LET US CORRECT OUR ISLAMIC FAITH

دعونا نصحّح العقيدة الاسلامية

 

 

 

تفسيرِ اَسَدی

TAFSEER-E-ASEDI
 

BY

 

SHAIKH MIR ASEDULLAH QUADRI

 
 
JUZ 2.4   SAYAQOOL (سَيَقُولُ)
 
 

 

سورة البقرة

The Cow
 

Al-Baqara | Sura # 2| 286 verses | Madinah

 

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ 

In the name of Allah, the Compassionate and the Merciful
    
      
Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 206
 
وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُ اتَّقِ اللَّهَ أَخَذَتْهُ الْعِزَّةُ بِالْإِثْمِ فَحَسْبُهُ جَهَنَّمُ وَلَبِئْسَ الْمِهَادُ - [ When he is told, ‘Beware of Allah,’ pride in sin takes hold of him. Hell is sufficient for him (which is) a dreadful resting place. ]

A person may be praying in the first row; he or she may talk passionately about religious issues, but it is his or her actions towards others that count.  It is here that hypocrites are identified. And when you say to them  "fear Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ)," they know that their hypocrisy has been exposed. Sinful pride will show up on their faces and they will emphasize their superiority in religious issues and justify their actions in an aggressive way.

The above verse is related to hypocrites.  Hypocrites pretend to believe in Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) and His Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) but in heart they are envious of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and are always in pursuit of an opportunity to hurt Islam and Muslims.  

 
Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 207
 
وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَنْ يَشْرِي نَفْسَهُ ابْتِغَاءَ مَرْضَاتِ اللَّهِ وَاللَّهُ رَءُوفٌ بِالْعِبَادِ - [ And among the people is the one who sells himself in pursuit of Allah’s acceptance. Allah is All-Compassionate towards His servants. ]

Selling oneself in pursuit of Allah's (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) means, to act righteously in life, in thick and thin, sorrow and happiness and in good and bad.

We cite here the example of Imam Hussain (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ).  When the killer of wounded Imam Hussain (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was sitting on his chest to kill him in Karbala, the grandson of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) asked the killer to give him a few seconds so that he could pray 2 Raka. It was the time, the Imam had innumerable bleeding wounds on his body.  Finally when he prostrated in Salah, the killer severed his head from the body.  This is the ultimate  example of selling oneself in the way of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ).  What was the result?  Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) made him an example of sacrifice to be followed by Muslims till the day of resurrection.  In addition, he was made the Imam of youths in Jannah.

It is in Quran -  إِنَّ اللَّهَ اشْتَرَىٰ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَنفُسَهُمْ وَأَمْوَالَهُم بِأَنَّ لَهُمُ الْجَنَّةَ ۚ يُقَاتِلُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ فَيَقْتُلُونَ وَيُقْتَلُونَ [ Indeed, Allah has purchased from the believers their lives and their properties for that they will have Paradise. They fight in the cause of Allah, so they kill and are killed.] (At-Tawba - 111)

 
 
Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 208
 
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا ادْخُلُوا فِي السِّلْمِ كَافَّةً وَلَا تَتَّبِعُوا خُطُوَاتِ الشَّيْطَانِ إِنَّهُ لَكُمْ عَدُوٌّ مُبِينٌ - [ O'You who believe, enter wholeheartedly into submission to Allah and do not follow  Satan’s footsteps, for he is your sworn enemy. ]
 
Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) is inviting Muslims to come back to Sahih Iman fully, without  picking and choosing what their Nufoos like or  dislike. It is important that every single Muslim follow Sahih Iman and act righteously.
 
If one is on Sahih Iman while the other is corrupt, then the one who has committed himself to truth, will suffer in the hands of the corrupt around him.  In order for the society to be upright, every person must be committed to Sahih Iman and act righteously.
It is in Quran - وَلَوِ اتَّبَعَ الْحَقُّ أَهْوَاءَهُمْ لَفَسَدَتِ السَّمَاوَاتُ وَالْأَرْضُ وَمَن فِيهِنَّ [ If the truth were to follow their whims and desires, the heavens and the earth and everyone in them would have been brought to ruin. ] (Al-Mominoon - 71) 
Most of the ills of Muslim society today is the result of Muslims selectively applying Islamic rules as per their convenience while Islam is meant to be adopted in its entirety.  People should know that they cannot be a  believer on tongue while their heart remains corrupt. 

 

Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 209
 
فَإِنْ زَلَلْتُمْ مِنْ بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَتْكُمُ الْبَيِّنَاتُ فَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ - [ If you slip after the clear proofs of the truth have come to you, then know that Allah is All-Mighty, All-Wise. ]

Sinfulness and disobedience means moving away from Allah's (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) straight path.  Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) explains that people have no excuse to deviate from the right path because He has made everything crystal clear by sending his prophets and Apostles to guide them on the right path. In addition, people have been provided with minds and hearts to weigh between truth and falsehood. 

It is in Quran - مَّنِ اهْتَدَىٰ فَإِنَّمَا يَهْتَدِي لِنَفْسِهِ ۖ وَمَن ضَلَّ فَإِنَّمَا يَضِلُّ عَلَيْهَا ۚ وَلَا تَزِرُ وَازِرَةٌ وِزْرَ أُخْرَىٰ ۗ وَمَا كُنَّا مُعَذِّبِينَ حَتَّىٰ نَبْعَثَ رَسُولًا  [Whoever accepts guidance does so for his own good; whoever strays does so at his own peril. No Nafs will bear another burden of the other, nor do We punish until We have sent an Apostle. ](Al-Israa - 15)

Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) is cautioning that  if someone decides to leave His path, he should not be under the illusion that he will get away from Allah's (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) justice.  He is Mighty and His might prevails over everything. 

 

Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 210
 
هَلْ يَنْظُرُونَ إِلَّا أَنْ يَأْتِيَهُمُ اللَّهُ فِي ظُلَلٍ مِنَ الْغَمَامِ وَالْمَلَائِكَةُ وَقُضِيَ الْأَمْرُ وَإِلَى اللَّهِ تُرْجَعُ الْأُمُورُ  - [ Are these people waiting for Allah to come to them in the shadows of the clouds, together with the angels? But the matter would already have been decided by then.   All issues are (indeed) brought back to Allah.]

Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) is questioning the disbelievers as to what are they waiting for? Would they like to follow their whims until they find themselves in a universe that is totally different from this world on the Day of Judgment?  The worldly life they see around will turn into dry remnants scattered by wind and they will stand before Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) to be taken to account.

Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) says :  Are these people waiting for Allah to come to them in the shadows of the clouds, together with the angels?  It means,  are they really waiting for the Day of Judgment to believe in truth? Are they procrastinating until the hour comes and takes them by surprise?   Are they waiting to see this universe scattered, the sun wrapped in darkness and the stars dispersed? More importantly, are they waiting till they stand in front of their Lord to be judged for their evil actions? The verse continues, 'but the matter would already have been decided by then'.  It indicates that the opportunity for repentance would have been gone by then. The verse ends with  'all matters are brought back to God'.  Whether you do good or bad, you all will be brought back to the audience of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) who will decide retribution or punishment for your deeds.

Another interpretation of the verse could be, are the disbelievers waiting for a big sign to appear from the sky?  But in this case, they will be annihilated by it, as had been case with many disbelieving nations earlier. 

     

 Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 211 

سَلْ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ كَمْ آَتَيْنَاهُمْ مِنْ آَيَةٍ بَيِّنَةٍ وَمَنْ يُبَدِّلْ نِعْمَةَ اللَّهِ مِنْ بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَتْهُ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ  يَرْشُدُونَ - [ Ask the Children of Israel how many clear proofs We gave them. And whoever changes Allah’s blessing after it has come to him: surely God is severe in punishment. ]
 
Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) is giving us the example of Jews who received His bounties but they kept on denying his commandments. Their arrogance was the cause of their denial.  When you ask them about the favors they received from Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) they will not be able to deny them. The big favor  of parting the sea for them to escape from Pharaoh's army, shading them in the desert with cloud, providing with Manna and Salwa, and water from the rock are a few of the countless  favors. In spite of all that, they chose to remain ungrateful to Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) by refusing to walk on His path.  For their arrogance, they earned  the wrath of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ).
 
This verse is a reminder to Muslims to remain grateful to Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) and His Apostle Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). The verse ends with a warning : 'And whoever changes Allah’s blessing after it has come to him: surely Allah is severe in punishment.' 
It is in Quran -  وَمَنْ أَعْرَضَ عَن ذِكْرِي فَإِنَّ لَهُ مَعِيشَةً ضَنكًا وَنَحْشُرُهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ أَعْمَىٰ [But whoever disregards My remembrance, he shall have life of hardship, and on the Day of Resurrection We shall raise him blind.] (Taa Haa - 124)

 

Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 212 

زُيِّنَ لِلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا الْحَيَاةُ الدُّنْيَا وَيَسْخَرُونَ مِنَ الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا وَالَّذِينَ اتَّقَوْا فَوْقَهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ وَاللَّهُ يَرْزُقُ مَنْ يَشَاءُ بِغَيْرِ حِسَابٍ  - [ Worldly life has been glamorized for the faithless, and they ridicule the faithful.  But those who fear Allah shall be above them on the Day of Resurrection; Allah provides immeasurably for whoever He pleases. ]

Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) says that faithless people find this world as glamorous. They  use its luxuries considering that they will live in this world for ever. They are attracted to the inferior things of this world forgetting about the superior bounties in Hereafter. 

