LET US CORRECT OUR ISLAMIC FAITH

دعونا نصحّح العقيدة الاسلامية

 

 

 

 

 

 

تفسيرِ اَسَدی

TAFSEER-E-ASEDI
 

BY

SHAIKH MIR ASEDULLAH QUADRI

 
 
JUZ 2.1   SAYAQOOL (سَيَقُولُ)
 
 

 

سورة البقرة

The Cow
 

Al-Baqara | Sura # 2| 286 verses | Madinan

 

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ 

In the name of Allah, the Most Compassionate and Most Merciful
    
   
 
Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 142
 
سَيَقُولُ السُّفَهَاءُ مِنَ النَّاسِ مَا وَلَّاهُمْ عَنْ قِبْلَتِهِمُ الَّتِي كَانُوا عَلَيْهَا قُلْ لِلَّهِ الْمَشْرِقُ وَالْمَغْرِبُ يَهْدِي مَنْ يَشَاءُ إِلَى صِرَاطٍ مُسْتَقِيمٍ  [The foolish among the people will say, 'What has turned them away from their Qibla, which they used to face?' Say, 'To Allah belongs the East and the West. He guides whom He wills to the straight path. ] 
 
Verses 142 - 45 are related to the change of Qibla from Bait-ul-Maqdis to Masjid al-Haram.
 
In the early days of Islam, Makkan pagans claimed that Ka'ba was their House and the House of their forefathers.  Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) commanded Muslims to direct themselves to Jerusalem for prayers.  At that time, Jews said, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) neglects their religion (Judaism), but follows their Qibla. 
 
When the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) came from Makkah to Madinah, he continued praying facing towards Jerusalem for about sixteen or seventeen months.  This has been recorded in many Ahadith books, including Bukhari and Muslim.
It is in Hadith -  It is reported on the authority of Al-Bara (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) that he said, 'I prayed with the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) turning towards Bait-ul-Maqdis for sixteen months till this verse of Surah Baqara was revealed. قَدْ نَرَى تَقَلُّبَ وَجْهِكَ فِي السَّمَاءِ فَلَنُوَلِّيَنَّكَ قِبْلَةً تَرْضَاهَا فَوَلِّ وَجْهَكَ شَطْرَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَحَيْثُ مَا كُنْتُمْ فَوَلُّوا وُجُوهَكُمْ شَطْرَهُ وَإِنَّ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ لَيَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّهُ الْحَقُّ مِنْ رَبِّهِمْ وَمَا اللَّهُ بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا يَعْمَلُونَ  [ We have seen you turn your face towards the heavens, so We are turning you towards a prayer direction that pleases you.  Turn your face in the direction of the Sacred Mosque. Wherever you may be, turn your faces to it.  Those who were given the Book know with certainty that this is the truth from their Lord.  Allah is not unaware of what they do.] (Al-Baqara - 144).  This verse was revealed when the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) was praying. A person among his people passed by the people of Ansar (at another place) as they were engaged in prayer.  He called them and narrated about it and they turned their faces towards Ka'ba. (Muslim, Book of Salah) 
The change of Qibla was an important event.  The above verse describes that some foolish people among the Jews may say that what has turned Muslims to change their Qibla.  Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) provides the answer by saying that  قُلْ لِلَّهِ الْمَشْرِقُ وَالْمَغْرِبُ يَهْدِي مَنْ يَشَاءُ إِلَى صِرَاطٍ مُسْتَقِيمٍ  [ Say, 'to Allah belongs the East and the West.  He guides whom He wills to a straight path.]
 
 
Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 143
 
وَكَذَلِكَ جَعَلْنَاكُمْ أُمَّةً وَسَطًا لِتَكُونُوا شُهَدَاءَ عَلَى النَّاسِ وَيَكُونَ الرَّسُولُ عَلَيْكُمْ شَهِيدًا وَمَا جَعَلْنَا الْقِبْلَةَ الَّتِي كُنْتَ عَلَيْهَا إِلَّا لِنَعْلَمَ مَنْ يَتَّبِعُ الرَّسُولَ مِمَّنْ يَنْقَلِبُ عَلَى عَقِبَيْهِ وَإِنْ كَانَتْ لَكَبِيرَةً إِلَّا عَلَى الَّذِينَ هَدَى اللَّهُ وَمَا كَانَ اللَّهُ لِيُضِيعَ إِيمَانَكُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ بِالنَّاسِ لَرَءُوفٌ رَحِيمٌ  [And thus we have made you a middle nation that you will be witnesses over the people and the Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) will be a witness over you. And We did not make the Qibla which you used to face except that We might make evident who would follow the Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), and who would turn back on his heels. And indeed, it is difficult except for those whom Allah has guided. And never would Allah  let your faith go waste. Indeed Allah is  Kind and Merciful to the people. ]
 
In this verse, Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) says that He did not make Jerusalem as Qibla earlier except to see who follows the Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) in letter and spirit.  People need to have complete trust in Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) and His Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), otherwise it is not possible for them to follow the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) in all his teachings and actions.
 
Once the Qibla was changed, some Muslims felt concerned about the Muslims who were already dead and who faced Jerusalem as Qibla earlier in their life times.  Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) says that they should not worry about their dead.  He will not let their deeds will go in vain. 
 
Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) says, Muslims are the middle nation (أُمَّةً وَسَطًا) and on the right path.  On one side, are the disbelievers, and on the other are the people of the book both have lost the right path.  Muslims will be witness for all these people and will keep calling them to the right path till the day of resurrection.  The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) is the protector, guide and a witness for all people of the world.
 
 
Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 144
 
قَدْ نَرَى تَقَلُّبَ وَجْهِكَ فِي السَّمَاءِ فَلَنُوَلِّيَنَّكَ قِبْلَةً تَرْضَاهَا فَوَلِّ وَجْهَكَ شَطْرَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَحَيْثُ مَا كُنْتُمْ فَوَلُّوا وُجُوهَكُمْ شَطْرَهُ وَإِنَّ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ لَيَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّهُ الْحَقُّ مِنْ رَبِّهِمْ وَمَا اللَّهُ بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا يَعْمَلُونَ  [ We have seen you turn your face towards the heavens, so We are turning you towards a prayer direction that pleases you. Turn your face in the direction of the Sacred Mosque. Wherever you may be, turn your faces to it. Those who were given the Book (Quran) know with certainty that this is the Truth from their Lord: God is not unaware of what they do. ] 
During his stay in Makka and after his arrival in Madina, Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) turned his face towards Bait al-Maqdis for prayers. However, he supplicated that Bait al-Haram in Makka to be made Qibla of Muslims.  He used to see up into the sky waiting for the command in this regard from Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ).  
In this verse, Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) describes that He is aware of Prophet's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) supplication as He has seen the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) looking up, waiting for the command.  Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) says that now turn towards Makka, wherever you are, for prayers.  

