LET US CORRECT OUR ISLAMIC FAITH

دعونا نصحّح العقيدة الاسلامية

 

 

تفسيرِ اَسَدی

TAFSEER-E-ASEDI
 

BY

 

SHAIKH MIR ASEDULLAH QUADRI

 
 
JUZ 2.5   SAYAQOOL (سَيَقُولُ)
 
 

 

سورة البقرة

The Cow
 

Al-Baqara | Sura # 2| 286 verses | Madinah

 

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ 

In the name of Allah, the Compassionate and the Merciful
 
Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 231
 
وَإِذَا طَلَّقْتُمُ النِّسَاءَ فَبَلَغْنَ أَجَلَهُنَّ فَأَمْسِكُوهُنَّ بِمَعْرُوفٍ أَوْ سَرِّحُوهُنَّ بِمَعْرُوفٍ وَلَا تُمْسِكُوهُنَّ ضِرَارًا لِتَعْتَدُوا وَمَنْ يَفْعَلْ ذَلِكَ فَقَدْ ظَلَمَ نَفْسَهُ وَلَا تَتَّخِذُوا آَيَاتِ اللَّهِ هُزُوًا وَاذْكُرُوا نِعْمَةَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ وَمَا أَنْزَلَ  عَلَيْكُمْ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ وَالْحِكْمَةِ يَعِظُكُمْ بِهِ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ  - [ When you divorce women and they have reached (towards) the end of their term, then either keep them in a fair manner or release them in a fair manner.  Do not hold on to them with the intent to harm them and commit aggression. Anyone who does this, wrongs himself. Do not make a mockery of Allah’s revelations.  Remember the favor He blessed you with, and the Quran and wisdom He sent, to teach you. Be mindful of Allah and know that He has full knowledge of everything. ]

Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) orders all men to be compassionate towards their wives, even while they are being divorced.  They should not hold them in matrimony with the intention to harm.   Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) says that people should not use the flexibility in Islamic laws to harm their spouses. Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) wants to keep the door of reconciliation open until the very last minute for both the spouses.  They can reconsider and bring back the family's unity,  preserving a home for their children where children have the love and care of both their parents. 

Allah leaves the decision either to unite or separate in the hands of the couple without any outside interference.  It is because, when a third party interferes, the situation gets aggravated. People, such as parents or siblings, do not have the emotional connection the couple shares. They do not consider the intimacy and tenderness of the husband towards his wife, or the wife towards her husband.  These emotional, psychological, and physical matters play a significant role in solving marital problems.  A man who is attracted to his wife’s beauty may forget about their problems.  A woman may see something in her husband that she does not want to lose.  

It is therefore necessary that disputes remain confined between the husband and wife.  Often, there is an emotional attraction between them, and this attraction is often the reason for reconciliation.  This is the reason Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) does not want that a man proclaims 'Talaq' during mensuration. The reason behind it is, there is no intimacy between the couple during this time and particularly the wife has mood swings during this time. 

The men are specifically warned that they should not hold on to their wives with the intention to harm them and commit aggression on them.  Some men pretend to be upright, while in reality, they want to harm and humiliate their wives.  For instance, a man may claim that 'I  do not want to divorce my wife, and I would like for my family to get back together.  On the surface, this appears to be an act of goodwill to preserve a home, while in reality, the man has no interest in reconciliation or normalcy in daily life.  He intends to abuse his wife  emotionally or physically.  This kind of behavior is known as ‘Dhirar' (الضرار) and it is forbidden in Islam. 

The name 'Dhirar' (الضرار) was used at the time of the Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).  There was a Mosque referred to as Masjid al-Dhirar (مسجد الضرار) or the Mosque of Harm.  On the surface, it was built as a house of prayer,  but the builders/hypocrites had ulterior motives to use it as a pulpit to divide believers. 

A divorcing husband should not fall under the illusion that he is harming his wife by retracting the divorce for abuse; rather he should know that he is harming and abusing himself. The moment someone starts harming and abusing a person, the affected person turns towards Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) and prays for help.  While you abuse your wife, Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) is not on your side.  In this scenario, Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) is on the side of your wife and you are slated as Dhalim (ظالم) and an enemy of your wife and Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) both.  In addition, you fall into the category of people who are mocking the commandments of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) by abusing people while pretending to follow His commandments.  Remember this is one of the attributes of Munafiqeen.

In the end of the verse, Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) reminds Muslims about His favors on them by sending His Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and establishing a fair Islamic living system for them for their welfare in both the worlds.  


