SHAIKH MIR ASEDULLAH QUADRI
JUZ 26.3 HA-MEEN (حم)
Al-Fath| Sura # 48| 29 Verses | Madinan
بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
In the name of Allah, the Compassionate and the Merciful
Juz 26, Al-Fath, Verse 001إِنَّا فَتَحْنَا لَكَ فَتْحًا مُبِينًا [ Surely, Allah has given to you (O' Prophet ﷺ) a manifest victory. ]Surah Al-Fath was revealed in the month of Dhul Qadah, 6 AH (628 AD) when Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) was returning to Madina after concluding a peace treaty with Makkan polytheists at Hudaibiya, near Makka. Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) describes this treaty as manifest victory of Muslims.
Six years had elapsed after the immigration of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) to Madina and in between these years, there wars were fought between Makkan Polytheists and Muslims; namely, (i) the battle of Badr 2 AH (624 AD), (ii) the battle of Uhad in 3 AH (625 AD), and (iii) the battle of Trench 5 AH (627 AD).
Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) saw in a dream that he and his companions have entered Makka and they were doing Tawaf of Ka'ba. When this dream was disclosed to Sahabah, they were jubilant and it was decided that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and Sahabah will perform Umra that year.
The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), along with 1,400 Sahabah started in Ahram from Madina with the intention of Umra in the month of Dhu'l Qa'dah, 6 A.H. They carried 70 camels with them for the sacrifice.
It is in Quran - لَقَدْ صَدَقَ اللَّهُ رَسُولَهُ الرُّؤْيَا بِالْحَقِّ لَتَدْخُلُنَّ الْمَسْجِدَ الْحَرَامَ إِنْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ آَمِنِينَ مُحَلِّقِينَ رُءُوسَكُمْ وَمُقَصِّرِينَ لَا تَخَافُونَ فَعَلِمَ مَا لَمْ تَعْلَمُوا فَجَعَلَ مِنْ دُونِ ذَلِكَ فَتْحًا قَرِيبًا [ Indeed Allah has, in all truth, shown the vision to His Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), that, Allah willing, you shall enter the Masjid-al-Haram, fearless and secure, (to perform Umrah or Hajj) and some having their heads shaved and others having their hair cut, for He knows what you do not know. So, He granted you a near victory before the fulfillment of that vision. ] (Al-Fath - 27)
The above verse clarifies that Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) granted near and manifest victory to Muslims before the fulfillment of the dream of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).
It was the practice of Quraish for centuries that they will not stop anyone from entering Makka who was coming unarmed, with the intention of Hajj and Umra. However, when the news of the large group of Muslims coming with the intention of Umra reached the Quraish, they got alarmed and decided to stop Muslims from entering Makka. Quran testifies that this was because of their pagan arrogance and hatred of Muslims.
Muslims were halted at a place called Hudaibiya, which was close by Makka and to clear any of the Quraish's possible apprehensions, Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) sent Othman bin Affan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) to Makka to explain them the intention of Muslims to perform Umra as they were traveling in Ahram, unarmed, and even carrying animals for sacrifice. Othman (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) explained the facts to the Makkans but they remained adamant not to allow Muslims in Makka. Rather he was held up in Makka and not allowed to go back to Hudaibiya.
As nothing was heard about Othaman (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and he did not return from Makka, a rumor was spread that he was martyred by Makkan Quraish.
The Muslims were not expecting that kind of hostility by Makkans. Alarmed by the developments, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) took a pledge of allegiance from all 1400 Sahabah that they will fight with the Quraish until their death. This is known as 'Bait-e-Ridhwan' (بيعة الرضوان) in Islamic history.