 

Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 145
 
وَلَئِنْ أَتَيْتَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ بِكُلِّ آَيَةٍ مَا تَبِعُوا قِبْلَتَكَ وَمَا أَنْتَ بِتَابِعٍ قِبْلَتَهُمْ وَمَا بَعْضُهُمْ بِتَابِعٍ قِبْلَةَ بَعْضٍ وَلَئِنِ اتَّبَعْتَ أَهْوَاءَهُمْ مِنْ بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَكَ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ إِنَّكَ إِذًا لَمِنَ الظَّالِمِينَ  [ (O' believers) Even if you were to bring to the People of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) all the signs (verses, evidences, proofs) they would not follow your Qibla. Nor will you be a follower of their Qibla.  Nor would they follow each other's Qibla.  So if you were to follow their desires after what has come to you of knowledge, indeed, you would then be among the wrongdoers. ] 
 
Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) describes the nature of Jews, Christians and non-believers saying that whatever truthful sign you present in front of them, they will not follow your Qibla.  And neither you will follow theirs.  Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) warns Muslims that if they compromise on their Islamic teachings in order to please these people, it will be a wrongdoing on their part.   

 

Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 146
 
الَّذِينَ آَتَيْنَاهُمُ الْكِتَابَ يَعْرِفُونَهُ كَمَا يَعْرِفُونَ أَبْنَاءَهُمْ وَإِنَّ فَرِيقًا مِنْهُمْ لَيَكْتُمُونَ الْحَقَّ وَهُمْ يَعْلَمُونَ  [Those to whom We gave the Scripture know him (the Prophet  ﷺ) as they know their own sons.  But indeed, a party of them conceal the truth while they know. ] 

Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) says that the Jews and Christians know the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) as they know their own children.  They have read about him in their scriptures, they waited for him for centuries, they prayed in his name and got their supplications answered for centuries and they know all signs about him are truthful.  When they look at him, they know he is the one they had been waiting for so long.  In spite of all that, they conceal the truth and oppose him for some worldly benefits.

 

Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 147
 
الْحَقُّ مِنْ رَبِّكَ فَلَا تَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْمُمْتَرِينَ  [(O' People)The truth is from your Lord, so never be among the people who doubt. ] 

Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) says that Allah's commandments and Prophet's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) teachings are truthful. Muslims should avoid the company of the people who are doubtful about Islam.  

 
Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 148
 
وَلِكُلٍّ وِجْهَةٌ هُوَ مُوَلِّيهَا فَاسْتَبِقُوا الْخَيْرَاتِ أَيْنَ مَا تَكُونُوا يَأْتِ بِكُمُ اللَّهُ جَمِيعًا إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ  [Each community has its own direction to which it turns. (So) race to do good deeds. Wherever you are, Allah will bring you together. Allah has power to do everything. ] 

Human beings have the freedom to believe or disbelieve,  support the truth or to follow the falsehood and to do good or evil deeds.  But this freedom is not for ever; it is limited to this world.  When death approaches, you have no choice.  You cannot even choose to stay alive for a moment more than your prescribed life span.

Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) says that  if you race to do good deeds, it will be better for you.  Because, no one knows when death will approach him.  It is indeed a good idea to do as many good deeds as possible. Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) says that wherever we lived, it does not matter, we will eventually be brought together on the day of Judgement. There is no escape from it and no one can hide from the Day of Judgement.

 

Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 149
 
وَمِنْ حَيْثُ خَرَجْتَ فَوَلِّ وَجْهَكَ شَطْرَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَإِنَّهُ لَلْحَقُّ مِنْ رَبِّكَ وَمَا اللَّهُ بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا تَعْمَلُونَ  [So wherever you may have started out, turn your face in the direction of the Sacred Mosque.  This is the truth from your Lord.  He is not unaware of what you do. ] 

 

Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 150
 
وَمِنْ حَيْثُ خَرَجْتَ فَوَلِّ وَجْهَكَ شَطْرَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَحَيْثُ مَا كُنْتُمْ فَوَلُّوا وُجُوهَكُمْ شَطْرَهُ لِئَلَّا يَكُونَ لِلنَّاسِ عَلَيْكُمْ حُجَّةٌ إِلَّا الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا مِنْهُمْ فَلَا تَخْشَوْهُمْ وَاخْشَوْنِي وَلِأُتِمَّ نِعْمَتِي عَلَيْكُمْ وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَهْتَدُونَ  [ Wherever you may have started out, turn your face in the direction of the Sacred Mosque. Wherever any of you may be, turn your faces towards it, so that people may have no argument against you; except for the unjust among them. Do not fear them; fear Me  so that I may perfect My favor on you so you may be guided. ] 

Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) is emphasizing the change of Qibla again and again in the above verses saying the Ka'ba and the sacred mosque in Makka is the Qibla for Muslims.  Wherever they are, they should turn towards it for their prayers. The phrase in the above verse 'so that people may have no argument against you' refers to  hypocrites. Jews and Christians who tried to plant doubts in the minds of believers on this issue.  Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) says, 'do not fear them; fear Me, so that I may perfect My favor on you and you may be guided'.

 

Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 151
 
كَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا فِيكُمْ رَسُولًا مِنْكُمْ يَتْلُو عَلَيْكُمْ آَيَاتِنَا وَيُزَكِّيكُمْ وَيُعَلِّمُكُمُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَيُعَلِّمُكُمْ مَا لَمْ تَكُونُوا تَعْلَمُونَ - [Just as We have sent among you an Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) from yourselves reciting to you Our verses and purifying you and teaching you the Book and wisdom and teaching you that which you did not know. ] 
 
Three things; teaching, training and purification, have been mentioned in the above verse.  The process of teaching, training and purification of Sahabah was carried out as follows.
 