 
Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 232
 
وَإِذَا طَلَّقْتُمُ النِّسَاءَ فَبَلَغْنَ أَجَلَهُنَّ فَلَا تَعْضُلُوهُنَّ أَنْ يَنْكِحْنَ أَزْوَاجَهُنَّ إِذَا تَرَاضَوْا بَيْنَهُمْ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ ذَلِكَ يُوعَظُ بِهِ مَنْ كَانَ مِنْكُمْ يُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآَخِرِ ذَلِكُمْ أَزْكَى لَكُمْ وَأَطْهَرُ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ وَأَنْتُمْ لَا تَعْلَمُونَ  - [ When you divorce women and they have reached their set time, do not prevent them from remarrying their husbands if they both agree to do so in a fair manner.  Let those of you who believe in Allah and the Last Day, take this to heart as this is more wholesome and purer for you. Allah  knows (what) you do not know. ]
 

This verse is about the middle men and relatives in the family who may try to break the matrimonial relationship of the couple by their personal enmity or prejudice or stupidity. This happens when the waiting period of the second divorce is about to end and both husband and wife are inclined to re-establish their matrimony by a fresh nuptial agreement (Nikah).  At this time, some relatives from either of the side  interfere to prevent the couple from getting back together.  They get in the way of reconciliation without taking into account the emotional connection the couple shares.  They may be doing it out of some goodwill, but they should know that by preventing the couple to unite, they may be doing a bigger harm and they have no right to harm the couple in this fashion.   

The phrase 'do not prevent them from remarrying their husbands' explicitly implies that Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) has given the marriage approval in the hands of the woman at second divorce. In other words, returning to the husband requires the woman's consent.  So, if the couple agrees to get back together and if they satisfy the condition mentioned in the verse, ie, 'to do so in a fair manner', then family members intending to oppose must stay away.  Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) says 'Let those of you who believe in Allah and the Last Day take this to heart,  that is more wholesome and purer for you.  Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) is All-Wise, All-Knowing.  Regardless of how bad the situation between the couple might have been; regardless of what you think you know, always keep in mind that Allah  (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) knows what you do not know. 

 
 
Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 233
 
وَالْوَالِدَاتُ يُرْضِعْنَ أَوْلَادَهُنَّ حَوْلَيْنِ كَامِلَيْنِ لِمَنْ أَرَادَ أَنْ يُتِمَّ الرَّضَاعَةَ وَعَلَى الْمَوْلُودِ لَهُ رِزْقُهُنَّ وَكِسْوَتُهُنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ لَا تُكَلَّفُ نَفْسٌ إِلَّا وُسْعَهَا لَا تُضَارَّ وَالِدَةٌ بِوَلَدِهَا وَلَا مَوْلُودٌ لَهُ بِوَلَدِهِ وَعَلَى الْوَارِثِ مِثْلُ ذَلِكَ فَإِنْ أَرَادَا فِصَالًا عَنْ تَرَاضٍ مِنْهُمَا وَتَشَاوُرٍ فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْهِمَا وَإِنْ أَرَدْتُمْ أَنْ تَسْتَرْضِعُوا أَوْلَادَكُمْ فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ إِذَا سَلَّمْتُمْ مَا آَتَيْتُمْ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ  - [ (Divorced) mothers can breastfeed their children for two whole years, (if the fathers) wish to complete the nursing period. During this time the father is responsible for their provision and clothing, according to custom. No one will be subject to more than his capacity. And no mother or father should be subject to harm because of their child. The same applies for the heir. If they mutually agree to wean the child before the end of the two years, there is no blame upon them. If you wish to have your children nursed (by a wet nurse), there is no blame upon you so long as you pay the required (sum) according to what is customary. Protect yourselves from Allah's (anger) and know well that He is seeing you. ]
 

The above verse is related to the protection of the infant after divorce. It explains that no matter how ugly the divorce was, it should not be a source of misery for the innocent child.  

Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) wants to protect the child from the unpleasantness between his parents after divorce.  Divorce breeds discord between the couple, but Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) wants to shield the children from the parent’s disagreements. 

Both the infant and the nursing mother have to be provided  by the ex-husband.  Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) says : 'Mothers should breastfeed their children for two full years – for those who wish to complete the full term of nursing, and clothing and maintenance must be borne by the father in a fair manner.'  So the father is responsible for supporting the child and his mother who is nursing the child according to his ability.  

The verse continues "No one should be burdened with more than they can bear : no mother shall be made to suffer harm on account of her child, nor any father on account of his.  Both parents are addressed here.  It is not acceptable to exhaust the father with nagging demands beyond his financial ability.  Similarly, the father must not harm the mother by leaving her to fend for herself and her baby.  In either case, the child must not be used as a source of stress or a tool for revenge between the divorced couple.  Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) sets a precise framework to guarantee child's rights. 