It is in Quran - زُيِّنَ لِلنَّاسِ حُبُّ الشَّهَوَاتِ مِنَ النِّسَاءِ وَالْبَنِينَ وَالْقَنَاطِيرِ الْمُقَنطَرَةِ مِنَ الذَّهَبِ وَالْفِضَّةِ وَالْخَيْلِ الْمُسَوَّمَةِ وَالْأَنْعَامِ وَالْحَرْثِ ۗ ذَ‌ٰلِكَ مَتَاعُ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا ۖ وَاللَّهُ عِندَهُ حُسْنُ الْمَآبِ  [Glamorized for the people are the desires of women, offspring, and of heaped up piles of gold and silver, of pedigree horses, cattle, and sown fields. These are the enjoyments of the worldly life, but with Allah is the best return.]  (Aal-e-Imran - 14)

All those who have acquired wealth unlawfully, by corruption and repression, make fun of simple living Muslims in this world. Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) says that these simple living Muslims will be above them in Hereafter enjoying  Allah's (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) countless bounties while they will be thrown in Hell fire to taste the punishment of their evil deeds.  

  

Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 213 

كَانَ النَّاسُ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً فَبَعَثَ اللَّهُ النَّبِيِّينَ مُبَشِّرِينَ وَمُنْذِرِينَ وَأَنْزَلَ مَعَهُمُ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ لِيَحْكُمَ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ فِيمَا اخْتَلَفُوا فِيهِ وَمَا اخْتَلَفَ فِيهِ إِلَّا الَّذِينَ أُوتُوهُ مِنْ بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَتْهُمُ الْبَيِّنَاتُ بَغْيًا بَيْنَهُمْ فَهَدَى اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا لِمَا اخْتَلَفُوا فِيهِ مِنَ الْحَقِّ بِإِذْنِهِ وَاللَّهُ يَهْدِي مَنْ يَشَاءُ إِلَى صِرَاطٍ مُسْتَقِيمٍ - [ Mankind was a single community, then Allah sent prophets to bring good news and warning, and with them He sent the Scripture with the Truth, to judge between people in their disagreements. It was only those to whom it was given who disagreed about it after clear signs had come to them, because of rivalry between them. So by His leave Allah guided the believers to the truth they had differed about: Allah guides whoever He will to a straight path. ]

When Adam (عليه السلام) and Hawwa (عليها السلام) descended on planet Earth, their children and the children of their children formed one community.  As the population grew, people migrated to different fertile lands looking for prosperous living. This way communities evolved in different places.  As the time passed by, people started differing  from the original teachings of their ancestors.  The cause of their differences was rivalry between them. Gradually they evolved different ways of worship for themselves on the basis of some concocted theories. 

Allah's (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) sent prophets to different communities of people to remind them about the teachings they were supposed to follow.   Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) says that the people who were truthful accepted the guidance of their prophets.  Others remained adamant on their wrongdoings. 

  

Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 214 

أَمْ حَسِبْتُمْ أَنْ تَدْخُلُوا الْجَنَّةَ وَلَمَّا يَأْتِكُمْ مَثَلُ الَّذِينَ خَلَوْا مِنْ قَبْلِكُمْ مَسَّتْهُمُ الْبَأْسَاءُ وَالضَّرَّاءُ وَزُلْزِلُوا حَتَّى يَقُولَ الرَّسُولُ وَالَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا مَعَهُ مَتَى نَصْرُ اللَّهِ أَلَا إِنَّ نَصْرَ اللَّهِ قَرِيبٌ - [ Do you suppose that you will enter the Garden without first having suffered like those before you? They were afflicted by misfortune and hardship, and they were so shaken that even the Apostle and the believers with him cried, ‘When will Allah’s help arrive?’ Truly, Allah’s help is near. ]

The retribution and recompense is in proportion to your patience and endurance in unfavorable hard times.   The reward of Paradise and its bounties depends upon the good deeds in this life.  When the believers were afflicted with hardships in their lives, they waited for Allah's (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) help.  Whatever happened to them, they knew that Allah's (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) was aware of their state and His help was near.  Eventually, they were successful in both the lives.   

  

Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 215 

يَسْأَلُونَكَ مَاذَا يُنْفِقُونَ قُلْ مَا أَنْفَقْتُمْ مِنْ خَيْرٍ فَلِلْوَالِدَيْنِ وَالْأَقْرَبِينَ وَالْيَتَامَى وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ وَمَا تَفْعَلُوا مِنْ خَيْرٍ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ بِهِ عَلِيمٌ - [ They ask you as to what they should spend. Say, ‘Whatever good you spend, let it be for parents, relatives, orphans, the needy, and the traveler.’ And whatever good that you may do, Allah indeed knows it. ]

Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) has provided us guideline for charity.  The parents, deserving relatives, orphans, the needy travelers and the general needy in society; this is the order in which charity has to be channeled. The sole purpose of charity should be for Allah's (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ), not for show or flaunting. 

It is in Quran - يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تُبْطِلُوا صَدَقَاتِكُم بِالْمَنِّ وَالْأَذَىٰ كَالَّذِي يُنفِقُ مَالَهُ رِئَاءَ النَّاسِ وَلَا يُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ ۖ فَمَثَلُهُ كَمَثَلِ صَفْوَانٍ عَلَيْهِ تُرَابٌ فَأَصَابَهُ وَابِلٌ فَتَرَكَهُ صَلْدًا ۖ لَّا يَقْدِرُونَ عَلَىٰ شَيْءٍ مِّمَّا كَسَبُوا ۗ وَاللَّهُ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الْكَافِرِينَ  [O'You who believe, do not void out your charitable deeds with flaunting and hurtful words, like someone who spends his wealth only to be seen by people, not believing in Allah and the Last Day.  Such a person is like a rock with soil on it: heavy rain falls and leaves it completely bare. Such people get no rewards for their deeds : Allah does not guide the disbelievers.]  (Al-Baqara - 264)

Secrecy is the best way when it comes to voluntary charity (Sadaqa). However, when  Zakat is being paid, there is no harm in giving it publicly. It may help others in society to follow. 
 
In the same way, it is advised to perform obligatory Salah in congregation in a mosque.  As far as voluntary prayers (Nawafil) are concerned, these should be performed in privacy, alone, preferably in the nights when people are sleeping.
 

Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 216 

كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الْقِتَالُ وَهُوَ كُرْهٌ لَكُمْ وَعَسَى أَنْ تَكْرَهُوا شَيْئًا وَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لَكُمْ وَعَسَى أَنْ تُحِبُّوا شَيْئًا وَهُوَ شَرٌّ لَكُمْ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ وَأَنْتُمْ لَا تَعْلَمُونَ - [ Prescribed for you is fighting, though it is disliked by you. It may well be that you dislike something but it is good for you, and it may well be that you like something but it is bad for you. God knows, and you do not know. ] 

Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) has commanded us to fight in in His way. The question is, what is His way? 

Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) is our creator. He wants us to live in peace on planet Earth.  He does not want the strong among us to take advantage of the weak.  He does not want repression, tyranny and infighting among people.  He does not want humans to live like animals following their animal stincts.  Our creator wants us to live like humans who care for each other and  for their environment.  He wants us to be grateful for the bounties He has provided us for our living.  He wants humans to pray Him rather than praying Idols created by them by their our own hands.  This is the way of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) and this has been the teachings of all His prophets.  If a section of people are adamant to create disorder, Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) wants his believers to fight with them to resume order on the land.  This is known as fighting in the way of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ).

It is in Quran - وَلَوْلَا دَفْعُ اللَّهِ النَّاسَ بَعْضَهُم بِبَعْضٍ لَّفَسَدَتِ الْأَرْضُ [ Had Allah not driven back the people, some by means of others, the earth had surely been corrupted. ] (Al-Baqara - 251)

Fighting in the way of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) is known as Jihad.  And Jihad is directly related with Islamic faith (Iman) taught to us by Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). If we understand the meaning of Iman, we will also understand the meanings of Jihad.

What is Iman?

Iman is to believe in Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) and all his prophets and to walk on the path shown by Him. Since Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) is the seal of Prophet-hood, believing in him as the last prophet of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) is essential.  Once you believe in Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) and His Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), you believe in the teachings contained in Quran and Sunnah and walk on His path as described above. 