It is in Quran - إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يُبَايِعُونَكَ إِنَّمَا يُبَايِعُونَ اللَّهَ يَدُ اللَّهِ فَوْقَ أَيْدِيهِمْ فَمَنْ نَكَثَ فَإِنَّمَا يَنْكُثُ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ وَمَنْ أَوْفَى بِمَا عَاهَدَ عَلَيْهُ اللَّهَ فَسَيُؤْتِيهِ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا [ Indeed, those who pledge allegiance to you, (O' Mohammad ﷺ), they are actually pledging allegiance to Allah. The hand of Allah is over their hands. So he who breaks his word only breaks it to the detriment of himself. And he who fulfills that which he has promised Allah, He will give him a great reward. ] (Al-Fath - 10)
The news of pledge of allegiance reached Makkan polytheists and the deadlock continued for some days. In the meantime, four envoys from Quraish came to the Apostles of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and they were explained that the Muslims did not come to fight, rather they came to perform Umrah. But the Quraish remained adamant and refused to allow Muslims to proceed any further. One of their envoys, 'Urwah ibn Mas'ud Ath-Thaqafi, went back to his people and reported as follows.
It is in Hadith - Miswar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) narrate the account of the treaty of Al-Hudaibiya in which Urwa came to Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) to negotiate its terms and when returned to his people and said, 'O people! By Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) I have been to the kings and to Caesar, Khosrau and An-Najashi, yet I have never seen any of them respected by his courtiers as much as Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) is respected by his companions. By Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ), if he spat, the spittle would fall in the hand of one of them (Sahaba) who would rub it on his face and skin; if he ordered them, they would carry out his order immediately; if he performed ablution, they would struggle to take the remaining water; and when they spoke, they would lower their voices and would not look at his face constantly out of respect." (Bukhari, Ahmad, Tabarani, Ibn Hibban, Baihaqi, etc.)
The Quraish finally released Othman (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and sent Sohail bin Amr Al-Thaqafi to negotiate the terms of peace with Muslims. After negotiations, a peace treaty was signed by Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and Sohail on behalf of Makkan polytheists. This treaty is known as the 'Treaty of Hudaibiya'. The terms of the treaty were as follows.
(i) There will be cessation of hostilities between the two sides (Quraish and Muslims) for the following 10 years.
(ii) Any person or tribe who wishes to join Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and to enter into any agreement with him is free to do so. Likewise any person or tribe who wishes to join the Quraish and to enter into any agreement with them is free to do so.
(iii) If any Makkan went to Madinah, then Muslims would return him to Makkah, but if any Muslim from Madinah went to Makkah, he would not be returned.
(iv) If any young man from Makka, or one whose father is alive, goes to Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) without permission from his father or guardian, he will be returned back to his father or guardian in Makka. But if anyone goes to the Quraish of Makkah from Madina, he will not be returned back.
(v) Muslims will return back without entering Makkah. However, next year Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and his companions can enter Makkah, spend three days and perform Umrah.
After concluding the treaty, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) asked Sahabah to slaughter sacrificial animals at the same place (Hudaibiya) and get their heads shaved and come out of Ihram.
The terms of the above agreement showed that Muslims had accepted many of the demands of the Makkan polytheists. However, the treaty proved to be massive victory for Muslims as Makkan Mushrikeen, for the first time, recognized the Islamic state in Medina by signing the treaty. The treaty allowed Muslims living in Makka to practice Islam publicly. Many people who had become Muslims at heart but were afraid to disclose their faith publicly, were now free to live as Muslims.
Following this treaty, many Arab tribes also entered into treaties with Islamic State in Madina. People realized the truthfulness and sensed the eventual triumph of Islam, thus, they entered into Islamic fold in thousands.
The following year the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) traveled to Makka for Umra and this time he had over 2,000 pilgrims with him instead of 1400 earlier.
The Conquest of Makka
There were two tribes around Makka, namely, Banu Bakr and Banu Khaza'a, who had enmity between them for centuries and who were often involved in bitter fight with each other. After Hudaibiya agreement, Banu Bakr tribe joined Makkan Quraish and Banu Khaza'a tribe entered into alliance with Muslims.
The first year and a half went peacefully after the treaty of Hudaibiya. However, after 20 months from the treaty, Banu Bakr attacked Banu Khaza'a in Sha'ban, 8AH. They killed many people from Banu Khaza'a and did not spare them even when they took shelter in Makka. In this attack, their allies, Quraish supported them with men and arms.
It was an open violation of the peace treaty by Quraish as they were not supposed to help a tribe to attack another tribe who were in alliance with the Muslim State of Madina.