If the father of the infant child dies in between these two years the responsibility of providing support to the mother and infant should not stop. In this this case, Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) says, the duty of the father's heir is to provide this support. 

The verse continues: 'nor will there be any blame if you wish to engage a wet nurse, provided you pay as agreed in a fair manner.'  When the father entrusts his child to his divorced wife for nursing, the child receives warmth and love from the mother.  But in cases where she cannot nurse the child due to weakness or health issues, then the father can look for a wet nurse to breastfeed the newborn.  Again, the father has the responsibility to provide the wet-nurse with whatever she demands for breastfeeding the child.   

The verse ends with the commandment that 'Be mindful of Allah knowing that He sees everything you do.'  Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) is warning all parties against dishonesty and injustice.  It is a warning for a father who does not provide what he can; a mother who uses her newborn as an excuse to overburden her ex-husband, or a wet-nurse who does not care for the child properly and makes unnecessary overburdening demands.  Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) is warning all involved in child's care by saying that Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) sees what you do and what you keep in your hearts. 

 
 
Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 234
 
وَالَّذِينَ يُتَوَفَّوْنَ مِنْكُمْ وَيَذَرُونَ أَزْوَاجًا يَتَرَبَّصْنَ بِأَنْفُسِهِنَّ أَرْبَعَةَ أَشْهُرٍ وَعَشْرًا فَإِذَا بَلَغْنَ أَجَلَهُنَّ فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِيمَا فَعَلْنَ فِي أَنْفُسِهِنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَاللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرٌ  - [ If any of you die and leave widows, the widows should wait for four months and ten days (before they remarry). After this period, there is no blame upon them for what they do according to custom (getting married to someone else). And Allah, knows what you do'. ]
 

There is a waiting period known as 'Iddah' prescribed for the woman after the marriage ends in divorce or after the death of her husband. The waiting period after divorce is three complete menstrual cycles.  If the divorcee is in menopause or she does not menstruate, then the waiting period is three full months. 

In the case of first divorce, the husband can call his wife back on his own within the Iddah period.  In case of second divorce, the wife has to agree for the union within the Iddah period.  In this case, a new nuptial contract has to be signed and fresh dowry paid. If all three divorces have been pronounced in one sitting, then the right of remarrying your ex-wife with a new contract and dowry is lost.  The woman is free to  marry someone else after the Iddah. 

The ‘iddah’ waiting period of a widow, if she is not pregnant, is  four months and ten days.   If the widow is pregnant, then her ‘iddah’ is the child's birth or 4 months and 10 days, whichever is longer.  For instance, if  a woman who is nine months pregnant, and her husband dies and she delivers the baby a week later, her Iddah period will be 4 months and 10 days.  If the woman is one month pregnant at the time of her husband's death, her Iddah period will be the birth of her child which which is more than 8 months.

In the case of a pregnant divorcee the waiting period ends when she gives birth; even if she gives birth a week after the divorce is finalized. 

 

Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 235
 
وَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِيمَا عَرَّضْتُمْ بِهِ مِنْ خِطْبَةِ النِّسَاءِ أَوْ أَكْنَنْتُمْ فِي أَنْفُسِكُمْ عَلِمَ اللَّهُ أَنَّكُمْ سَتَذْكُرُونَهُنَّ وَلَكِنْ لَا تُوَاعِدُوهُنَّ سِرًّا إِلَّا أَنْ تَقُولُوا قَوْلًا مَعْرُوفًا وَلَا تَعْزِمُوا عُقْدَةَ النِّكَاحِ حَتَّى يَبْلُغَ الْكِتَابُ أَجَلَهُ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ يَعْلَمُ مَا فِي أَنْفُسِكُمْ فَاحْذَرُوهُ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ حَلِيمٌ  - [ There is no blame upon you if you hint a proposal of marriage to (divorced or widowed) women (during their waiting period), or conceal it in your heart. Allah knows that you will be inclined towards them. But do not enter into any hidden arrangements with them outside of what is customary nor bond in marriage with them until the end of the waiting period.  Know that Allah knows what is in your heaarts, so heed Him. Remember that Allah is most forgiving and forbearing. ]

In this verse, Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) addresses the feelings of men and women by saying that 'You will not be blamed whether you give a hint that you wish to marry these (divorced) women or keep it to yourselves.  Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) knows that you intend to propose to them. Do not make a secret arrangement with them; speak to them honorably and do not confirm the marriage tie until the prescribed period (Iddah)  reaches its end.”