The salvation of people in Hereafter depends upon Sahih Iman. Anyone having Sahih Iman in his heart equal to the weight of a mustard seed, he/she will not remain in Hell.  He will be taken out of Hell on Prophet's  (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) mediation.

It is in Quran -  وَنَضَعُ الْمَوَازِينَ الْقِسْطَ لِيَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ فَلَا تُظْلَمُ نَفْسٌ شَيْئًا ۖ وَإِن كَانَ مِثْقَالَ حَبَّةٍ مِّنْ خَرْدَلٍ أَتَيْنَا بِهَا ۗ  [ And We place the scales of justice for the Day of Resurrection, so no Nafs will be treated unjustly at all. And if there is (Iman equal to) the weight of a mustard seed, We will bring it forth.]  (Al-Anbiya - 47)
 
It is in Hadith - It is narrated on the authority of Abdullah bin Mas'ud (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) that the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said, 'No one shall enter the Fire (of Hell) who has in his heart the weight of a mustard seed of Iman.  (Bukhari, Muslim and others).
 
What is the meaning of  'Iman' equal to the weight of mustard seed'?  This is explained in the following Ahadith.
 
It is in Hadith - Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said, (i) He who among you sees something abominable should modify it with the help of his hand; (ii) and if he has not strength enough to do it, then he should do it with his tongue, (iii) and if he has not strength enough to do it, (even) then he should (abhor it) from his heart, and that is the least of Iman. (Muslim Book 1, # 84)
 
It is in Hadith - It is narrated on the authority 'Abdullah bin Mas'ud (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) that the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) observed : Never a Prophet had been sent before me by Allah towards his nation who had not among his people (his) disciples and companions who followed his ways and obeyed his command. Then there came after them their successors who said whatever they did not practice, and practiced whatever they were not commanded to do. He who strove against them with his hand was a believer.  He who strove against them with his tongue was a believer, and he who strove against them with his heart was a believer and beyond that there is no faith even to the extent of a mustard seed.  (Muslim Book 1, # 86)
 
Thus, the moment a person submits to Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ), it is obligatory on him to contribute in the establishment of peace on Planet Earth.  If he sees wrongdoings, oppression, faithless repression,  he is required to stop it by hand, by fighting with the oppressors.  If he is weak, cannot fight physically, he should oppose the oppression by his tongue.  If he cannot do even that, he should refrain from associating himself with oppressors and feel bad about the oppressor's actions in his heart.  This is known as Iman equal to the weight of mustard seed. 
 
For Muslims, their lives are Jihad to establish peace within themselves and peace in the land they live.  The Jihad of Muslims on two fronts, (i) Fighting with his own evil inclinations (Jihad an-Nafs), to make it obedient to Allah's (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) commands and (ii) Fighting against the oppression in human society. 
 
(i) Fighting against our own evil inclinations
It is in Quran - وَالَّذِينَ جَاهَدُوا فِينَا لَنَهْدِيَنَّهُمْ سُبُلَنَا ۚ وَإِنَّ اللَّهَ لَمَعَ الْمُحْسِنِينَ [ And those who strive hard in Our (cause), We will most certainly guide them in Our ways; and Allah is indeed with the people of Ihsan.] (Al-Ankaboot - 69).
It is in Hadith -  The Prophet  (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said : The fighter in Allah's (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) path is the one who strives against his Nafs in obedience to Allah (Tirmidhi # 1671, Ahmad # 1234) 
 

(ii) fighting against the oppression in human society

It is in Quran -  أُذِنَ لِلَّذِينَ يُقَاتَلُونَ بِأَنَّهُمْ ظُلِمُوا ۚ وَإِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَىٰ نَصْرِهِمْ لَقَدِيرٌ  الَّذِينَ أُخْرِجُوا مِن دِيَارِهِم بِغَيْرِ حَقٍّ إِلَّا أَن يَقُولُوا رَبُّنَا اللَّهُ ۗ وَلَوْلَا دَفْعُ اللَّهِ النَّاسَ بَعْضَهُم بِبَعْضٍ لَّهُدِّمَتْ صَوَامِعُ وَبِيَعٌ وَصَلَوَاتٌ وَمَسَاجِدُ يُذْكَرُ فِيهَا اسْمُ اللَّهِ كَثِيرًا ۗ وَلَيَنصُرَنَّ اللَّهُ مَن يَنصُرُهُ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَقَوِيٌّ عَزِيزٌ [ Permission to take up arms is hereby given to those who are attacked because they have been oppressed – Allah indeed has power to grant them victory – those who have been unjustly driven from their homes, only because they said: "Our Lord is Allah" (Al-Hajj - 39-40)

It is in Quran  -  وَمَا لَكُمْ لَا تُقَاتِلُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَالْمُسْتَضْعَفِينَ مِنَ الرِّجَالِ وَالنِّسَاءِ وَالْوِلْدَانِ [What is (wrong) with you that you do not fight in the way of God, and of the weakened among men, women and children? ] (An-Nisa - 75) 

Some people claim that Jihad is a holy war against non-Muslims.  This is not correct understanding. In Islamic literature, the word holy (Muqaddas) has never been applied to war (Harb). 

It is in Quran - قَاتِلُوا الَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَلَا بِالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَلَا يُحَرِّمُونَ مَا حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَلَا يَدِينُونَ دِينَ الْحَقِّ مِنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ حَتَّىٰ يُعْطُوا الْجِزْيَةَ عَن يَدٍ وَهُمْ صَاغِرُونَ [ Fight those who do not believe in Allah, nor in the latter day, nor do they prohibit what Allah and His Apostle have prohibited, nor follow the religion of truth, out of those who have been given the Book, until they pay tax in acknowledgment of superiority and they are in a state of subjection.] (At-Tawba - 29) 

Some people take out of context meaning of the above Quranic verse to claim that Jihad means to fight non-believers en masse.  This is a wrong understanding.

If Jihad is taken to mean fighting with others, then the true meanings of Jihad are described in the following Quranic verse. 

It is in Quran -  وَقَاتِلُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ الَّذِينَ يُقَاتِلُونَكُمْ وَلَا تَعْتَدُوا إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يُحِبُّ الْمُعْتَدِينَ [Fight in Allah’s cause against those who fight you, but do not overstep the limits. Allah does not love those who overstep the limits.] (Al-Baqara - 190)

Three things have been addressed in this verse; (i) fighting in Allah's (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) cause,  (ii) fighting only with those who fight against you, and (iii) not to overstep the limits in fighting. 
 
(i) Fighting in Allah's (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) cause
 
Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) is the creator of  all human beings.  It is not that He is the creator of only Muslims. He  loves all His servants. What He does not like is someone who does not try to understand Allah's (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) signs in the Cosmos, denies His merciful bounties, stages a rebellion and creates oppression and tyranny on other human beings.  
 
Human history is a witnessed how tyrant rulers have resorted to oppression, killing and tribulations in the world. This is the reason, Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) sent  Prophets in every nation to rid people off their ignorance, provide them justice and free them from the clutches of tyrant rulers/tribal heads.
 
The prophets fought back with these tyrants in order to provide justice to the people and re-establish order and peace. 
 
Some people wrongly claim that Islam's early wars were fought to spread Islam in the world.  They forget the fact that 'belief'  is related to heart and in no way it can be achieved by sword.  Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) wants faith to emanate from the heart, not through fear or compulsion. He wants to enlighten people's minds and hearts about Himself and His creation in this Cosmos, rather than their bowed head in fear. 

It is in Quran -  لَعَلَّكَ بَاخِعٌ نَّفْسَكَ أَلَّا يَكُونُوا مُؤْمِنِينَ  -  إِن نَّشَأْ نُنَزِّلْ عَلَيْهِم مِّنَ السَّمَاءِ آيَةً فَظَلَّتْ أَعْنَاقُهُمْ لَهَا خَاضِعِينَ [Are you (O Apostle ﷺ) going to worry yourself to death because they will not believe? If We had wished, We could have sent them down a (fearful) sign from the sky, at which their necks would stay bowed in utter humility.] (Ash-Shu'araa - 3-4)

When the truth is crystal clear, there is no reason to force people to choose.  People naturally want  what is good for themselves. 
It is in Quran -  لَا إِكْرَاهَ فِي الدِّينِ ۖ قَد تَّبَيَّنَ الرُّشْدُ مِنَ الْغَيِّ ۚ فَمَن يَكْفُرْ بِالطَّاغُوتِ وَيُؤْمِن بِاللَّهِ فَقَدِ اسْتَمْسَكَ بِالْعُرْوَةِ الْوُثْقَىٰ لَا انفِصَامَ لَهَا ۗ وَاللَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ  [There is no compulsion in the Religion. The right way stands there clearly distinguished from the false. Hence he who rejects the tyrant powers of evil,  and believes in Allah,  has grasped the most trustworthy handhold with no break in it; and Allah is All-Hearing, All-Knowing.] (Al-Baqara - 256)

We are required to invite people to Sahih Iman through reason and, more importantly, by being an example of what is good and upright. Only then would people accept Iman wholeheartedly and apply its teachings willingly.  He who forces religion upon others, oppresses people into Islam is not acting on the commandments of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) and His Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). 