(i) Sahabah first accepted Islam on the hands of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).  They gave promise of allegiance (Ba'it - بیعت) by reciting Islamic testimony (کلمہ طیّبہ).
It is in Quran - "إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يُبَايِعُونَكَ إِنَّمَا يُبَايِعُونَ اللَّهَ يَدُ اللَّهِ فَوْقَ أَيْدِيهِمْ ۚ فَمَن نَّكَثَ فَإِنَّمَا يَنكُثُ عَلَىٰ نَفْسِهِ ۖ وَمَنْ أَوْفَىٰ بِمَا عَاهَدَ عَلَيْهُ اللَّهَ فَسَيُؤْتِيهِ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا"  [ Indeed, those who pledge allegiance to you, (O' Mohammad - صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) - they are actually pledging allegiance to Allah. The hand of Allah is over their hands. So he who breaks his word only breaks it to the detriment of himself. And he who fulfills that which he has promised Allah - He will give him a great reward.] (Al-Fath - 10)
Often the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) took promise of allegiance (بیعت) when a person accepted Islam.  Sometimes, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) took promise of allegiance (بیعت) as repentance for one’s past wrong doings.  Sometimes the pledge (بیعت) was taken to shed the last drop of blood in the cause of Islam, as it happened  at the time of the conflict of Hudaibiya. The Promise of allegiance was also taken from women. 
(ii) After Sahabah became Muslims, Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) taught them Quran.  
 
(iii) Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) then trained Sahabah in their day to day living.  He also taught them wisdom.  
It is in Quran -  لَّقَدْ كَانَ لَكُمْ فِي رَسُولِ اللَّهِ أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ لِّمَن كَانَ يَرْجُو اللَّهَ وَالْيَوْمَ الْآخِرَ وَذَكَرَ اللَّهَ كَثِيرًا [Indeed in the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) you have an excellent example to follow;  for him who hopes in (the meeting with) Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) and the Last Day and does Zikr of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) extensively.]   (Al-Ahzaab - 21) 
(iv) When Sahabah sat in the company of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) their worldly thoughts and ordinary consideration got extincted from their minds and they became exceptionally pious.  This aspect is referred in the above Quranic verse as 'purified them' ('وَيُزَكِّيهِمْ'). 
It is in Hadith - Hanzalah Al-Usayyidi (رضئ الله تعالى عنه) said, "O'Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), when we are in your company, and are reminded of Hell-fire and Jannah, we feel as if we are seeing them with our own eyes, but when we go away from you and attend to our wives, children and business, much of these things go out of our minds." Thereupon the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said, "By Him in Whose Hand is my life, if your state of mind remains the same as it is in my presence and you are always busy in the Zikr of Allah, the angels will shake hands with you in your beds and on your roads. (Muslim - part of the Hadith).
(v) After Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) left this world, the teaching, training and purification of people was carried out by Khulafa-e-Rashideen, Sahabah, Aimma and Shuyookh of Ihsan (Awliya Allah). 

 

Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 152
 
فَاذْكُرُونِي أَذْكُرْكُمْ وَاشْكُرُوا لِي وَلَا تَكْفُرُونِ  [So remember Me; I will remember you. And be grateful to Me and do not deny Me. ] 

What is remembrance / invocation (Zikr - ذکر)? 

To remember is, not to forget.  Repetitive recitations of the names of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ), repetitive recitation of Durood on Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and various supplications are covered in Zikr.   The Zikr could be oral (loud or soft) or in heart.  The objective of Zikr is mindfulness of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ). Most important Zikr is the Zikr of 'Islamic Testimony' (Kalima Tayyiba - كلمه طيِّبه) ' [La  Ilaha Illallahu  - لا اله الاّ الله] which has a significant effect in prevention of evil considerations (Wasaawis - وساوس).

The meaning of the above verse   فَاذْكُرُونِي أَذْكُرْكُمْ  [ Remember Me and I will remember you.] are, we need to be  mindful of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) all the time.  When forgetfulness goes, the nearness to Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) comes.

First a person recites La Ilaha Illallahu (لا إله إلا الله) by tongue, later his heart joins with his tongue and his forgetfulness disappears altogether. Repeated invocations helps to forget our dependent existence and realize the independent existence of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ).  This way the person forgets himself and remembers only the Almighty.

The invocation of 'La Ilah Illallah' (لَا اِلٰهَ اِلّآلله) is the commandment of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) which has been received through the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). 

It is in Quran -  قُلِ اللَّهُ ۖ ثُمَّ ذَرْهُمْ فِي خَوْضِهِمْ يَلْعَبُونَ [You say Allah and let these forgetful people be involved in non-sensical talk]. (Al-An'aam - 91).

It is in Quran -   وَلَذِكْرُ اللَّهِ أَكْبَرُ   [The invocation of Allah is very big thing ] (Al-Ankaboot - 45).

It is in Quran - الَّذِينَ يَذْكُرُونَ اللَّهَ قِيَامًا وَقُعُودًا وَعَلَىٰ جُنُوبِهِمْ  [Those who invocate Allah standing and sitting and lying on their sides.] (Aal-e-Imran - 191). 

With the above verse, perpetuity of the presence of Almighty (Dawaam Huzoor - دوام حضور) is deduced.

It is in Quran - إِنَّ اللَّهَ وَمَلَائِكَتَهُ يُصَلُّونَ عَلَى النَّبِيِّ ۚ يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا صَلُّوا عَلَيْهِ وَسَلِّمُوا تَسْلِيمًا  [ Certainly Allah and His angels send Allah's blessings on the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).  O' People of belief you also invocate for Allah's blessings on Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). ] (Al-Ahzab - 56).   (And make sure to do this often).] 

There are many graceful epithets of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) and the one who remembers them and involves in their repeated invocation, gets rewarded by Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ)  in this world and in Hereafter.

Another important aspect is, if you are doing Zikr of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) Satan does not find a way into your life.

It is in Quran - قَالَ فَبِعِزَّتِكَ لَأُغْوِيَنَّهُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ  -  إِلَّا عِبَادَكَ مِنْهُمُ الْمُخْلَصِينَ  [ Iblis said, ‘I swear by Your might! I will tempt all, except Your servants, among them endowed with sincerity in faith and worship.] (Saad - 82-83)

 

Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 153
 
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا اسْتَعِينُوا بِالصَّبْرِ وَالصَّلَاةِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ مَعَ الصَّابِرِينَ  [O you who believe, seek help through patience and prayer.  Indeed, Allah is with the patient. ]

Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) commands us to seek His help through patience and prayer. The meanings of patience is to overcome the feelings of anxiety, fear and despair over life’s troubles.  Patience can take several forms and can be practiced at different levels based on how close you are with Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ).