The phrase “to give a hint” means to allude to something without clearly stating it.  Allah gives both men and women an outlet for their emotions.  During the waiting period, it is prohibited to express interest in marriage or engagement explicitly.  However, implicit expression as a show of interest in marriage allows the divorced woman or the widow to weigh her options rather than rush into a new relationship.  It acts as a shield for her while keeping her options open for a future marriage. 

 

Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 236
 
لَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ إِنْ طَلَّقْتُمُ النِّسَاءَ مَا لَمْ تَمَسُّوهُنَّ أَوْ تَفْرِضُوا لَهُنَّ فَرِيضَةً وَمَتِّعُوهُنَّ عَلَى الْمُوسِعِ قَدَرُهُ وَعَلَى الْمُقْتِرِ قَدَرُهُ مَتَاعًا بِالْمَعْرُوفِ حَقًّا عَلَى الْمُحْسِنِينَ  - [ There is no blame upon you if you divorce women when you have not yet slept with them or specified a dowry for them.  But provide them (your ex-wives) with benefits according to your ability – those with greater financial means should provide according to their capacity; those with lesser financial means should provide according to custom to the best of his ability.  This is an obligation upon the doers of good. ]
 
The above verse indicates that there will be no blame upon a couple if they divorce before having sexual intercourse and a specific agreed dower. Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) says, in such a case, 'make fair provision for them, the rich according to his means and the poor according to his. The provision should be as per customary and honorable practices.
 
 
Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 237
 
وَإِنْ طَلَّقْتُمُوهُنَّ مِنْ قَبْلِ أَنْ تَمَسُّوهُنَّ وَقَدْ فَرَضْتُمْ لَهُنَّ فَرِيضَةً فَنِصْفُ مَا فَرَضْتُمْ إِلَّا أَنْ يَعْفُونَ أَوْ يَعْفُوَ الَّذِي بِيَدِهِ عُقْدَةُ النِّكَاحِ وَأَنْ تَعْفُوا أَقْرَبُ لِلتَّقْوَى وَلَا تَنْسَوُا الْفَضْلَ بَيْنَكُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ   - [ If you divorce them after specifying a dowry but before you sleep with them, give them half the specified dowry. Unless they or those in whose hand lies the marriage contract forgoes it. To give them the full amount (of the dowry) is closer to taqwa. Do not forget to treat each other with grace. Certainly Allah sees what you do.]
 
This verse clarifies that if the divorce takes place before consummating the marriage, then half of the fixed dowry is payable to the ex-wife. However, men have been encouraged to pay full dowry by saying 'paying full dowry is closer to Taqwa'.
 
Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 238
 
حَافِظُوا عَلَى الصَّلَوَاتِ وَالصَّلَاةِ الْوُسْطَى وَقُومُوا لِلَّهِ قَانِتِينَ   - [ Maintain salah  with care; (in particular) and the middle Salah. Live in full submission in the way of Allah. ]
 

The above verse commands us to maintain with care all 5 obligatory Salah. Period.  In addition, the verse orders us to give special emphasis on the middle prayers.  That is the special emphasis?  It is to give some more time during these Salah in reciting Durood and reciting Allah's (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) epithets (اَسماء) in Zikr and supplications to alleviate our problems in both the worlds.

What is meant by the middle prayers?  There are differences of opinion among scholars; some have said it is Asr.  Those who have cited Asr is the middle prayer, they have taken the verse literally. 

The middle prayers are actually the Fajr and Maghrib as they fall between night and the day. Fajr and Maghrib are important times when the entire hidden Administration takes shifts. The angels of the day go away and their place is taken over by the angels of the night during Maghrib.  So is the case at Fajr.  Also, most of the prayers are granted during these times. 

It is in Hadith -  Abu Hurairah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) narrated that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said : “The Lord descends every night to the lowest sky when one-third of the night remains and says: ‘Who will call upon Me, that I may answer Him? Who will ask of Me, that I may give him? Who will seek My forgiveness, that I may forgive him? (Bukhari, Muslim). 

It is reported that the above Hadith is narrated by 28 Sahabah.

It is in Hadith - The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said : When any one of you supplicates, let him start by praising and glorifying Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ),  then let him send Durood upon the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), and after that let him make supplication as he wishes. (Ahmad, Abu Dawood, Tirmidhi, etc.)