In the first 13 years from the declaration of Prophet-hood, there was no commandment to fight with the oppressors.  Even when a small community of Muslims was established in Madina, Muslims did not fight with the Pagans.  The war was imposed on them by pagans and Muslims fought the first defensive war of Islam in Badar, Madina, in which Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) provided victory to Muslims.

When Makka was taken by Muslims, no one was forced to accept Islam. The entire population embraced Islam looking at the generosity of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) towards them in spite of the fact that they had tortured him and his followers for 13 long years.

In subsequent battles, wherever Muslims won, the local populations were not forced to accept Islam. They were allowed to profess their religion.  As a matter of fact, protection was given to them from their enemies. 

Muslims are required to pay Zakat whereas non-Muslims are free from this obligation.  In its place, a tax called Jizya was taken from non-Muslims to meet the expenses of providing them protection and a peaceful living in the country.  Some people talk a lot about Jizya and portray this requirement in a bad light.  They forget the fact that Muslims pay Zakat and non-Muslims pay Jizya. So where is the disparity?  If the Government does not take taxes, how will it function? 

(ii) Fighting only with those who fight against you

History of early Islam is witness that Muslims did not fight with anyone who wanted to live in peace with them. They took up arms only against those tyrants who were existential threat to Muslims and those who were the sworn enemies.  Thus, the wars were essentially defensive in nature and the aim was to establish order and peaceful living in the world.  If Muslims had done what Christians/Jews had done in Spain, Bosnia, Palestine and other places, entire continents of Asia, Africa and half of Europe would have 100% Muslim population today.

(iii) Not to overstep the limits in fighting

The basic principle, stipulated in Quran, about fighting in a war is that other communities should be treated as your own.  Fighting is justified for legitimate self-defense, to aid other Muslims or to help populations suffering under the oppression of tyrant rulers.  Once the war is won and tyrants are subdued, it was commanded to treat them well, ignoring the harm they had done earlier.

It is in Quran -  وَلَا تُطِعِ الْكَافِرِينَ وَالْمُنَافِقِينَ وَدَعْ أَذَاهُمْ وَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى اللَّهِ ۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِاللَّهِ وَكِيلًا  [ Do not give in to the disbelievers and the hypocrites. Ignore the harm they cause you and put your trust in Allah. Allah suffices as a Guardian. ]  (Al-Ahzaab - 48) 

Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) used to give guidelines to army entrusted to fight in a conflict. Based on these instructions, Hadhrat Abu Bakr (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) is reported to have given the following guideline to the Army.

Addressing the Army under the command of Usama bin Zaid (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) who were entrusted to fight in Syria in 632 AD, Abu Bakr (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said : "O people! I charge you the rules for your guidance. Listen carefully and remember them. 

You shall not engage in treachery; you shall not act unfaithfully; you shall not engage in deception; you shall not indulge in mutilation; you shall kill neither a young child nor an old man nor a woman; you shall not fell palm trees or burn them, you shall not cut down (any) fruit-bearing tree; you shall not slaughter a sheep or a cow or a camel except for food.

You may pass by people who may have devoted their lives to monastic services, leave them alone.

Some people may bring you vessels containing variety of food. If you eat anything from (those dishes), mention the name of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) over them. 

Go ahead in the name of Allah's (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ)."  (Tabari, Volume 9, Pages 163-164)

The above principles were honored during the Crusades by Sultan Saladin and al-Kamil. After  al-Kamil defeated the Franks during 5th crusade (1217-1221), Oliverus Scholasticus praised the Islamic laws of war.  Commenting on how al-Kamil supplied the defeated Frankish army with food, he is reported to have said,  "who could doubt that such goodness, friendship and charity come from God? Men whose parents, sons and daughters, brothers and sisters, had died in agony at our hands, whose lands we took, whom we drove naked from their homes, revived us with their own food when we were dying of hunger and showered us with kindness even when we were in their power."

 

Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 217 

يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الشَّهْرِ الْحَرَامِ قِتَالٍ فِيهِ قُلْ قِتَالٌ فِيهِ كَبِيرٌ وَصَدٌّ عَنْ سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَكُفْرٌ بِهِ وَالْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَإِخْرَاجُ أَهْلِهِ مِنْهُ أَكْبَرُ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ وَالْفِتْنَةُ أَكْبَرُ مِنَ الْقَتْلِ وَلَا يَزَالُونَ يُقَاتِلُونَكُمْ حَتَّى يَرُدُّوكُمْ عَنْ دِينِكُمْ إِنِ اسْتَطَاعُوا وَمَنْ يَرْتَدِدْ مِنْكُمْ عَنْ دِينِهِ فَيَمُتْ وَهُوَ كَافِرٌ فَأُولَئِكَ حَبِطَتْ أَعْمَالُهُمْ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالْآَخِرَةِ وَأُولَئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ - [ They ask you about the sacred month and fighting in it.  Say, ‘Fighting during the month is a great offense, but to bar others from Allah’s path, to disbelieve in Him, prevent access to the Sacred Mosque, and expel its people, are still greater offenses in Allah’s eyes: persecution is worse than killing.’ They will not stop fighting you until they make you revoke your faith, if they can. If any of you revoke your faith and die as disbelievers, your deeds will come to nothing in this world and the Hereafter, and you will be inhabitants of the Fire, there to remain. ]
 

The sacred months

Before the advent of Islam, there was extreme animosity and  internal warfare among various tribes of Arabia. No person, tribe or Caravan was considered safe to travel fearing aggression, plunder, capture and killings. However, the Sacred House of of Kaba was held in honor by all Arab tribes unanimously.  They all accepted three months of Hajj, namely,  Dhul-Qaadah, Dhul-Hijjah, and Muharram and the month of Rajab dedicated for Umrah  as absolutely sacred wherein any type of war or aggression was absolutely prohibited and treated as a sacrilege. In all, the turmoil that existed in the Arabian peninsula, it was only in these four sacred months that people could travel and move about in absolute safety and without fear and perform the pilgrimage of Hajj or Umrah at the Sacred House in Makkah. The other huge benefit was it was during these months that the trade caravans moved about their business, crossing the vast Arabian desert towards Syria in the north and Yemen in the south. This tradition was continued after the advent of Islam as well.

Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) says that there should be no warfare and infighting during the 4 sacred months.  However, if Muslims are persecuted and harassed, then they can take up arms in self defense. .

 

Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 218 

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا وَالَّذِينَ هَاجَرُوا وَجَاهَدُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ أُولَئِكَ يَرْجُونَ رَحْمَةَ اللَّهِ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ [ - Surely those who believe, those who emigrate and strive in Allah’s cause – they are the ones who may hope for the mercy of Allah. Allah is All-Forgiving, All-Compassionate. ]
 
Three types of people have been described in the verse, (i) those who believe, (ii) those who emigrated, and (iii) those who strive in Allah's (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) cause; these are the people on whom will be special favors of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ).  This verse indicates the distinction of Sahabah who embraced Islam in the beginning.  They were persecuted for 13 years in Makka, then they emigrated to Madina and fought wars for the sake of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) and His Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).  Surely, they deserved special mercy of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) and will receive abundant rewards in Hereafter as well. 
 
Those who emulate the traits of those Sahabah in thick and thin during their lives,  may also expect special favors of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) in both the worlds. 

 

Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 219 

يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْسِرِ قُلْ فِيهِمَا إِثْمٌ كَبِيرٌ وَمَنَافِعُ لِلنَّاسِ وَإِثْمُهُمَا أَكْبَرُ مِنْ نَفْعِهِمَا وَيَسْأَلُونَكَ مَاذَا يُنْفِقُونَ قُلِ الْعَفْوَ كَذَلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ اللَّهُ لَكُمُ الْآَيَاتِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَفَكَّرُونَ  - [ They ask you about intoxicants and gambling: say, ‘There is great sin in both, and some benefit for people: the sin is greater than the benefit.’ They ask you what they should give: say, ‘Give what you can spare.’ In this way, Allah makes His messages clear to you, so that you may reflect. ]
 
Two issues have been identified in this verse; (i) Prohibition of drinking and gambling, and (ii) Charity in the way of Allah
 
(i) Drinking and gambling  were very popular in the pre-Islamic time in Arabia.  Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) worked on two fronts, (a) he corrected the beliefs of Makkan pagans, helped them come out of the darkness of idol worship, and (b) he also corrected their personal and societal habits of illiteracy and created awareness for a healthy society.
 
(ii) Charity in the way of Allah - Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) shows  us a higher form of Charity. The general rule and obligation in this context is Zakat wherein you are required to pay the poor 2.5% of wealth held by you in a given year.  The higher form of charity is to give away what you can spare after meeting your expenses. Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) is teaching us Tawakkal, total dependence upon Him.  This was the practice of the Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and his close companions. 