The commands of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) usually revolve around prohibiting things the human Nafs illogically desires and asking you to do things to control and keep yourself within the purview of Islamic Sharia. This requires patience. However, the  more you adhere to Allah's (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) commandments, the more comfortable you feel practicing them and a time comes when you start loving them. 

'Indeed, Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) is with the patient' is an invitation for us to face the difficulties of life in the company of our Lord.  To be in the company of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) is a great feeling. Try it, walk one step, Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) will come to you taking 10 steps and so on, and one day you will be in his company and would never feel lonely, ever in your life again. 

 

Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 154
 
وَلَا تَقُولُوا لِمَنْ يُقْتَلُ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ أَمْوَاتٌ بَلْ أَحْيَاءٌ وَلَكِنْ لَا تَشْعُرُونَ  [And say not of those who are killed in Allah’s cause, 'they are dead.' Rather they are alive, but you are not aware. ] 
 
Some  people say that  the above verse  is only for those who were martyred in wars.  It is not a correct understanding.  The verse says, those who die in Allah's (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) cause.  They should read the life histories of  Sahabah, Imams, Awliya Allah and Shuyookh of Ihsan; how hard they trained themselves, how painstakingly they took care of Tazkia Nafs of their people, how they faced hardships in spreading Sahih Iman in the world and how they fought with their adversaries  in humans, Jinns, and Shayateen in difficult circumstances. Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) described 'Tazkia Nafs' as a bigger Jihad than fighting the enemy on the battle field.
It is in Hadith -  Once returning from a war, Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said  "We are returning from Jihad-e-Asghar (smaller Jihad, ie., war) towards Jihad-e-Akbar"(Tazkia Nafs, ie., bigger Jihad)".  (Radd al-Mukhtar, Kitab al-Jihad, third edition, page 237).
Thus, all pious Muslims and Awliya Allah are surely included under the ambiance of  above Quranic verse and similar other verses.
It is in Quran – وَمَا هَـٰذِهِ الْحَيَاةُ الدُّنْيَا إِلَّا لَهْوٌ وَلَعِبٌ ۚ وَإِنَّ الدَّارَ الْآخِرَةَ لَهِيَ الْحَيَوَانُ ۚ لَوْ كَانُوا يَعْلَمُونَ [ What is the life of this world but amusement and play? but verily the Home in the Hereafter - that is life indeed, if they but knew.] (Al-Ankaboot – 64).
The above verse describes 'the Life after death' as the real life.  In the life after death all our faculties of seeing, listening, talking, etc., function more efficiently than they functioned during our lives in this world. 
It is in Quran -  فَتَوَلَّىٰ عَنْهُمْ وَقَالَ يَا قَوْمِ لَقَدْ أَبْلَغْتُكُمْ رِسَالَةَ رَبِّي وَنَصَحْتُ لَكُمْ وَلَـٰكِن لَّا تُحِبُّونَ النَّاصِحِينَ  [ So (Salih - عليه السلام) left them, saying: "O my people! I did indeed convey to you the message for which I was sent by my Lord.  I gave you good counsel, but you do not like good counselors!] ( Al-Araaf - 79) 
 
It is in Quran – فَتَوَلَّىٰ عَنْهُمْ وَقَالَ يَا قَوْمِ لَقَدْ أَبْلَغْتُكُمْ رِسَالَاتِ رَبِّي وَنَصَحْتُ لَكُمْ ۖ فَكَيْفَ آسَىٰ عَلَىٰ قَوْمٍ كَافِرِينَ [ So (Shu'aib - عليه السلام) left them, saying: "O' my people! I did indeed convey to you the messages for which I was sent by my Lord: I gave you good counsel, but how shall I lament over a people who refuse to believe! ] (Al-Araaf - 93).
The above verses testify that both Salih and Shuaib (عليهم السلام) addressed their nations, who had already perished.  They addressed them "O'my people" ( يَا قَوْمِ ). This confirms the fact that calling "Ya Rasulullah" ( يا رسول الله صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) is as per the commandments of Quran.  

It is in Hadith - lbn Abbas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) narrated that Allah’s Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) passed by some graves of Madinah, turned his face towards them and said: Peace be on you, O people of the graves! ( السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكُمْ يَا أَهْلَ الْقُبُورِ ).  May Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) forgive us and you. You have gone before us and we are to follow. (Tirmidhi).
 
Salutation is done to the living, who can hear and reply back.
 
FACTS ABOUT THE  LIFE AFTER DEATH 
 
It is important to know that the 'Life after Death' is not related with our Dead physical bodies.  For general people, these bodies get decomposed gradually and become part of Earth.  Therefore, life cannot be associated with these bodies. 

The seven basic attributes of human beings, viz., (1) Life, (2) Knowledge, (3) Seeing, (4) Hearing, (5) Speech, (6) power, and (7) intention, are a gift of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) to us. These faculties remain active with us in this world as well as in the Life after Death. 

Wherever we live, our body should be able to survive in that environment. Our physical world is made up of matter, therefore, our bodies are also made up of matter.  When we die and get transferred to the Life after death, this body becomes useless for that world as a specific body is required to survive in that world.   Therefore, our physical bodies are buried in earth and for general sinful Muslims, these bodies get decomposed and become part of Earth. 
 
Our lives in the Life after death is associate with other bodies that are provided to us in that world.   However, one thing remains common.  Our appearance remains more or less the same in both the worlds, meaning, we look in the other same as we looked in this world.

Whether we are associated with the physical body of this world or the body of the Life after death, our attributes attributes viz., (1) Life, (2) Knowledge, (3) Seeing, (4) Hearing, (5) Speech, (6) power, and (7) intention, remain with it.

It is important to note that all the above faculties are associated with our "Self" (نفس) which is non-corporeal. They look like associated with our physical bodies, because we are required to live in these bodies in this world.  Once we are dead and transferred to the Life after death, all traces of life of our physical body disappear.  Therefore it should be buried hurriedly into the earth before it gets decomposed. 

Whether the dead person is good or bad, Muslim or non-Muslim; after death, he gets transferred to the World after Death  (WAD) for all practical purposes. Whether he is subjected to torment or recompense, everything related to him is done in WAD only.

The torment (Azab) or recompense (Thawab) in the World after Death is associated with the new body given to the people when they die. Even in Hell also, when the given body is burnt, a new body gets associated with the person and the torment continues unabated.

The torment of grave mentioned in Ahadith is also not associated with the mud grave where our physical dead bodies are buried.  Mud grave is used only for decomposition of our physical bodies that were provided to us in this world. However, the place of  burial becomes the place of connection for the dead people with our physical World.