 

Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 239
 
فَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ فَرِجَالًا أَوْ رُكْبَانًا فَإِذَا أَمِنْتُمْ فَاذْكُرُوا اللَّهَ كَمَا عَلَّمَكُمْ مَا لَمْ تَكُونُوا تَعْلَمُونَ   - [ If you fear danger then you can (perform salah) while on foot or riding. When you are in safety, remember (dhikr) Allah according to the teachings of the one who has taught you that which you did not know. ]
 
Salah is an important obligation. Five times salah during the day and night is mandatory.  If you are normal, pray in congregation.  If it is not possible, then pray alone. If it is not possible to stand and pray, then perform Salah while sitting.  If you cannot do even this, in case of some ailment, perform salah while you lay in your bed.  If it is not possible, then perform Salah by your thought.
 
The above verse commands that it is important  to remember Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) all the time, particularly when we are facing some kind of danger.  It is His assistance and mercy that will save us from the possible harm.  If one is part of a military force who are at war in the battlefield, then Salah can be performed by thought, while walking or riding the horse or air force planes/battle tanks, etc. 

 

Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 240
 
وَالَّذِينَ يُتَوَفَّوْنَ مِنْكُمْ وَيَذَرُونَ أَزْوَاجًا وَصِيَّةً لِأَزْوَاجِهِمْ مَتَاعًا إِلَى الْحَوْلِ غَيْرَ إِخْرَاجٍ فَإِنْ خَرَجْنَ فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِي مَا فَعَلْنَ فِي أَنْفُسِهِنَّ مِنْ مَعْرُوفٍ وَاللَّهُ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ  - [ Those who die and leave widows should make a bequest for them of one year’s maintenance without them having to leave their homes. But if they choose to leave their homes, then you will not be held responsible for them as they have used their rights. Allah is Almighty and all Wise.]
 

The protection of women in Islam is exemplary.  In verse 234 above, the commandment was after the death of husband, a widow should wait for four months and ten nights before remarrying. This is for the women of re-marrying age. 

In this verse, Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) commands that the dying husband should make a provision/will that, if the woman chooses to remain in the house of her in laws, she can stay there for one full year. And in this case, she should be provided with all living expenses as usual.  In this case also the period of Iddah ie., 4 months and 10 days remains unchanged.  She can re-marry after this period and leave her in-laws home.

 

Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 241
 
وَلِلْمُطَلَّقَاتِ مَتَاعٌ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ حَقًّا عَلَى الْمُتَّقِينَ  - [ Divorced women have the right to receive provision according to custom; this is an obligation upon those with Taqwa. ]

 

Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 242
 
كَذَلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ آَيَاتِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ  - [ Thus Allah explains the laws of existence for you, so that you may use your reason. ]
 
Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) explains in detail, repeatedly that the right of the divorced and widowed women should be protected.  They should be not be left to fend for themselves.  It is the responsibility of the individual homes and Muslims society as a whole to make sure that either they are re-married or allowed live peacefully and honorably in society.

Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 243
 
أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ خَرَجُوا مِنْ دِيَارِهِمْ وَهُمْ أُلُوفٌ حَذَرَ الْمَوْتِ فَقَالَ لَهُمُ اللَّهُ مُوتُوا ثُمَّ أَحْيَاهُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَذُو فَضْلٍ عَلَى النَّاسِ وَلَكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لَا يَشْكُرُونَ - [ Did you not see the thousands who abandoned their homes out of fear of death? Allah said to them ‘Die’ and then brought them back to life. Undoubtedly, Allah is bountiful to mankind, but most of them do not appreciate (the bounty that is provided). ]
 
In the above verse Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) reminds the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), and through the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), He is informing the Muslims that once the people of Israel ran away from their homes/village in stead of fighting in the way of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) fearing death.  They were in thousands.  After they left their homes, all of them were made to die by Allah's (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) command.  However, after sometime, they were brought back to life again.  It was the mercy of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) to bring back them to life again.  But people do not realize it. Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) wanted to explain them that there is no escape from death even if they run away from Jihad.  It would have been better for them to fight in the way of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) and ensure success in both the lives.  Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) does not like cowards. 
 
There are many verses in Quran addressing the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)  'Did you not see' (أَلَمْ تَرَ) for the episodes that happened thousands of years ago before Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). This shows the continuity of Prophet's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) life in different formats from the beginning of time.  We have described this issue in our book  Haqeeqat-e-Mohammadi (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). A brief account of related Quranic verses and Ahadith are given below. 
 