Banu Khaza'a sent a delegation to Madina to inform the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) about the attack and the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) demanded Quraish to pay ransom to Banu Khaza'a for all their persons killed in the attack and to terminate their treaty with Banu Bakr.
Quraish rejected the Prophet's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) demands. Thus the treaty of Hudaibiya got abrogated. Muslims declared the abrogation of the treaty of Hudaibiya publicly.
Following Muslims' public declaration of the abrogation of the peace treaty, Quraish sent a delegation to Madina petitioning to maintain the treaty. The leader of Makkan Quraish, Abu Sufyan also traveled to Madina to request Muslims to hold on to the treaty. Since Quraish refused to accept Muslims demands, Muslims did not agree for the continuation of the peace treaty and the matter got stalemated.
A few months on, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) asked Muslims to prepare for a battle, but it was kept secret that who will they fight with. On Prophet's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) command, many tribes rushed to Madina to join forces for the impending battle. The volunteers came in thousands on Prophet's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) call.
The Muslim army set out for the battle in early Ramadhan 8 AH (629 AD). On the way, many tribes joined and the volunteers and the contingents from various tribes swelled into 10,000 strong. The army reached near Makka and stayed at Marr-uz-Zahran, located ten miles northwest of Makka. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) asked everyone in the army to light a fire in the night. When 10,000 fires were lighted, it gave a scary look to Makkans. It looked as if tens of thousands of people were there in the Muslim Army.
Makka was effectively in siege as Muslims sealed all the routes of escape from Makka. The Quraish were perplexed with this sudden attack. The city eventually surrendered to Muslims without any bloodshed within a few days in Ramadhan 8 AH.
The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) recited the following verse while entering Makka.
It is in Quran - وَقُلْ جَاءَ الْحَقُّ وَزَهَقَ الْبَاطِلُ ۚ إِنَّ الْبَاطِلَ كَانَ زَهُوقًا [ And proclaim (O' Prophet ﷺ) 'The Truth has come, and falsehood has vanished. Surely falsehood is ever bound to vanish. ] (Al-Israa - 81)
After Muslims entered Makka, all idols, in and around Ka'ba, were taken down and the sanctuary was cleaned from all traces of idol worship.
The Makkan assembled at the Ka'ba, and the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) delivered the following address.
- 'There is no god but Allah. He has no associate. He has made good His promise that He held to his servant and helped him and defeated all the confederates. Bear in mind that every claim of privilege, whether that of blood or property is abolished except that of the custody of the Ka'ba and of supplying water to the pilgrims. Bear in mind that for any one who is slain the blood money is a hundred camels. O' People of Quraish, surely Allah has abolished from you all pride of the time of ignorance and all pride in your ancestry, because all men are descended from Adam (عليه السلام), and Adam (عليه السلام) was made of clay.'
- Then, turning towards people, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said, O' Quraish, what do you think that I should accord you?' They replied, 'Mercy, O' Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). We expect nothing but good from you'. Then he declared, 'This day there is no reproof against you; go your way, for you are free.
- It was a general amnesty for the Makkans who had tortured Muslims for 13 long years and fought with them the previous 3 wars. The people of Makka realized the truthfulness of Islam and almost all of them became Muslims.