The people who are dead,  can broadly  be divided into the following five categories, 
(i) Non Muslims and Muslim Sects who fail test;  (ii) Sinful Muslims who could not answer the questions of grave properly; (iii) General Muslims who pass the test; (iv) Saliheen and Good Muslims who pass the test; and  (v) Awliya Allah and Shuyookh of Ihsan.

 
(i) Non Muslims and Deviant Sects who fail the test 

People who do not have correct Islamic faith are treated as Non-Muslims or Hypocrites.  The followers of deviant sects should not be under any illusions in this context.  It is important for them to realize the facts and come back to the right path before their deaths.  Deviant sects are further divided into hundreds of groups and everyone considers itself as belonging to the  Firqa-e-Najiyyah (the Group who will get Salvation). How could this be possible? Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said, out of 73 sects, only one will enter paradise and the rest will be thrown in Hell.  They are identified by the angels who conduct the test of Grave.

After the test, Non-Muslims, hypocrites and the people who following outrageous beliefs in the name of Islam are put to unending torment which continues till the Resurrection and beyond and there is no hope of salvation for these people.

It is in Quran - إِنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ فِي الدَّرْكِ الْأَسْفَلِ مِنَ النَّارِ وَلَن تَجِدَ لَهُمْ نَصِيرًا [Indeed hypocrites (will be) in the lowest depth of the Hell Fire and you ( O'Prophet ﷺ) will not find any helper for them (An-Nisa - 145).

Some Non-Muslims’ bodies are burnt by their relatives after their death. Some people die in oceans where their bodies are eaten by fishes and sea mammals. Since physical bodies have no role in the World after Death, the punishment or otherwise of these dead people is given to the new bodies provided to them at the time of their death.

(ii) Sinful Muslims 

If the angels decide, after the question/answer session, that the sinful Muslim has to be subjected to torment for his crimes, he is punished in a special lock up room in the world after death. This room has a connection from our world at the place where he was buried. This is the reason that Prophet Mohammad
(صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) placed green leafs of date palm tree on two graves and said that as long as these are green, (these will be doing Allah’s - عَزَّ وَجَلَّ Zikr and with this Zikr) the torment of the Dead persons is expected to reduced. 

It is in Hadith - Narrated Ibn 'Abbas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) : The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) once passed by two Graves and said, "These two persons are being punished not for a major sin. One of them never saved himself from being soiled with his urine, while the other used to go about with calumnies (to make enmity between friends).' The  Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) then took a green leaf of a date-palm tree, split it into (pieces) and fixed one on each Grave. They said, "O Allah's Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)! Why have you done so?' He replied, 'I hope that their punishment might be lessened till these (the pieces of the leaf) become dry."

The above Hadith establishes the fact that seeing of punishment of grave is Sunnah and many Awliya Allah are provided with spiritual vision with which they see it,  and as per the Sunnah, place green leaves or fresh flowers on the graves to alleviate the torment.  Thus, placing of fresh green leaves and fresh flowers on the graves by Muslims is Sunnah.

Whoever goes to the grave of the dead and recites Quran there,  and prays Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) to extend benefit of the recompense of the recitation of Quran to the dead person, it helps the dead tremendously. It is expected that his punishment will be reduced from our repeated visits to the grave and recitation of Quran there.

Even if the dead man has passed the test and is in good condition in the world after death, our recitation of Quran for recompense (Eisal-e-thawab) helps him to get additional rewards.

We can recite Quran in our homes as well and pray Allah
(عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) to have mercy on our dead relatives. We can feed the poor and do so many other things of charity for the sake of our dead relatives.  The Fateha and feeding of poor we do on many occasions during the year, like on Milad-un-Nabi (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)  and Death Anniversaries and Fateha of Awliya Allah, help our needy dead relatives and other Muslims tremendously  in the World after Death.

There are many categories of sinful people. The torment in the World after Death is given to them as per their sins in this world. After certain period, these torments are stopped and these people are allowed to sleep peacefully till the day of resurrection.


(iii) Muslims who qualify in the test of grave 

An average Muslim who passes the test, is provided with a special room in world after death which has a window of Jannah opened for him/her from where he/she gets cool breeze. The Window looks like a powerful air conditioner blowing cool, mildly perfumed, refreshing breeze.  He is allowed to sleep on a special comfortable bed till resurrection. He will get up from his sleep on the day of Resurrection. The sleeping Muslims do have a connection with our world at the place of their burial. When we go to the graves of the dead who are sleeping, they hardly notice us, however they get to know that someone has visited them from the world. Our visits  to their graves are like knock at their doors. They listen to the knock, but hardly talk to us.


(iv) Good Muslims and Saliheen 

A good Muslim who passes the test is not required to sleep. He is provided with good housing and food in the World after Death. They are free men and women. When we visit the graves of such people they listen to our Salams, reply to the salutation. They listen to whatever is told to them. It is just like visiting some of our relatives in this world.
It is in Hadith - lbn Abbas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) narrated that Allah’s Apostle صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) passed by some graves of Madinah and turned his face towards them, and said : Peace be on you, O people of the graves! (السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكُمْ يَا أَهْلَ الْقُبُورِ) May Allah forgive us and you. You have gone before us and we are to follow. (Tirmidhi).
If one salutes a dead person he knows,  (says As-Salamu Alaikum) while passing by his grave, the dead person responds to his salutation and recognizes him. If one salutes a dead person he does not know,  while passing by his grave, the dead person responds to his salutation. 
 
The problem is we cannot see them. They do see us and listen to whatever is told to them. Whether you tell them by mouth or think in your heart, they listen to it and understand it. The rules of listening and talking in the World after Death are completely different from our world. They are free people. Allah’s (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) mercy is on them in abundance. Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) had promised them (during their life times) of a good and comfortable life after death.