 

Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 220 

فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالْآَخِرَةِ وَيَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْيَتَامَى قُلْ إِصْلَاحٌ لَهُمْ خَيْرٌ وَإِنْ تُخَالِطُوهُمْ فَإِخْوَانُكُمْ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ الْمُفْسِدَ مِنَ الْمُصْلِحِ وَلَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ لَأَعْنَتَكُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ  - [ In this world and the next. They ask you about orphans : say, ‘It is good to set things right for them. If you combine their affairs with yours, remember they are your brothers and sisters : Allah knows those who spoil things and those who improve them. Had He so willed, He could been hard on you : He is Almighty and Wise.’ ]

The verse begins with 'In this world and the next'.  This indicates that our actions have direct impact on our lives in both the worlds. 

Some people continue to involve themselves in sin thinking that by their corrupt practices they can make their lives comfortable in this life. Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) says that this is not the case.  They will get punishment in this life as well as in Hereafter. 

The issue of orphans has been described in this verse. Taking care of orphans is individual and collective responsibility of the society.  They should be looked after to compensate for the loss of their parents.

Sometimes orphans inherit some wealth from their parents.  It is important that this inheritance is spent on them honestly.

The guardian of the orphan sometimes  mixes his/her wealth with that of the orphan to make daily matters easy.  If the guardian had to keep everything separate, every decision would have to be tailored separately. In other words, buying plates and spoons and buying bread would have to be split between the family’s money and the orphan’s money.  This will be a difficult task for the guardian who are busy in their lives. Therefore Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) permitted the guardian to combine his wealth with the orphan’s wealth. Combining the wealth of the orphan and guardian is permitted as long as it is done with caution and with the intention to avoid harm to the orphan. Whatever may be case, usurping orphan's wealth is strictly prohibited in Islam. 

It is in Quran - إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَأْكُلُونَ أَمْوَالَ الْيَتَامَىٰ ظُلْمًا إِنَّمَا يَأْكُلُونَ فِي بُطُونِهِمْ نَارًا ۖ وَسَيَصْلَوْنَ سَعِيرًا  [ People who consume the property of orphans unjustly consume nothing in their bellies except fire. They will roast in a Searing Blaze. (An-Nisa -10) 

The verse ends with this note : 'Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) knows those who spoil things and those who improve them'.  This is a caution for those Guardians who may claim in public that they are taking care  of the orphan’s rights and interests, but in reality they intend to harm the orphans by usurping their wealth.

 

Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 221

وَلَا تَنْكِحُوا الْمُشْرِكَاتِ حَتَّى يُؤْمِنَّ وَلَأَمَةٌ مُؤْمِنَةٌ خَيْرٌ مِنْ مُشْرِكَةٍ وَلَوْ أَعْجَبَتْكُمْ وَلَا تُنْكِحُوا الْمُشْرِكِينَ حَتَّى يُؤْمِنُوا وَلَعَبْدٌ مُؤْمِنٌ خَيْرٌ مِنْ مُشْرِكٍ وَلَوْ أَعْجَبَكُمْ أُولَئِكَ يَدْعُونَ إِلَى النَّارِ وَاللَّهُ يَدْعُو إِلَى الْجَنَّةِ وَالْمَغْفِرَةِ بِإِذْنِهِ وَيُبَيِّنُ آَيَاتِهِ لِلنَّاسِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَذَكَّرُونَ   - [ Do not marry the women who associate partners with Allah until they believe. A believing servant-girl is better than a free woman who associates partners with Allah, even though she pleases and attracts you.  Nor give your women in marriage to men who associate partners with Allah until they believe.  A believing slave is better than a free man who associates partners with Allah, even though he pleases and attracts you.  Those call to the Fire, while Allah calls to Paradise and towards His forgiveness (and mercy).  He makes clear His Revelations to people, that they may remember. ]

Marriage is a foundation for a healthy home.  Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) wants us to ensure stability and happiness in our lives.  It is imperative that we choose the right person 'as our spouse for life' who is at the same wave length on issues related to this world and Hereafter. 

We are prohibited from marrying non-believing women because the wife is a cornerstone of peaceful  home. Marrying someone following a different religion will create lot of confusion with children. Children grow on the lap of the mother and  get attached to her all through their lives.  Father's role is secondary and comes later.  Thus if the mother is a polytheist and the father is a believer, the child will be introduced to faith well after being exposed to polytheism in his initial years and will be less inclined to accept Islam in his youth.

Likewise, if you are a believing woman, you must not marry a polytheist because, after marriage, you will move into his world, his family, and his relatives.  Your child will be repeatedly exposed to a polytheistic environment values that are contradictory to Islamic faith.  

It is in Quran - الْيَوْمَ أُحِلَّ لَكُمُ الطَّيِّبَاتُ ۖ وَطَعَامُ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ حِلٌّ لَّكُمْ وَطَعَامُكُمْ حِلٌّ لَّهُمْ ۖ وَالْمُحْصَنَاتُ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنَاتِ وَالْمُحْصَنَاتُ مِنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ إِذَا آتَيْتُمُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُنَّ مُحْصِنِينَ غَيْرَ مُسَافِحِينَ وَلَا مُتَّخِذِي أَخْدَانٍ ۗ وَمَن يَكْفُرْ بِالْإِيمَانِ فَقَدْ حَبِطَ عَمَلُهُ وَهُوَ فِي الْآخِرَةِ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِينَ  [ Today all good things have been made lawful for you. The food of the People of the Book is lawful for you as your food is lawful for them.  So are chaste, believing women as well as chaste women of the people who were given the Scripture before you, as long as you have given them their bride-gifts and married them, not taking them as lovers or secret mistresses. The deeds of anyone who rejects faith will come to nothing, and in the Hereafter he will be one of the losers.]  (Al-Maaida - 5)

 

Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) says that we can marry chaste women from the people of book.  What is the meaning of 'Chastity' in this verse?  Here, chastity means, they should be morally chaste as well as their beliefs should also chaste. What is the meaning of chastity of belief?  It means, they should not believe that Isa (عليه السلام) or Uzair (عليه السلام) are the sons of God.  They should not worship the Idols of Prophets kept in Churches and Synagogues. Since the scriptures given to Christians and Jews have been corrupted, they should be inclined to believe their religions in their purest forms avoiding the corrupted version contained in their books. They should believe in the version of Quran which shows the correct version of belief in God.  Quran is the only book that has not been corrupted so far.  It is also important that they believe in the Prophet-hood of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) as the seal of Prophets.  This is the meaning of chastity in beliefs

 

It is in Quran -   قُلْ يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ تَعَالَوْا إِلَىٰ كَلِمَةٍ سَوَاءٍ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَكُمْ أَلَّا نَعْبُدَ إِلَّا اللَّهَ وَلَا نُشْرِكَ بِهِ شَيْئًا وَلَا يَتَّخِذَ بَعْضُنَا بَعْضًا أَرْبَابًا مِّن دُونِ اللَّهِ ۚ فَإِن تَوَلَّوْا فَقُولُوا اشْهَدُوا بِأَنَّا مُسْلِمُونَ   [Say: "O People of the Book! come to common terms as between us and you: That we worship none but Allah; that we associate no partners with him; that we erect not, from among ourselves, Lords and patrons other than Allah." If then they turn back, say ye: "Bear witness that we (at least) are Muslims (bowing to Allah's Will)] (Aal-e-Imran - 64).
 
It is in Quran  -    لَّقَدْ كَفَرَ الَّذِينَ قَالُوا إِنَّ اللَّهَ ثَالِثُ ثَلَاثَةٍ ۘ وَمَا مِنْ إِلَـٰهٍ إِلَّا إِلَـٰهٌ وَاحِدٌ ۚ وَإِن لَّمْ يَنتَهُوا عَمَّا يَقُولُونَ لَيَمَسَّنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنْهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ   [Indeed those who say: 'Allah is the third of the Trinity' became unbelievers. There is but One God. If they do not desist in what they say, a painful punishment will afflict those of them that disbelieve. ] (Al-Ma'eda - 73)
 
It is in Quran -  وَقَالَتِ الْيَهُودُ عُزَيْرٌ ابْنُ اللَّهِ وَقَالَتِ النَّصَارَى الْمَسِيحُ ابْنُ اللَّهِ ۖ ذَ‌ٰلِكَ قَوْلُهُم بِأَفْوَاهِهِمْ ۖ يُضَاهِئُونَ قَوْلَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِن قَبْلُ ۚ قَاتَلَهُمُ اللَّهُ ۚ أَنَّىٰ يُؤْفَكُونَ  [ The Jews call 'Uzair a son of Allah, and the Christians call Christ the son of Allah. That is a saying from their mouth; (in this) they but imitate what the unbelievers of old used to say. Allah's curse be on them: how they are deluded away from the Truth! ] (At-Taubah - 30)

 

Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 222

وَيَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْمَحِيضِ قُلْ هُوَ أَذًى فَاعْتَزِلُوا النِّسَاءَ فِي الْمَحِيضِ وَلَا تَقْرَبُوهُنَّ حَتَّى يَطْهُرْنَ فَإِذَا تَطَهَّرْنَ فَأْتُوهُنَّ مِنْ حَيْثُ أَمَرَكُمُ اللَّهُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ التَّوَّابِينَ وَيُحِبُّ الْمُتَطَهِّرِينَ - [ And they ask you about menstruation.  Say, ‘It is a mild harm, so keep apart from women during menstruation and do not approach them until they have purified themselves. But once they have purified themselves, then go to them in the way that Allah has enjoined on you.’ Allah loves those who turn back from wrongdoing and He loves those who purify themselves.  ]

There were two groups of people during the time of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). 