Juz 26, Al-Fath, Verse 002لِيَغْفِرَ لَكَ اللَّهُ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِنْ ذَنْبِكَ وَمَا تَأَخَّرَ وَيُتِمَّ نِعْمَتَهُ عَلَيْكَ وَيَهْدِيَكَ صِرَاطًا مُسْتَقِيمًا [ so that Allah may forgive your (Ummah's) past as well as future sins, and may perfect His blessings upon you (all), and keep your (Ummah) on the Right Path. ]While translating, some people relate the above verse with the person of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). That is not a correct understanding. Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) swears to testify the innocence and greatness of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) throughout the Quran.It is in Quran - وَٱلنَّجۡمِ إِذَا هَوَىٰ - مَا ضَلَّ صَاحِبُكُمۡ وَمَا غَوَىٰ - وَمَا يَنطِقُ عَنِ ٱلۡهَوَىٰٓ - إِنۡ هُوَ إِلَّا وَحۡىٌ۬ يُوحَىٰ عَلَّمَهُ ۥ شَدِيدُ ٱلۡقُوَىٰ [ By the star when it sets. Your companion (Apostle Muhammad ﷺ) neither erred intentionally nor unintentionally. He does not speak of his own desire. It is the revelation revealed (to him). The Mighty in power (Allah) has taught him the knowledge. ] (An-Najm - 1-5)
It is in Hadith - It is narrated by Ibn Omer, Abu Huraira and Anas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہم). (Prophet Mohammad - صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم told his companions) ‘I am not like you. I live with my Sustainer (Rabbul Aalameen) who feeds and provides me with drink.’ (Bukhari, Muslim)
It is in Hadith - Narrated by Abu Hurayrah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ). When Allah's Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) was asked since how long he is the Prophet, he replied, ‘When Adam (علیھ السلا م ) had not yet had his spirit joined to his body (Tirmidhi).Juz 26, Al-Fath, Verse 003وَيَنْصُرَكَ اللَّهُ نَصْرًا عَزِيزًا [ And that Allah may award you a convincing victory! ]
Juz 26, Al-Fath, Verse 004هُوَ الَّذِي أَنْزَلَ السَّكِينَةَ فِي قُلُوبِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ لِيَزْدَادُوا إِيمَانًا مَعَ إِيمَانِهِمْ وَلِلَّهِ جُنُودُ السَّمَوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا [ He is the One Who sent down serenity upon the hearts of the believers so that they may increase even more in their faith. To Allah (alone) belong the forces of the heavens and the earth. And Allah is All Knowing, All Wise. ]The above verse refers to the anxiety of Muslims as they were going for Umra, unarmed and were not sure what will be the reaction of Makkan polytheists against them. Meanwhile, the Munafiqeen in Madina did not expect Muslims to come back safe from this travel.The anxiety of Muslims increased when they were stopped on the way and also when they heard the rumor that Othman (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was martyred by Quraish. In addition, when the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) took the pledge of allegiance of every Muslim in Hudaibiya to fight till death against the polytheist, it was an anxious moment for the Muslims. All these occasions were really scary during the travel.Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) says that these were the moments when He sent down serenity to the hearts of Muslims so that they increase even more in their faith.
Juz 26, Al-Fath, Verse 005لِيُدْخِلَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتِ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِنْ تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا وَيُكَفِّرَ عَنْهُمْ سَيِّئَاتِهِمْ وَكَانَ ذَلِكَ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ فَوْزًا عَظِيمًا [ ( He has caused you to do as you have done) so that He may admit the believing men and believing women into the gardens beneath which rivers flow, to live therein forever, and remove their ills from them; and that is the highest achievement (in regard to people) in the sight of Allah. ]The above verse testifies that all, that was done in Hudaibiya by the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), was directly done under the guidance and execution by Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ). It was a Mercy on the believers who were to be rewarded abundantly in both the worlds.
Juz 26, Al-Fath, Verse 006وَيُعَذِّبَ الْمُنَافِقِينَ وَالْمُنَافِقَاتِ وَالْمُشْرِكِينَ وَالْمُشْرِكَاتِ الظَّانِّينَ بِاللَّهِ ظَنَّ السَّوْءِ عَلَيْهِمْ دَائِرَةُ السَّوْءِ وَغَضِبَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَعَنَهُمْ وَأَعَدَّ لَهُمْ جَهَنَّمَ وَسَاءَتْ مَصِيرًا [ And that He may punish the hypocrite men and the hypocrite women and the pagan men and the pagan women, who entertained an evil thought about Allah. A turn of evil shall befall them, for Allah's wrath is upon them. He has laid His curse on them and prepared for them the fire of Hell, which is a very evil abode. ]
Juz 26, Al-Fath, Verse 007وَلِلَّهِ جُنُودُ السَّمَوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَزِيزًا حَكِيمًا [ The forces of heaven and earth belong to Allah; He is Almighty, All Wise. ]
Juz 26, Al-Fath, Verse 008إِنَّا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ شَاهِدًا وَمُبَشِّرًا وَنَذِيرًا [ Surely, We have sent you (O' Mohammad ﷺ) as a witness, as a bearer of glad tidings, and as a Warner. ]
The above verse describes Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) as 'Lamp spreading light (into the whole cosmos). He is also referred as a Witness, a bearer of glad tidings and warner to humanity.