(i) It is in Quran - أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِي حَاجَّ إِبْرَاهِيمَ فِي رَبِّهِ  [ Did you not see (O'Prophet ﷺ) the one  who argued with Abraham about his Lord. ]  (Al-Baqara - 257) 
 
(ii)  It is in Quran - أَلَمْ تَرَ كَيْفَ فَعَلَ رَبُّكَ بِأَصْحَابِ الْفِيلِ [Did you not see (O'Prophet ﷺ)  how your Lord dealt with the companions of the elephant? ] (Al-Fil - 1)
 
(iii) It is in Quran - أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا نَصِيبًا مِّنَ الْكِتَابِ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْجِبْتِ وَالطَّاغُوتِ  [  Did you not see (O'Prophet  ﷺ) those who were given a portion of the scripture, who believed in superstition and false objects of worship.] (An-Nisa - 51) 
 
(iv) It is in Quran -  أَلَمْ تَرَ أَنَّا أَرْسَلْنَا الشَّيَاطِينَ عَلَى الْكَافِرِينَ تَؤُزُّهُمْ أَزًّا [Do you not see (O'Prophet ﷺ)  We have sent the devils upon the disbelievers, inciting them to (evil) with (constant) incitement? (Maryam - 83)
 
(v) It is in Quran - أَلَمْ تَرَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ يُزْجِي سَحَابًا ثُمَّ يُؤَلِّفُ بَيْنَهُ ثُمَّ يَجْعَلُهُ رُكَامًا فَتَرَى الْوَدْقَ يَخْرُجُ مِنْ خِلَالِهِ [ Do you not see (O'Prophet ﷺ) that Allah drives clouds? Then He brings them together, then He makes them into a mass, and you see the rain emerge from within it. 
 

(vi) It is in Hadith - Narrated Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) : One day the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) stood up among us for a long period and informed us about the beginning of creation (and talked about everything in detail) till he mentioned how the people of Paradise will enter their places and the people of Hell will enter their places. Some remembered what he had said, and some forgot it. (Bukhari)

(vii) It is in Hadith -  Narrated Hudhaifa (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) : The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) once delivered a speech in front of us wherein he left nothing but mentioned (about) everything that would happen till the Hour. Some of us stored that in their  minds and some forgot it.  (After that speech) I used to see events taking place (which had been referred to in that speech) but I had forgotten them (before their occurrence). Then I would recognize such events as a man recognizes another man who has been absent and then sees and recognizes him. (Bukhari)
 
(viii)  It is in Hadith - Abu Hurairah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) narrated, 'they asked, O'Allah's Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), when was prophet-hood established for you?  He said, while Adam (عليه السلام) was between the soul and body' (Tirmidhi).
 
What is established from the above Quranic verses and Ahadith? 
 
It establishes the continuity of the life of Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) from the beginning of time. 
 
(ix) It is in Hadith - It is narrated that Jābir ibn Abdullāh (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), 'O Apostle of Allāh (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), may my father and mother be sacrificed for you, tell me of the first thing Allāh (سبحانه و تعالى) created before all things.” He said : O' Jābir (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), the first thing Allāh (سبحانه و تعالى) created was the light (existence) of your Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) from His light, and that light remained in the midst of His Power for as long as He wished, and there was not, at that time, a Tablet or a Pen or a Paradise or a Fire or an angel or a heaven or an earth. And when Allāh (سبحانه و تعالى) wished to create His entire creation (this Cosmos), he created everything else from that light (existence).
 
(References - Abd al-Razzāq (d. 211) narrated it in his MusannafBayhaqī (d. 458) narrated it with a different wording in Dalā'il an-Nubūwwa according to Zurqāni in his Sharh al-Mawāhib (1:56 of the Matbā‘a al-‘amira in Cairo). Diyārbakrī narrated in it Tārīkh al-khāmis (1:20). Bukhari and Muslim have taken hundreds of Ahadith from Abdur Razzaq.)
  
(x) It is in Quran - قَدْ جَاءَكُم مِّنَ اللَّهِ نُورٌ وَكِتَابٌ مُّبِينٌ  (From Allah has come to you a Light and a Book manifest.) (Al-Maeda - 15).
 
The above verse is very clear in describing Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)  as "Noor from Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی).  In the exegesis (Tafseer) of the above verse, many well known  Ulema have confirmed that the  "light"  refers to Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).