One group believed that a woman is so unclean during her period that her husband cannot have sexual relations with her, eat with her or even stay with her in the bedroom. Even the children were separated from their mothers during menstruation.  Women were confined to a room within her home and people looked at her as an out caste during menstruation. 

The other group believed that menstruating woman is like any other woman, and there is no reason to abstain from sexual intercourse with her during this time.

Islam showed the right middle path to humanity. 

Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) says that menstruation is 'mild harm'.  What is the meaning of 'mild harm'.  It means that it is harmful for spouses to engage in sexual activity during this time. During menstruation, the vaginal and cervical areas become restless, itching and get prone to inflammation and growth of harmful bacteria. These harmful microbes may flourish or be transferred to the man if intercourse takes place during this time.

The hormonal changes during menstruation makes a woman irritated. She feels weak and fatigued.  This is the reason women are allowed to skip praying and fasting and keep rested during this time.  

 

Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 223

نِسَاؤُكُمْ حَرْثٌ لَكُمْ فَأْتُوا حَرْثَكُمْ أَنَّى شِئْتُمْ وَقَدِّمُوا لِأَنْفُسِكُمْ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّكُمْ مُلَاقُوهُ وَبَشِّرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ - [ Your wives are the bearers of your seed; so, approach your tillage however you wish and send good ahead for yourselves.  Act in due reverence for Allah, and know that you are to meet with Him; and give glad tidings to the believers. ]

Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) explains what is lawful in sexual relations.  It is lawful to have vaginal sexual intercourse and absolutely unlawful to have anul intercourse.  The rectum is a place of storage of human toxic waste that comes out of anus.  It is disgusting even to think of anul intercourse.  Even the animals won't resort to this practice.

What is the meaning of   نِسَاؤُكُمْ حَرْثٌ لَكُمْ فَأْتُوا حَرْثَكُمْ أَنَّى شِئْتُمْ   [ Your wives are the bearer of your seed, so approach your tillage however you wish']? It means that  you can only enter and plant your seed at the location reserved for reproduction.  The verse specifies the exact location of intercourse,  in most clear terms.  

What is the meaning of وَقَدِّمُوا لِأَنْفُسِكُمْ [and send good ahead for yourselves.]  It means that do not think your marriage is only for sexual gratification.  As a matter of fact, marriage is your investment for your progeny. You are investing in your off springs who are required to be chaste believers.

 

Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 224

وَلَا تَجْعَلُوا اللَّهَ عُرْضَةً لِأَيْمَانِكُمْ أَنْ تَبَرُّوا وَتَتَّقُوا وَتُصْلِحُوا بَيْنَ النَّاسِ وَاللَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ - [ By your oaths, do not create an obstacle for your own selves in the name of Allah in the way of doing good deeds or being mindful of Allah, or putting things right between people. Allah is All-Hearing, All-Knowing. ]
 

Three virtues have been described in the above verse, (i) good deeds, (ii) mindfulness of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ), and (iii) mediation between people to sort out their differences/problems.  (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) says that all these should be continued and people should not swear to stop these deeds. 

The verse start with  'By your oaths do not create an obstacle for your own selves in the name of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) in the way of doing good deeds'.  It means that people should not swear to stay away from good deeds for some trivial reasons.  In case a person does not recognize your good actions towards him and is thankless and behaves indifferently but at the same time, is in dire need of your assistance, then continue doing good towards him. Do not swear that  you will stop doing good for him for his indifferent behavior. Your recompense is from Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ).

It is in Quran -  وَلَا يَأْتَلِ أُولُو الْفَضْلِ مِنكُمْ وَالسَّعَةِ أَن يُؤْتُوا أُولِي الْقُرْبَىٰ وَالْمَسَاكِينَ وَالْمُهَاجِرِينَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ ۖ وَلْيَعْفُوا وَلْيَصْفَحُوا ۗ أَلَا تُحِبُّونَ أَن يَغْفِرَ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ  [ Those of you possessing affluence and ample wealth should not make oaths that they will not give to their relatives and the very poor and to those who have migrated in the way of Allah. They should rather pardon and overlook.  Wouldn’t you love for Allah to forgive you? Allah is Ever-Forgiving, Most Merciful.]  (An-Noor - 22)

 

Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 225

لَا يُؤَاخِذُكُمُ اللَّهُ بِاللَّغْوِ فِي أَيْمَانِكُمْ وَلَكِنْ يُؤَاخِذُكُمْ بِمَا كَسَبَتْ قُلُوبُكُمْ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ حَلِيمٌ  - [ Allah will not call you to account for what is vain in your oaths, but He will call you to account for what you mean in your hearts.  Allah is most forgiving and forbearing. ]
 
There are different types of oaths.  This verse describes about the absurd oaths people take and they don't mean anything from them. Broadly speaking, there are 4 types of oaths, as follows.  
(i) Absurd Oath (یمین لغو)  
It is a nonsensical and an unintended oath. Since Allah (Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) forgives most of the minor and even major sins, He does not hold people for verbal oath which is a nonsensical act of absurdity and foolishness. Saying 'By God' or 'I swear to God', on everything is an absurd oath. 

(ii) Sinful Oath (یمین غموس )
This kind of oath is known as 'immersive oath' (يمين الغموس).  This is a sinful false oath taken consciously and deliberately to conceal a truth. A false witness/testimony in a Court of law comes under this category.  You lied to hurt a person.  In this case you need to seek forgiveness of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) and that person and compensate him for the looses he incurred as a result of your false testimony.
(iii) Intentional Oath (یمین منعقدہ)
The oath, taken with an intention and resolve, to do or not to do a thing, is known as an 'intentional oath.  If the work is bad and you have taken an oath of not doing it, you should hold on to your oath. If the work is virtuous and you have taken an oath of not doing it, then you should break it and continue doing the good work. However, for breaking an oath, you are liable for expiation (كفّاره).   The expiation is, to feed an average amount of food to 10 poor people for one time or provide them with clothing which are suitable for them for Salah or free a slave and if you cannot afford these, then fast for 3 days.
It is in Quran -  لَا يُؤَاخِذُكُمُ اللَّهُ بِاللَّغْوِ فِي أَيْمَانِكُمْ وَلَـٰكِن يُؤَاخِذُكُم بِمَا عَقَّدتُّمُ الْأَيْمَانَ ۖ فَكَفَّارَتُهُ إِطْعَامُ عَشَرَةِ مَسَاكِينَ مِنْ أَوْسَطِ مَا تُطْعِمُونَ أَهْلِيكُمْ أَوْ كِسْوَتُهُمْ أَوْ تَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ ۖ فَمَن لَّمْ يَجِدْ فَصِيَامُ ثَلَاثَةِ أَيَّامٍ ۚ ذَ‌ٰلِكَ كَفَّارَةُ أَيْمَانِكُمْ إِذَا حَلَفْتُمْ ۚ وَاحْفَظُوا أَيْمَانَكُمْ ۚ كَذَ‌ٰلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ آيَاتِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ  [ Allah will not impose blame upon you for what is meaningless in your oaths, but He will impose blame upon you for (breaking) what you intended of oaths. So its expiation is the feeding of ten needy people from the average of that which you feed your (own) families or clothing them or the freeing of a slave. But whoever cannot find (or afford it) - then a fast of three days (is required). That is the expiation for oaths when you have sworn. But guard your oaths. Thus does Allah make clear to you His verses that you may be grateful.] (Al-Maaida - 89) 
(iv) Oath of Separation (ایلا
The husband takes an oath to separate himself from his wife. The duration of this separation has been fixed by Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) to be 4 months. If he unites with his wife during this period, he has to offer an expiation and if this separation is extended beyond 4 months, it will become a 'cogent divorce' or 'effective divorce (طلاق بائن). In a cogent divorce, the husband does not have the right to call back his wife. However, if the woman is willing, she can marry him with a new dower (مہر). Payment of the first dower was already expedient upon the husband. Now, a fresh dower will also become payable. This is the result of getting overwhelmed with anger on petty issues and using the name of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) for vows.