Witness of a person who has only heard about a thing is not accepted in the court of Law. Witness of a person who has seen the things from his eyes is accepted. Thus, Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) is the one who knows and sees all the physical and spiritual aspects of this Cosmos.Juz 26, Al-Fath, Verse 009لِتُؤْمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَتُعَزِّرُوهُ وَتُوَقِّرُوهُ وَتُسَبِّحُوهُ بُكْرَةً وَأَصِيلًا [ Therefore, (O' Mankind) you should believe in Allah and His Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), respect and revere the Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and glorify Him in the morning and evening. ]
The respect and love of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) is part of Iman. Muslims are required to love the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) more than their own selves. His decision, in collective and individual issues of the believers, is binding upon them even if they are unable to comprehend it.(i) It is in Quran - يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَلَا تَوَلَّوْا عَنْهُ وَأَنتُمْ تَسْمَعُونَ [ O' Believers, obey Allah and His Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and do not turn from him while you hear (his order). (Al-Anfaal - 20)(ii) It is in Hadith - It is narrated on the authority of Anas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said : 'None of you will have faith till he loves me more than his father, his children and all mankind. (Bukhari)(ii) It is in Hadith - It is narrated on the authority of Abdullah bin Hisham (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) that he said : We were with the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and he was holding the hand of 'Umar bin Al-Khattab (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ). 'Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said to Him, O' Allah's Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) you are dearer to me than everything except my own self.' The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said, 'No, by Him in Whose Hand my soul is, (you will not have complete Iman) till I am dearer to you than your own self.' Then Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said to him, 'However, now, by Allah, you are dearer to me than my own self.' The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said, 'Now, O' Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) (you are a true believer). (Bukhari)
(iii) It is in Hadith - It is narrated on the authority of Anas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) that : A man asked the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) about the Hour, saying, 'When will the Hour be?' The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said : 'What have you prepared for it?' The man said, 'nothing, except that I love Allah and His Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said, 'You will be with those whom you love.' (Anasؓ continued) We had never been so glad as we were on hearing that saying of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). Therefore, I love the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), Abu Bakr (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and 'Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), and I hope that I will be with them because of my love for them, though my deeds are not similar to theirs. (Bukhari)Juz 26, Al-Fath, Verse 010إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يُبَايِعُونَكَ إِنَّمَا يُبَايِعُونَ اللَّهَ يَدُ اللَّهِ فَوْقَ أَيْدِيهِمْ فَمَنْ نَكَثَ فَإِنَّمَا يَنْكُثُ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ وَمَنْ أَوْفَى بِمَا عَاهَدَ عَلَيْهُ اللَّهَ فَسَيُؤْتِيهِ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا [ Indeed, those who pledge allegiance to you, (O' Mohammad ﷺ), they are actually pledging allegiance to Allah. The hand of Allah is over their hands. So he who breaks his word only breaks it to the detriment of himself. And he who fulfills that which he has promised Allah, He will give him a great reward. ]The above verse refers to the pledge of allegiance taken by Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) from Sahabah in Hudaibiya.
Juz 26, Al-Fath, Verse 011سَيَقُولُ لَكَ الْمُخَلَّفُونَ مِنَ الْأَعْرَابِ شَغَلَتْنَا أَمْوَالُنَا وَأَهْلُونَا فَاسْتَغْفِرْ لَنَا يَقُولُونَ بِأَلْسِنَتِهِمْ مَا لَيْسَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ قُلْ فَمَنْ يَمْلِكُ لَكُمْ مِنَ اللَّهِ شَيْئًا إِنْ أَرَادَ بِكُمْ ضَرًّا أَوْ أَرَادَ بِكُمْ نَفْعًا بَلْ كَانَ اللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرًا [ Those of the Bedouins who stayed behind will say to you : 'Our possessions and our families occupied us, so ask forgiveness for us.' They say with their tongues what is not in their hearts. Say : 'Who then has any power (to intervene) on your behalf with Allah, if He intends to hurt you or intends to benefit you? Nay, but Allah is All-Aware of what you do. ]The above verse refers to the people living in the outskirts of Madina whom the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) had invited to join him in his journey for Umra. However they did not leave their homes in spite of their claim to faith just because they were afraid of death.