[ References - (a) Suyuti in Tafsir al-Jalalayn.   (b) Feruzabadi in the Tafsir Ibn `Abbas entitled Tanwir al-miqbas (p. 72). (c) Imam Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, in his Tafsir al-kabir (11:189). (d) Qadi Baidawi in his Tafsir Anwar at-Tanzil. (e) Al-Baghawi in his Tafsir Ma`alim at-Tanzil (2:23).  (f) Al-Shirbini in his Tafsir al-Siraj al-Munir (p. 360). (g)  Tafsir Abi Sa`ud (4:36). (h) Thana’ullah Pani Pati in his Tafsir al-mazhari, (3:67). (i) Shaikh Mohammad Abdul Qadeer Siddiqui (رحمتہ اللہ علیہ) in his Tafseer-e-Siddiqui. ]
 
(xi) It is in Hadith - Abdullah bin Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) narrated that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) told his companions : 'I am not like you.  I live with my Sustainer (رب). (Bukhari, Muslim)
 
  
Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 244
 
وَقَاتِلُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ  - [ Fight in the way of Allah and know well that Allah is all Hearing and all knowing.] 

After describing the episode of Israelis who had run away fearing death, Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) commands Muslims not to fear death, as Israelis did, and fight in the way of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ).   Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ)  hears and knows all what people do.

 

Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 245
 
مَنْ ذَا الَّذِي يُقْرِضُ اللَّهَ قَرْضًا حَسَنًا فَيُضَاعِفَهُ لَهُ أَضْعَافًا كَثِيرَةً وَاللَّهُ يَقْبِضُ وَيَبْسُطُ وَإِلَيْهِ تُرْجَعُونَ  - [ Who will want to lend Allah a good loan and receive it back in manifold! It is Allah who constricts and grants relief. To Him you will be returned! ]

The meaning of loan in this verse is virtuous deeds, that include helping people in their education, helping them during financial needs, giving alms etc.  Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) says that all your alms givings will be returned to you in manifold, in this life as well as in Hereafter.

 

Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 246
 
أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الْمَلَإِ مِنْ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ مِنْ بَعْدِ مُوسَى إِذْ قَالُوا لِنَبِيٍّ لَهُمُ ابْعَثْ لَنَا مَلِكًا نُقَاتِلْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ قَالَ هَلْ عَسَيْتُمْ إِنْ كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الْقِتَالُ أَلَّا تُقَاتِلُوا قَالُوا وَمَا لَنَا أَلَّا نُقَاتِلَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَقَدْ أُخْرِجْنَا مِنْ دِيَارِنَا وَأَبْنَائِنَا فَلَمَّا كُتِبَ عَلَيْهِمُ الْقِتَالُ تَوَلَّوْا إِلَّا قَلِيلًا مِنْهُمْ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ بِالظَّالِمِينَ   - [ Did you not see (O' Prophet ﷺ) a group of the Descendants of Israel, after Moosa? When they said to one of their Prophets (Samuel -  Shamueel – عليه السلام), 'Appoint a king for us so that we may fight in Allah’s way?' He said, 'Do you think you would refrain from fighting if it is made obligatory for you?' They said, 'What is the matter with us that we should not fight in Allah’s cause, whereas we have been driven away from our homeland and our children?' So when fighting was ordained for them, they all turned away, except a few; and Allah is aware of the unjust (people).]
  
 
Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 247
 
وَقَالَ لَهُمْ نَبِيُّهُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ قَدْ بَعَثَ لَكُمْ طَالُوتَ مَلِكًا قَالُوا أَنَّى يَكُونُ لَهُ الْمُلْكُ عَلَيْنَا وَنَحْنُ أَحَقُّ بِالْمُلْكِ مِنْهُ وَلَمْ يُؤْتَ سَعَةً مِنَ الْمَالِ قَالَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ اصْطَفَاهُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَزَادَهُ بَسْطَةً فِي الْعِلْمِ وَالْجِسْمِ وَاللَّهُ يُؤْتِي مُلْكَهُ مَنْ يَشَاءُ وَاللَّهُ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ - [ And their Prophet said to them, 'Indeed Allah has sent Talut (Saul) as your king'; they said, 'Why should he have kingship over us whereas we deserve the kingship more than he, and nor has he been given enough wealth?' He said, “Indeed Allah has chosen him above you, and has bestowed him with vast knowledge and (excellent) physique”; and Allah may bestow His kingdom on whomever He wills; and Allah is Most Capable, All Knowing.]
 

Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 248
 
وَقَالَ لَهُمْ نَبِيُّهُمْ إِنَّ آَيَةَ مُلْكِهِ أَنْ يَأْتِيَكُمُ التَّابُوتُ فِيهِ سَكِينَةٌ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ وَبَقِيَّةٌ مِمَّا تَرَكَ آَلُ مُوسَى وَآَلُ هَارُونَ تَحْمِلُهُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ إِنَّ فِي ذَلِكَ لَآَيَةً لَكُمْ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ مُؤْمِنِينَ  - [ And their Prophet told them, “Indeed the sign of his kingdom will be the arrival of a (wooden) box to you from your Lord, in which is the contentment of hearts.  It contains the relics left behind by Prophets Moosa and the  Haroon (عليهم السلام), borne by the angels; indeed in it is a great sign* for you if you are believers.]

 

Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 249
 
فَلَمَّا فَصَلَ طَالُوتُ بِالْجُنُودِ قَالَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ مُبْتَلِيكُمْ بِنَهَرٍ فَمَنْ شَرِبَ مِنْهُ فَلَيْسَ مِنِّي وَمَنْ لَمْ يَطْعَمْهُ فَإِنَّهُ مِنِّي إِلَّا مَنِ اغْتَرَفَ غُرْفَةً بِيَدِهِ فَشَرِبُوا مِنْهُ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا مِنْهُمْ فَلَمَّا جَاوَزَهُ هُوَ وَالَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا مَعَهُ قَالُوا لَا طَاقَةَ لَنَا الْيَوْمَ بِجَالُوتَ وَجُنُودِهِ قَالَ الَّذِينَ يَظُنُّونَ أَنَّهُمْ مُلَاقُوا اللَّهِ كَمْ مِنْ فِئَةٍ قَلِيلَةٍ غَلَبَتْ فِئَةً كَثِيرَةً بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ وَاللَّهُ مَعَ الصَّابِرِينَ  - [ When Talut set out with his army, he said (to his soldiers), “Indeed Allah will test you with a river. Whoever drinks from it, is not of me, whoever does not drink from it, is of me, except those who take but a handful from it'.   Except a few, they all drank from it. When he and those with him crossed over to the other side of the river, they said, 'We have no strength left to fight Goliath and his soldiers. Those who were certain of meeting Allah said 'Many times a small group has overpowered a large group by Allah's command. Allah is with those who persevere.”]

 

Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 250
 
وَلَمَّا بَرَزُوا لِجَالُوتَ وَجُنُودِهِ قَالُوا رَبَّنَا أَفْرِغْ عَلَيْنَا صَبْرًا وَثَبِّتْ أَقْدَامَنَا وَانْصُرْنَا عَلَى الْقَوْمِ الْكَافِرِينَ  - [ When they faced Goliath and his army, they prayed, “Our Lord, give us the force of perseverance, make firm our feet, do not let us slip and give us the power of victory over the rejecters.”]

 

Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 251
 
فَهَزَمُوهُمْ بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ وَقَتَلَ دَاوُودُ جَالُوتَ وَآَتَاهُ اللَّهُ الْمُلْكَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَعَلَّمَهُ مِمَّا يَشَاءُ وَلَوْلَا دَفْعُ اللَّهِ النَّاسَ بَعْضَهُمْ بِبَعْضٍ لَفَسَدَتِ الْأَرْضُ وَلَكِنَّ اللَّهَ ذُو فَضْلٍ عَلَى الْعَالَمِينَ - [ Then (with the permission of Allah) they defeated them. Dawood (عليه السلام) killed Goliath and Allah gave him  sovereignty and wisdom and taught him what He willed. If Allah had not repelled some by (means of) others, the earth would have become corrupt (unlivable). But the bounty of Allah is upon the worlds.]

 
 
Juz 2, Al-Baqara, Verse 252
 
تِلْكَ آَيَاتُ اللَّهِ نَتْلُوهَا عَلَيْكَ بِالْحَقِّ وَإِنَّكَ لَمِنَ الْمُرْسَلِينَ - [ These are the verses of Allah, which We recite to you (O'Prophet  ﷺ)  with truth; and undoubtedly you are one of the Noble Apostles.]
 
In the above verses from 247-52,  Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) describes how Bani Israel were tested and their supplication to appoint a King for them was granted and how they won over Jaloot under their King Talut and how  Prophet Dawood (عليه السلام) killed Jaloot.
 
It is reported that Prophet Dawood (عليه السلام) killed Jaloot in a single combat by hurling a stone from his sling that hit Jaloot (Goliath) in the center of his forehead and he fell down.  Prophet Dawood (عليه السلام) overpowered  and killed him.  Looking at this horrific scene, the army of Jaloot ran away.  Israelis pursued them and won over that land. Prophet Dawood (عليه السلام) was less than 20 years old when he killed Jaloot. Later, he was married to the daughter of Talut and gradually became the King of Israelis. 

 

 

 

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