 

Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 226

لَلِلَّذِينَ يُؤْلُونَ مِنْ نِسَائِهِمْ تَرَبُّصُ أَرْبَعَةِ أَشْهُرٍ فَإِنْ فَاءُو فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ - [ For those who vow abstinence from their wives there is a respite of four months. If they go back on their vow, then surely Allah is All-Forgiving, All-Compassionate. ]

Before the advent of Islam, people used to vow not to have sexual relations with their wives in order to discipline them or in some cases punish them. A man would vow to abstain from having sexual relations with his wife and deprive her of intimacy for a specified period.  This would last for weeks and months.  In some cases, at the end of this specified period, he would make another oath to extend the sexual deprivation for his wife for a few more months.  This led to the humiliation of women and denial of marital and sexual rights.

Islam did not completely outlaw this practice but refined it in such a way that  the rights of both husband and wife are protected. Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) is aware  our common marital problems.  Just as men abused their marital responsibilities, a woman might exploit the husband’s desire for her to gain advantages and humiliate him. 

This verse puts a limit on spouses' segregation.  For a serious marital discord, men were allowed to abstain from their wives for a maximum of four months. Four months is a long enough period to solve problems and sort out complex matters, yet it is not too long to cause psychological harm and loss of connectivity between spouses. As we have described above, this is known as  Oath of Separation (ایلا). If he unites with his wife during this period, he has to offer an expiation and if this separation is extended beyond 4 months, it will become a 'cogent divorce' or 'effective divorce (طلاق بائن). In a cogent divorce, the husband does not have the right to call back his wife. However, if the woman is willing, she can marry him with a new dower (مہر). Payment of the first dower was already expedient upon the husband. Now, a fresh dower will also become payable. This is the result of getting overwhelmed with anger on petty issues and using the name of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) for vows. 

 

Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 227

وَإِنْ عَزَمُوا الطَّلَاقَ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ - [ But if they are determined to divorce, remember that Allah hears and knows all . ]
   
Marriage  is the culmination of a Nuptial agreement (نكاح) between a man and a woman in which the first party (man) takes the responsibility of protection and sustenance of the second party (woman), and the second party agrees for adherence and obedience to the first party. 
 
It is in Hadith -  Ummul Momineen Aisha (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) narrated that the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said : Marriage is part of my Sunnah, and whoever does not follow my Sunnah has nothing to do with me.  Get married, for I will boast of your great numbers before the nations. Whoever has the means, let him get married, and whoever does not, then he should fast for it will diminish his desire.] (Ibn Maja)
 
Nikah is a permanent thing.  Temporary phony marriages like like Shia Muta,  Salafi Misyar and similar others are forbidden in Islam. The only way to establish  sexual relationship with a woman is by way of Islamic marriage.
 
Sometimes marriages breaks down in view of certain difficulties. The break up of marriage is known as divorce (طلاق).  There are four types of divorces, as follows.
 
(i) Revocable Divorce (طلاقِ رجعي)

A divorce in which the husband can call his wife without a fresh nuptial agreement.  This is also known as one or first Talaq in which the husbands proclaims Talaq one time. In this Talaq, the husband can revoke it before the end of one month. This kind of Talaq can be given only twice.
 
(ii) Cogent Divorce (طلاق بائن)
 
It is an effective divorce. Also known as second divorce which is generally given after the end of one month from the first talaq.  In this Talaq, the husband and wife are technically separated and their re-union is subject to the following conditions. (a) The husband cannot call back his wife unless the wife agrees for re-union. (b) In this case, they need to  enter into a fresh nuptial agreement, and (c) a fresh dower (مهر) as mutually agree has to be paid by the husband.  
 
(iii) Irrevocable divorce (طلاقِ مُغَلِّظ)
 
This is the third and final divorce which is given at the end of second month.  After this divorce, the woman is absolutely free.  It is not possible for them to unite again. The only way to unite would be sometimes in future when the woman got married to someone else and her husband died and gives her Talaq.   This is known as Halala which is a remote possibility.
 
Halala -  Some Muslims misuse this facility.  They arrange a person to temporarily marry the woman they divorced,  and she is allowed to sleeps with the new man once to have intercourse with him. After the intercourse, this man formally divorces her.  Once this is done, the old husband marries her again. Some people are paid for Halala.  Some people use their relatives or friends for Halala in order to get married to their wives again.  Some people do it as  business to make money. Needless to say that all these  practices are shameful and criminal, therefore, should be treated as such.
 
As per Islamic Law (شریعہ), the correct way of giving divorce is that the husband gives first (or one) divorce when the wife is clean (she has had finished her mensuration for that month.  The period of waiting for the first divorce is one month. 
 
If the parties did not reconcile during this time, the husband will give second divorce in the second month. 
 
If no reconciliation was possible even during the second month, then the husband will give the third divorce in the third month when the woman is clean which will be treated as last and final. 
 
During the time of divorce, the wife will stay at husband's house and the husband will pay for her maintenance.  To spend time in this fashion is known as 'waiting period (عِدَّت).  There are a lot of advantages of the waiting period, chiefly among them are : (i) there is no confusion in the father hood of the child, if woman is pregnant, and (ii) the divorced woman can call her relatives during the waiting period to sort out differences on her behalf.  The period of waiting is limited to three calendar months.

If the woman becomes widow after the death of her husband, the waiting period for her (before marrying someone else) is 4 months and 10 days.  If the woman is pregnant, then the waiting period is till the child is born. 
 
If the woman was divorced after the intercourse or a chance was given to get into physical intimacy, then the husband has to give full amount of dower (مهر).  And if the intercourse was not done, then the husband has to pay half of the dower.  And if there was no intercourse and no dower was fixed, then the husband will give her 2 sets of cloths.  
 
Is it possible to give  two or three divorces at one time? 
 
Yes, and these will be technically fastened (treated as such), but this action is disliked and against Sunnah.
 
If a person proclaims 'Talaq, Talaq, Talaq three times; meaning gives three divorces at the same time, what is the ruling ? 

During the time of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and Hadhrat Abu Bakr Siddiqui (رضئ الله تعالی عنه), the three times repetition of Talaq was to emphasize, but the purport was only one talaq.  
 
During the times of Hadhrat Umar (رضئ الله تعالی عنه), the idiomatic usage of the word 'talaq' was changed.  He consulted several  experts, all of whom confirmed that the repetition of the word 'Talaq' at that time was not to stress upon one (the first) talaq, but it was to establish three Talaqs.
 
With the above, it is known that the intention of the husband has to be taken into account in case of three simultaneousTalaqs.  If he intended to specify and stress upon the one talaq by repeating it three times, it can be taken as such.  If the intention was to give three Talaqs at the same time, it can be taken as such.   
 
Currently, Muftis are treating proclamation of three talaqs by a husband as three only.  The Husband is not asked if his intention was to emphasize one Talaq or it was the intentional proclamation of three Talaqs. This is an important issue which should be viewed in its proper perspective.
 
When a man divorces his wife, a period of time has to pass before he can divorce her again, making it two divorces. Thereafter, a period of time has to pass yet again before the choice in this verse comes into effect, then, the wife may be retained honorably with courtesy or released with good will. The wisdom behind spreading divorce over three episodes is to give the couple ample time to reconsider. Often the feelings of regret and the desire to return to each other prevail.  Moreover, a single incident of one divorce is a tool that can help correct significant flaws in mutual behavior.  The fear of losing one’s family in a second or third divorce is a great motivator to tackle serious problems. In domestic heated up arguments between spouses sometimes the tempers get flared up and they do not know what they are talking.  Like if a person testifies before the Qazi/Judge that in his angry proclamation of three Talaqs his intention was to emphasize on one Talaq only, and he never intended to divorce his wife permanently, then his testimony can be treated as one talaq.  However, if the person, on some other occasion in future proclaims three talaqs at once again, he should not be asked as to what was his intention in proclaiming three talaqas. His proclamation of three talaqs can be treated as three and  fastened permanently. Because, this man is making mockery of Islamic Laws. 
 
There are differences of opinion among scholars in this context.  Shaikh Mohammad Abdul Qadeer Siddiqui (رحمتہ اللہ علیہ) was of the opinion that if a person proclaimed three talaqs at one time and his intention was to emphasize on one Talaq, then it should be treated as such. However, some other scholars think that three talaqs are three, there is no room to ask for a person's intention in it.
 