Juz 26, Al-Fath, Verse 012بَلْ ظَنَنْتُمْ أَنْ لَنْ يَنْقَلِبَ الرَّسُولُ وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ إِلَى أَهْلِيهِمْ أَبَدًا وَزُيِّنَ ذَلِكَ فِي قُلُوبِكُمْ وَظَنَنْتُمْ ظَنَّ السَّوْءِ وَكُنْتُمْ قَوْمًا بُورًا [ 'In fact, you thought that the Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and the believers would not ever return (from their mission) to see their families, and that thought heartened you. You imagined and anticipated the worst (for them). You are a worthless wicked people!' ]
Juz 26, Al-Fath, Verse 013وَمَنْ لَمْ يُؤْمِنْ بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ فَإِنَّا أَعْتَدْنَا لِلْكَافِرِينَ سَعِيرًا [ He who does not believe in Allah and His Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) (should know) We have prepared for unbelievers a blazing fire.']
Juz 26, Al-Fath, Verse 014وَلِلَّهِ مُلْكُ السَّمَوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ يَغْفِرُ لِمَنْ يَشَاءُ وَيُعَذِّبُ مَنْ يَشَاءُ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ غَفُورًا رَحِيمًا [ And to Allah belongs the sovereignty of the heavens and the earth, He forgives whom He wills, and punishes whom He wills. And Allah is Most Forgiving, Most Merciful. ]
Juz 26, Al-Fath, Verse 015سَيَقُولُ الْمُخَلَّفُونَ إِذَا انْطَلَقْتُمْ إِلَى مَغَانِمَ لِتَأْخُذُوهَا ذَرُونَا نَتَّبِعْكُمْ يُرِيدُونَ أَنْ يُبَدِّلُوا كَلَامَ اللَّهِ قُلْ لَنْ تَتَّبِعُونَا كَذَلِكُمْ قَالَ اللَّهُ مِنْ قَبْلُ فَسَيَقُولُونَ بَلْ تَحْسُدُونَنَا بَلْ كَانُوا لَا يَفْقَهُونَ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا [ When you set forth to take the spoils of war, those who stayed behind will say : 'Let us come with you.' They wish to change Allah’s decree. Tell them plainly : 'You shall not come with us. Allah has already said this before.' Then they will say : 'Nay! But you (believers) are jealous of us.' Whereas there is no question of jealousy, but little do they understand such things. ]
Juz 26, Al-Fath, Verse 016قُلْ لِلْمُخَلَّفِينَ مِنَ الْأَعْرَابِ سَتُدْعَوْنَ إِلَى قَوْمٍ أُولِي بَأْسٍ شَدِيدٍ تُقَاتِلُونَهُمْ أَوْ يُسْلِمُونَ فَإِنْ تُطِيعُوا يُؤْتِكُمُ اللَّهُ أَجْرًا حَسَنًا وَإِنْ تَتَوَلَّوْا كَمَا تَوَلَّيْتُمْ مِنْ قَبْلُ يُعَذِّبْكُمْ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا [ Tell the beduin Arabs (nomads) who stayed behind : 'You shall soon be called upon to fight against a mighty people then either you will fight or they will embrace Islam. Then if you obey, Allah will grant you a good reward, but if you turn away as you have done before, He will inflict on you a painful punishment.' ]The above verse was the prophesy and foretelling about the wars Muslims fought with Iranian (Sasanian) and Christian (Byzantine) empires during the Caliphate of Abu Bakr and Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہم).