(v) Awliya Allah and Shuyookh of Ihsan 

Awliya Allah and Shuyookh of Ihsan, after their question/answer session, receive exceptional welcome ovation and princely treatment in the  World after Death.  They enjoy the life of comforts after their deaths. They pray 5 times Salah, keep fasts as we do, during Ramadhan.
It is in Hadith - Allah’s Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said: Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) has declared it forbidden for the earth to eat the bodies of the prophets. So the prophets are living and they regularly receive their sustenance. (Ibn Maja, Abu Dawood, Nasai, Ahmad, Darimi, Ibn Khuzaimah, Ibn Abi Shaibah, Hakim, Baihaqi, etc.)
It is in Hadith - Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said "The Prophets are alive and they pray in their graves". (al-Mundhiri and Baihaqi classified it as Sahih)

It is in Hadith -  It is narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) that Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said : I found myself in Hijr and the Quraish were asking me about my night journey Meraj). I was asked about things pertaining to Bait-ul-Maqdis which I could not preserve (in my mind). I was very much vexed, so vexed as I had never been before. Then Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) raised it (Bait-ul-Maqdis) before my eyes. I looked towards it, and I gave them the information about whatever they questioned me I also saw myself among the group of apostles. I saw Musa (عليه السلام) busy in prayer and found him to be a well-built man as if he was a man of the tribe of Shanu'a. I saw Isa Ibn Maryam (عليه السلام) offering prayer, of all of men he had the closest resemblance with 'Urwa bin Masu'd al-Thaqafi (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ). I saw Ibrahim (عليه السلام) offering prayer; he had the closest resemblance with your companion (the Prophet ﷺ himself) among people. When the time of prayer came I led them (in prayer). When I completed the prayer, someone said : Here is Malik, the keeper of the Hell; pay him salutations. I turned to him, but he preceded me in salutation.  (Sahih Muslim, Bk 1, Hadith #337)

In the World after death, people celebrate Eids as we do.  Milad-un-Nabi (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) is also  Celebrated in a very grand scale. Birth days of some other Prophets are also celebrated by the people there. 

It is in Quran - قُلْ بِفَضْلِ اللَّهِ وَبِرَحْمَتِهِ فَبِذَ‌ٰلِكَ فَلْيَفْرَحُوا [ Say (O' Prophet ﷺ) for Allah's mercy and beneficence (O' believers) you celebrate the happiness.  (Yunus -58)

It is a known fact that people in World after Death live in communities, just like us.  

It is in Hadith - Jabir b. 'Abdullah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) narrates: Allah's Apostle  (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said ' When any one of you shrouds his brother, he should shroud him well (part of Hadith).  (Sahih Muslim - Book #004, Hadith #2058) .

It is in Hadith - Abu Qatada (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) narrates that Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said: "When you are a custodian of any dead, give them a fine shroud because they (the dead believers) visit one another place and meet one another (Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah and Baihaqi).

When you live in a community, you will definitely celebrate happiness together on the occasions of Eids, Milad-un-Nabi (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and other happy occasions.
 
It is a big world out there which is hidden from the physical eyes of people.   Awliya Allah, Shuyooks of Ihsan, Saliheen are joined by their spouses, kids, Murideen, followers around them in the world after death. 
It is in Quran -  وَالَّذِيۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا وَاتَّبَعَتۡهُمۡ ذُرِّيَّتُهُمۡ بِاِيۡمَانٍ اَلۡحَـقۡنَا بِهِمۡ ذُرِّيَّتَهُمۡ وَمَاۤ اَلَـتۡنٰهُمۡ مِّنۡ عَمَلِهِمۡ مِّنۡ شَىۡءٍ‌ؕ - [ We shall unite the believers with those descendants of theirs who followed them in their faith, and shall not deny them any part of the reward for their good deeds.]  (At-Tur - 21)
The world after death is a prelude (preface) to Paradise or Hell.  The pious gets rewards and the guilty gets the punishment.
It is in Quran -  كُلُّ امۡرِیءٍۢ بِمَا كَسَبَ رَهِيۡنٌ [ Every person is pledged to, what he did.]  (At-Tur - 21) 
Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)  is the Head of World after Death, as he was the Apostle of this world during his life time.  As a matter of fact, he is the Head of all the worlds in this cosmos, including our world and  the World after Death.
It is in Quran – وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ إِلَّا رَحْمَةً لِّلْعَالَمِينَ  [   (O’ Prophet ﷺ) We have not sent you except for the Mercy upon all the worlds]. (Al-Anbiya – 107).
It is in Quran –   يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ إِنَّا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ شَاهِدًا وَمُبَشِّرًا وَنَذِيرًا - وَدَاعِيًا إِلَى اللَّهِ بِإِذْنِهِ وَسِرَاجًا مُّنِيرًا (O’ Prophet ﷺ) Truly,  We have sent you as a Witness, a Bearer of Glad Tidings and Warner (for the entire Cosmos); and as one who invites to Allah's (Grace) by His consent, and as a lamp spreading light (into the whole cosmos).] (Al - Ahzab 45-46).
Everything in World after Death,  is done  under the direct supervision of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). There is a detailed set up of spiritual administration of this Cosmos, including our world and the world after death.

The details about our Physical World, the World after Death and beyond  are available in black and white in Quran and Ahadith.  It is important that people read Quran and Ahadith in the company of a true Shaikh of Ihsan.  If your spiritual vision is opened, you can also see many of these details.  
It is in Quran -  وَمَن كَانَ فِى هَـٰذِهِۦۤ أَعۡمَىٰ فَهُوَ فِى ٱلۡأَخِرَةِ أَعۡمَىٰ [The one who is blind (in spiritual vision) in this world, will be blind in Hereafter] (Isra - 72).
 
The physical bodies of Awliya Allah are generally protected.  They do not get decomposed in graves. Their bodies remain fresh till the day of Resurrection. 
(i) It is in Hadith - Narrated Jabir (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) : When the time of the Battle of Uhud approached, my father called me at night and said, "I think that I will be the first among the companions of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) to be martyred. I do not leave anyone after me dearer to me than you, except Allah's Apostle's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم and I owe some debt and you should repay it and treat your sisters favorably." So in the morning he was the first to be martyred and was buried along with another (martyr). I did not like to leave him with the other (martyr) so I took him out of the Grave after six months of his burial and he was in the same condition as he was on the day of burial, except a slight change near his ear. (Bukhari Book #23, Hadith #434).
 

(ii) It is in Hadith - Narrated 'Urwa (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ): When the wall fell on them (on Graves) during the Caliphate of Al-Walid bin Abdul Malik, the people started repairing it, and a foot appeared to them. The people got scared and thought that it was the foot of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). No one could be found who could tell them about it till I ('Urwaؓ ) said to them, "By Allah, this is not the foot of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) but it is the foot of Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)." (Bukhari Book #23, Hadith #474).