(iv) Matrimonial abrogation (خُلع)
Matrimonial abrogation (خُلع) is a divorce obtained on the initiative of the wife.  If the relationship of wife and husband is strained and in spite of repetitive trials, the differences are not sorted out, then the only course of action is to arrange a smooth parting.  The correct Quranic way in this context is that, a person each from the wife's and husband's families are made 'arbitrators (حَكَمْ). And if from the efforts of the arbitrators of both wife and husband are united, it is well and good.  If truce cannot be achieved, then separation is the only course of action. The arbitrator (s) decide and order,  which could be in favor or against individual spouse. In either of the case, his/their decision is obligatory on both the parties. If the man, in spite of the arbitrator’s order to divorce his wife, does not give divorce, then wherever Quazi is available, he will give the divorce, meaning the Quazi will give the divorce as an Grantor  (وكيل).  In cases like impotency, (عِنِين), and adultery (لعان) and in unbearable ailments, the Quazi will ask the husband to give divorce and if his order is not obeyed, Quazi himself will give divorce as an Grantor (وكيل).  Where, there are no Quazis, the arbitrators will decide.  The appointment of arbitrators is for the eradication of the problem. If the differences between the parties are not removed, their appointment does not serve any purpose.
People think that Quazi is a person who is appointed by the Government to perform marriages as per Muslim personal law which is done currently.  Earlier, during Islamic rule, Quazis were actually judges of Muslim Courts who used to issue judgments in public disputes, and were responsible for eradication of the causes of disputes.  Their judgments were implemented by executive authorities in Islamic countries. 

During the time of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), a woman approached and submitted that she was unhappy with her husband and does not want to stay with him.  The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) inquired the reasons for it.  She said, he does not fall short of,  in taking care of her rights and she even does not have any doubt about his religious activities; but she has natural hatred towards him. Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) arranged return of dower from her and got her divorced from her husband.

Some women include certain clauses in their nuptial agreement by which if the husband does not abide by the agreement, the marriage is considered abrogated, parties stand divorced and the woman will be free forthwith.

 

Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 228

وَالْمُطَلَّقَاتُ يَتَرَبَّصْنَ بِأَنْفُسِهِنَّ ثَلَاثَةَ قُرُوءٍ وَلَا يَحِلُّ لَهُنَّ أَنْ يَكْتُمْنَ مَا خَلَقَ اللَّهُ فِي أَرْحَامِهِنَّ إِنْ كُنَّ يُؤْمِنَّ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآَخِرِ وَبُعُولَتُهُنَّ أَحَقُّ بِرَدِّهِنَّ فِي ذَلِكَ إِنْ أَرَادُوا إِصْلَاحًا وَلَهُنَّ مِثْلُ الَّذِي عَلَيْهِنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَلِلرِّجَالِ عَلَيْهِنَّ دَرَجَةٌ وَاللَّهُ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ - [Divorced women keep themselves in waiting for three menstrual cycles, and it is not lawful for them, if they believe in Allah and the Last Day, to conceal what Allah has created in their wombs. In such time their husbands have better right to take them back, if they desire a settlement. According to customary good and honorable norms, women have rights similar to those against them, but men have a degree above them.  Allah is All-Mighty, All-Wise. ]
 
The long wait of three months ensures that the woman is not bearing children in her womb from the marriage; a three month-period also gives the couple time to rethink their situation. 
 
What is the meaning of وَلَهُنَّ مِثْلُ الَّذِي عَلَيْهِنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَلِلرِّجَالِ عَلَيْهِنَّ دَرَجَةٌ  [ According to customary good and honorable norms, women have rights similar to those against them, but men have a degree above them.]? 
 
The roles of men and women are clearly defined in Islam.  Essentially, men and women have equal rights.  However their responsibilities are different when they get married.  After marriage, their roles becomes distinct from each other. The above verse stipulates that husbands have preeminence over  their wives.  What is this preeminence? It is his responsibility to take care of his wife and children. He is responsible to provide food, shelter and every single need.  If he has one bread, his wife will share half of it.
 
If the meanings of 'a degree of preeminence' to mean authority and guardianship, it is also correct.  The degree of authority is something we need in all aspects of our lives.  Any meeting of team of people requires a person to preside over and organize.  Similarly, any operation regardless of how small it is, requires a person to manage it.  This authority is actually a burden.  The verse stipulates that men should manage the affairs in consultation with their wives and children. The father has to be compassionate, should think of his family and well being of his wife and children. The mother and children should cooperate with him in this task and his decision, in the end of the conversation should be followed by all. If everyone in the family starts disputing with each other and try to run affairs as per their whims, the house become a mess. 

 

Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 229

الطَّلَاقُ مَرَّتَانِ فَإِمْسَاكٌ بِمَعْرُوفٍ أَوْ تَسْرِيحٌ بِإِحْسَانٍ وَلَا يَحِلُّ لَكُمْ أَنْ تَأْخُذُوا مِمَّا آَتَيْتُمُوهُنَّ شَيْئًا إِلَّا أَنْ يَخَافَا أَلَّا يُقِيمَا حُدُودَ اللَّهِ فَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ أَلَّا يُقِيمَا حُدُودَ اللَّهِ فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْهِمَا فِيمَا افْتَدَتْ بِهِ تِلْكَ حُدُودُ اللَّهِ فَلَا تَعْتَدُوهَا وَمَنْ يَتَعَدَّ حُدُودَ اللَّهِ فَأُولَئِكَ هُمُ الظَّالِمُونَ - [ Divorce is twice; then, the wife may be retained honorably with courtesy or released with good will.  It is not lawful for you to keep anything you have given them unless a couple fears that they will not remain within Allah's limits.  If you fear that they will not remain within Allah's limits, there is no blame in the wife ransoming herself with some of what she received. These are Allah's limits, so do not overstep them.  Those who overstep Allah's  limits are wrongdoers. ]
 

There are three aspects for a woman after the divorce,  (i) the man goes back to her or calls her back into matrimony.  This can be done within one month from the first divorce. (ii) The man cannot go back to her and call her into matrimony unless she agrees for it. This is second Divorce mentioned in this Sura.  In this case the husband and wife are technically separated and their re-union is subject to the following conditions. (a) The husband cannot call back his wife unless the wife agrees for re-union. (b) In this case, they need to  enter into a fresh nuptial agreement, and (c) a fresh dower (مهر) as mutually agree has to be paid by the husband.   (iii) If the man gives third divorce they are separated irrevocably.  

We have described it earlier that as per Prophet's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) tradition, every month one divorce will be given.  But if someone gives two or three divorces simultaneously, these will be technically fastened, but this act will be against the tradition of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). 

The phrase: "divorce is twice" means that the man and the woman has the say in the initial two divorces, but after the third divorce, the choice is not up to them anymore.  Why? Because after the third divorce, the matter is irrevocable and the couple cannot get back together. 

In the following verse (230) Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) says - If a man divorces her again (third time), she becomes unlawful for him until she has married another man.

Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) says that it   is not lawful for men to keep anything they have given to their wives after divorce.  The husband must give a dowry at the time of marriage as a token for intimacy.  If divorce occurs, the husband is not permitted to take back the dowry.  Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ)  wants to give the woman a way out if she was the subject of harm and abuse.  Thus, the woman is allowed to ransom herself by giving some of the dowry money back if she is afraid that the man is not in observance of Allah's (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) limits. 

  

Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 230

فَإِنْ طَلَّقَهَا فَلَا تَحِلُّ لَهُ مِنْ بَعْدُ حَتَّى تَنْكِحَ زَوْجًا غَيْرَهُ فَإِنْ طَلَّقَهَا فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْهِمَا أَنْ يَتَرَاجَعَا إِنْ ظَنَّا أَنْ يُقِيمَا حُدُودَ اللَّهِ وَتِلْكَ حُدُودُ اللَّهِ يُبَيِّنُهَا لِقَوْمٍ يَعْلَمُونَ - [ If a husband re-divorces his wife after the second divorce, she will not be lawful for him until she has taken another husband; if the latter husband divorces her, there will be no blame if she and the first husband return to one another, provided they feel that they can keep within the bounds set by Allah. These are Allah's bounds, which He makes clear for those who know. ]

The above verses gives details about the third and final irrevocable divorce.  The third divorce is given at the end of second month.  After this divorce, the woman is absolutely free.  It is not possible for the couple to unite again. The only way to unite would be sometimes in future when the woman got married to someone else and her husband died and gives her Talaq.   This is known as Halala which is a remote possibility.

Halala - There is literally no way that a woman can marry her first husband after divorce unless a  proper marriage with the  intention of living together with another man has taken place and the woman gets divorce for genuine reasons.   Every marriage should be the result of the couple meeting under normal circumstances, and not for  ulterior motives.  If the second marriage fails for some reasons, and the divorce happens, then the woman and the ex-husband can get back together in a new marriage contract. Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) says, 'there will be no blame if she and the first husband return to one another, provided they feel that they can keep within the bounds set by Him'. In other words, the couple can get back together given that the previous issues that lead to their divorce have been appropriately resolved.

Some Muslims misuse this facility.  They arrange a person to temporarily marry the woman they divorced, and she is allowed to sleeps with the new man once to have intercourse with him.  After the intercourse, this man formally divorces her.  Once this is done, the old husband marries her again. Some people are paid for Halala.  Some people use their relatives or friends for Halala in order to get married to their wives again.  Some people do it as  business to make money. Needless to say that all these  practices are shameful and criminal, therefore, should be treated as such.

 

 

 

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