz 1, Al-Baqara, Verse 101
 
وَلَمَّا جَاءَهُمْ رَسُولٌ مِنْ عِنْدِ اللَّهِ مُصَدِّقٌ لِمَا مَعَهُمْ نَبَذَ فَرِيقٌ مِنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ كِتَابَ اللَّهِ وَرَاءَ ظُهُورِهِمْ كَأَنَّهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ   [ When Allah sent them an Apostle confirming the Scriptures they already had, some of those who had received the Scripture before, threw the Book of Allah behind their backs as if they had no knowledge.]
 
The content of Quran, and that of the Torah are in natural harmony because the books are the word of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ).  Then, why the Children of Israel claim that they believe in one, and deny the other? It is because parts of the Torah and Bible were altered, omitted and concealed over  centuries by their  leaders and religious scholars who did that for some material gains. Quran exposed what was concealed and altered, and confirmed what was not altered.