 

(iii) It is in Hadith - Yahya (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) related to me from Malik from Abd ar-Rahman ibn Abi Sasaca that he had heard that Amr Ibn al-Jamuh al-Ansari (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and Abdullah Ibn Umar al-Ansari (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), both of the tribe of Banu Salami, had their Grave uncovered by a flood. Their Grave was part of what was left after the flood. They were in the same Grave, and they were among those martyred at Uhud. They were dug up so that they might be moved. They were found unchanged. It was as if they had died only the day before. One of them had been wounded, and he had put his hand over his wound and had been buried like that. His hand was pulled away from his wound and released, and it returned to where it had been. It was forty-six years between Uhud and the day they were dug up. Malik (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said, "There is no harm in burying two or three men in the same Grave due to necessity. The oldest one is put next to the Qibla."  (Muwatta - Book #21).
 
Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 155
 
وَلَنَبْلُوَنَّكُمْ بِشَيْءٍ مِنَ الْخَوْفِ وَالْجُوعِ وَنَقْصٍ مِنَ الْأَمْوَالِ وَالْأَنْفُسِ وَالثَّمَرَاتِ وَبَشِّرِ الصَّابِرِينَ  [And We will surely test you with some fear and hunger, and with dearth of wealth, lives and crops; and give glad tidings to those who patiently endure. ] 

What is trial / test?

If someone has trust and confidence in Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ), then He provides him from the resources that are not known to him.  Similarly, the one who has absolute trust in Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ), all his requirements are fulfilled by the Almighty.  Whatever his heart wishes, Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) accomplishes it. 

When  servant's thoughts are upright and his trust in Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) is strong and he is obedient in taking care of his responsibilities and is firm on performance of imperatives, then Allah's (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) exclusive mercy turns towards him to make him eligible for more rewards in both the worlds.  For this purpose, certain difficulties arise in his life.  The whole world becomes enemy and  he gets subjected to diseases and emergencies.  Penury comes from one side and diseases from another.  This state is very unpalatable but those who stay patient get hugely rewarded in both the worlds.

It is in Quran - إِنَّ اللَّهَ مَعَ الصَّابِرِينَ  [Certainly, Allah is with the people who have patience] (Al-Baqara - 153). 

To keep the heart and thoughts balanced during this period is the work of 'the courageous people of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ)'.  

It is in Quran -  وَاللَّهُ يُحِبُّ الصَّابِرِينَ  [Allah loves those who have patience.] (Aal-e-Imran - 146)

And when the servant bears difficulties and feels no burden on his heart in accepting the commandments of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) and acts upon it willingly, without any resistance whatsoever, it is known as 'acceptance' (Tasleem - تسلیم).  

When the servant gets used to enduring troubles and it becomes easier for him to act upon the commandments of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) rather,  he starts enjoying his tolerance on afflictions, he reaches to a state known as 'Acquiescence' (Ridha -  رِضا).

It is in Quran - وَرِضْوَانٌ مِّنَ اللَّهِ أَكْبَرُ  [Allah's approval is indeed a very big thing]. (At-Tauba - 72)


 
Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 156
 
الَّذِينَ إِذَا أَصَابَتْهُمْ مُصِيبَةٌ قَالُوا إِنَّا لِلَّهِ وَإِنَّا إِلَيْهِ رَاجِعُونَ   [ Those who say, when afflicted with a calamity, 'Indeed we belong to Allah, and indeed to Him we will return. ] 

 

Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 157
 
أُولَئِكَ عَلَيْهِمْ صَلَوَاتٌ مِنْ رَبِّهِمْ وَرَحْمَةٌ وَأُولَئِكَ هُمُ الْمُهْتَدُونَ   [Upon those is the mercy of their Lord, and beneficence; and those are rightly guided. ]
 
 
Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 158
 
إِنَّ الصَّفَا وَالْمَرْوَةَ مِنْ شَعَائِرِ اللَّهِ فَمَنْ حَجَّ الْبَيْتَ أَوِ اعْتَمَرَ فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْهِ أَنْ يَطَّوَّفَ بِهِمَا وَمَنْ تَطَوَّعَ خَيْرًا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ شَاكِرٌ عَلِيمٌ  [ Indeed, as-Safa and al-Marwah are among the symbols of Allah.  So whoever makes Hajj to the House or performs Umrah, there is no blame upon him for walking between them. And whoever volunteers good, then indeed, Allah is appreciative and Knowing.]
 
During Hajj and Umra, Muslims are required to walk swiftly 7 times between Safa and Marwa hilltops close by Ka'ba.  It is a  compulsory ritual of Hajj and Umra.  
 
As-Safa and al-Marwah are described in this verse as symbols and markings of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ). Meaning, when we look at them, we remember Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ). 
 
The run between the middle portion of Safa and Marwa is the actually related with Hajira (عليها السلام), the mother of Hadhrat Ismail (عليه السلام). She ran back and forth 7 times between these two hillocks in search of  help when her infant son was suffering from immense thirst.    

Earlier, fulfilling the commandment of  Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ), Prophet Ibrahim (عليه السلام) had left her with their infant son, Ismail (عليه السلام), in a barren land.

It is in Hadith - Ibn 'Abbas said,  'Prophet Ibrahim (عليه السلام) brought Hajira (عليها السلام), his wife, and their infant son Isma'il (عليه السلام), whom she was still nursing, and left them at (the site of) the House of Allah under a tree above Zamzam.  Makkah at that time was a place where there was neither water nor any dweller.  He left a bag of dates and a container of water for them. Then Ibrahim (عليه السلام) turned to go away. Hajira (عليها السلام) said to him, 'O Ibrahim (عليه السلام)! Where are you going? And who are you leaving us to,  in this valley without a companion or a thing?' She repeated this several times but he did not respond. At last she asked him, 'Has Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) commanded you to do so?' He answered, 'Yes.' Thereupon she said, 'Then He will not let us perish!'' (Bukhari)

After leaving the infant son and his mother,  Ibrahim (عليه السلام) left, and when he reached a mountain pass where he could no longer see them, he turned his face toward the Ka'ba and with his hands raised, supplicated.

It is in Quran -   رَّبَّنَا إِنِّي أَسْكَنتُ مِن ذُرِّيَّتِي بِوَادٍ غَيْرِ ذِي زَرْعٍ عِندَ بَيْتِكَ الْمُحَرَّمِ رَبَّنَا لِيُقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ فَاجْعَلْ أَفْئِدَةً مِّنَ النَّاسِ تَهْوِي إِلَيْهِمْ وَارْزُقْهُم مِّنَ الثَّمَرَاتِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَشْكُرُونَ  [ O Our Lord! I have made of my offspring to dwell in a valley without cultivation by your Sacred House; in order Our Lord, that they may establish regular prayer.   So fill the hearts of some among men with love towards them, and feed them with fruits, so that they may give thanks!]  (Ibrahim -37)

It is in Hadith -  After Ibrahim (عليه السلام ) left,  Hajira (عليها السلام) sat under the tree with infant Ismail (عليه السلام) on her lap. She drank from the water container until it was over.  Soon, her milk dried out.  Her son grew hungry. She could hardly bear to look at him. She went and stood at nearby hill top Safa and looked down the valley for help. She could see no one. She came down, ran through the valley and reached another hill top Marwah. She stood at Marwah, and looked,  but found nothing. She repeated this seven times. Ibn 'Abbas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said that the  Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said : 'It is (to commemorate this walk) that pilgrims walk between Safa and Marwah. (Bukhari)  

Then, Hajira (عليها السلام) found Ismail (عليه السلام) with a miracle at his feet.  She saw water gushing out from the ground.  She called it Zam Zam.  Both mother and son drank from it and regained their strength. 

It is reported that Quraish had kept many idols between Safa and Marwa in their time of illiteracy.  When Makka was conquered, all those idols were removed from this place and  Sa'ee (سعي), for Hajj and Umra was restored. 
 
 
Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 159
 
إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَكْتُمُونَ مَا أَنْزَلْنَا مِنَ الْبَيِّنَاتِ وَالْهُدَى مِنْ بَعْدِ مَا بَيَّنَّاهُ لِلنَّاسِ فِي الْكِتَابِ أُولَئِكَ يَلْعَنُهُمُ اللَّهُ وَيَلْعَنُهُمُ اللَّاعِنُونَ  [ Those who conceal the Clear Signs and Guidance We have sent down, after We have made it clear to people in the Book, Allah curses them, and (they are also) cursed by them who (fall victim of this) curse.]

What is the meaning of curse by Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ)?  It means to be expelled and banished from the mercy of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ).  The word curse has appeared 41 times in Quran.  When curse is mentioned in relation to punishment, it reflects expulsion from Allah's (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) mercy accompanied by His anger and wrath.

During Prophet's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) time, the people of the scripture hid  clear proofs revealed in their books confirming the authenticity of prophet-hood of Prophet  Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).  This type of concealment has bred evil and mischief among people for generations; because every time a person or a group is misguided due to the omitted facts, and every time a conflict occurs as a result of what was concealed, the people who concealed the facts become liable for Allah's (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) curse again and again and again, till the day of resurrection.

The punishment of being expelled from Allah's (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) mercy is not limited to the people of the book or the non-believers.  It is equally applicable to the scholars and inventors of deviant sects among Muslims. They concealed the truth and misled people and became founders of deviant sects. 

What is the meaning of  'Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) curses them, and (they are also) cursed by them who (fall victim of this) curse.' ?  It means that they are cursed by human beings and other creations. 

Like, if Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) holds back rain in view of wrong doings of the people of a region or for their disobedience or concealment of truth, then  the plants and animals who suffer from lack of water, curse them as well.  Even the land and the bricks of their houses curse them for inviting Allah's (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) wrath. In Hereafter, the curses come from Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ), His angels and other people who suffered because of their wrongdoings.

The scholars of the deviant sects and their founders and the rulers who concealed the truth from their followers will be exposed on the day of Judgment in front of their followers.  These deceivers will be brought in front of the entire humanity.  At that time their followers and the entire humanity and angels will curse them for misleading people, inventing a new sect and becoming cause of  punishment for their followers.

It is in Quran -  قَالَ ادْخُلُوا فِي أُمَمٍ قَدْ خَلَتْ مِن قَبْلِكُم مِّنَ الْجِنِّ وَالْإِنسِ فِي النَّارِ ۖ كُلَّمَا دَخَلَتْ أُمَّةٌ لَّعَنَتْ أُخْتَهَا ۖ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا ادَّارَكُوا فِيهَا جَمِيعًا قَالَتْ أُخْرَاهُمْ لِأُولَاهُمْ رَبَّنَا هَـٰؤُلَاءِ أَضَلُّونَا فَآتِهِمْ عَذَابًا ضِعْفًا مِّنَ النَّارِ ۖ قَالَ لِكُلٍّ ضِعْفٌ وَلَـٰكِن لَّا تَعْلَمُونَ [Allah  will say, ‘Join the communities of jinn and humans who have gone before you into the Fire.’ Every community curses its fellow community as it enters, then, when they are all gathered inside, the last of them will say of the first, ‘Our Lord, it was they who led us astray: give them double punishment in the Fire’- God says, ‘Every one of you will have double punishment, though you do not know it’- (Al-A'raaf - 38)

  
 
Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 160
 
إِلَّا الَّذِينَ تَابُوا وَأَصْلَحُوا وَبَيَّنُوا فَأُولَئِكَ أَتُوبُ عَلَيْهِمْ وَأَنَا التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيمُ  [ Except for those who repent and correct themselves and make things clear; for those I will accept their repentance, and I am the Most forgiving, the Most Merciful. ]

Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) says that  wrong doers who realize their mistakes in their life time and repent for their crimes and make sure that no one is misled from their actions will be forgiven.

 

Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 161
 
إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَمَاتُوا وَهُمْ كُفَّارٌ أُولَئِكَ عَلَيْهِمْ لَعْنَةُ اللَّهِ وَالْمَلَائِكَةِ وَالنَّاسِ أَجْمَعِينَ [ Indeed, those who disbelieve and die while they are disbelievers,  upon them will be the curse of Allah and of the angels and the people, all together.] 
 
 
Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 162
 
خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا لَا يُخَفَّفُ عَنْهُمُ الْعَذَابُ وَلَا هُمْ يُنْظَرُونَ  [ They will remain in this state of rejection. Their punishment will not be lightened, nor will they be reprieved. ]

 

Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 163
 
وَإِلَهُكُمْ إِلَهٌ وَاحِدٌ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا هُوَ رَّحْمَنُ الرَّحِيمُ  [ Your God is the one God : there is no god except Him, the Most Compassionate and Most Merciful.  ]
 
It is important for people to know that there is no god except Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ). He is most Merciful and most Compassionate.  No one can save them from His punishment.  It is only He, who could save them. Thus, it is important that they seek His guidance, repent from their wrong doings and follow Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) in letter and spirit. 

 

 

 

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