Juz 26, Al-Fath, Verse 017لَيْسَ عَلَى الْأَعْمَى حَرَجٌ وَلَا عَلَى الْأَعْرَجِ حَرَجٌ وَلَا عَلَى الْمَرِيضِ حَرَجٌ وَمَنْ يُطِعِ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ يُدْخِلْهُ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِنْ تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ وَمَنْ يَتَوَلَّ يُعَذِّبْهُ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا [ There is no blame or sin on the blind, nor there is blame or sin on the lame, nor there is blame or sin on the sick (excused not to go to war). Whoever obeys Allah and His Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), He will admit him to gardens beneath which rivers flow; and whoever turns back, He will punish with a painful punishment. ]
Juz 26, Al-Fath, Verse 018لَقَدْ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ إِذْ يُبَايِعُونَكَ تَحْتَ الشَّجَرَةِ فَعَلِمَ مَا فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ فَأَنْزَلَ السَّكِينَةَ عَلَيْهِمْ وَأَثَابَهُمْ فَتْحًا قَرِيبًا [ Allah was pleased with the believers when they pledged allegiance to you under the tree. He knew what was in their hearts, so He sent down tranquility to them, and rewarded them with an imminent victory. ]The above verse refers to 'Bait-e-Ridhwan' (بيعة الرضوان) of Sahabah in Hudaibiya.Juz 26, Al-Fath, Verse 019وَمَغَانِمَ كَثِيرَةً يَأْخُذُونَهَا وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَزِيزًا حَكِيمًا [ They will acquire an abundance of booty. Allah is Almighty, the Most Wise. ]
Juz 26, Al-Fath, Verse 020وَعَدَكُمُ اللَّهُ مَغَانِمَ كَثِيرَةً تَأْخُذُونَهَا فَعَجَّلَ لَكُمْ هَذِهِ وَكَفَّ أَيْدِيَ النَّاسِ عَنْكُمْ وَلِتَكُونَ آَيَةً لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَيَهْدِيَكُمْ صِرَاطًا مُسْتَقِيمًا [ (O' believers) Allah has promised you many spoils which you shall acquire, and has given you these spoils with all promptness. He has restrained the hands of enemies from you, so that it may serve as a sign to the believers and that He may guide you (all) to the Right Path. ]This verse is reported to be an indication of the spoils of the battle of Khyber which Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) promised to Muslims.BRIEF HISTORY
Khyber was a stronghold of Jews, located 150 kilometers, north of Madina, en route to Syria, which was taken over by Muslims in 7 AH (629 AD). Jews had built strong fortresses in that area which were considered unassailable those days.
Earlier, two Jewish tribes were exiled from Madina, namely, (i) Banu Qainuqah, exiled in 2 AH and (ii) Banu Nadhir, exiled in 3 AH. Both these tribes were exiled for their repeated violations of the terms of the Charter of Madina agreed upon by all tribes in Madina. They had also challenged the authority of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and were repeatedly conspiring to assassinate him.
After their expulsion from Madinah, both these tribes took refuge in Khyber, the Jewish stronghold.
In the Battle of the Trench (غزوه خندق) in 5 AH, the Jews of Khyber had joined forces with Quraish in attacking Madina.
There was another Jewish tribe living in Madina, namely, Banu Quraizah who were also the signatory of the charter of Madina. But, when Madina was under the siege of Quraish led confederates in the battle of Trench, the Jews of Quraizah openly allied with the attacking army as they thought that Quraish led confederates will take over Madina.
Thus, when the battle of Trench ended, Muslims took over the tribe of Banu Quraizah.
The Jews of Khyber were not happy for the expulsions and take over of Jewish tribes in Madina and they vowed to take revenge. They started building up their forces to attack Madina.After the treaty of Hudaibiya, the situation changed. Since Quraish had entered in a peace treaty with Muslims, they were not free to join forces with the Jews of Khybar to attack Madina.In Muharram, 7 AH (629 AD) Muslims marched to Khyber with 1500 men and about 200 horses. The Jews were caught by surprise. They were asked to submit, but they made fun of the offer and vowed to teach a lesson to Muslims. They shut themselves into their fortresses as Muslims besieged them. However, all their forts fell one by one, except their main fort called Qamus which was regarded as impregnable. The Muslim siege of this fort was dragged on for 21 days. The commanders of the Muslim army were changed everyday for the fresh attacks, however, they did not succeed.One day the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) announced that the following day he will give the command of the Muslim army to a person who is loved by both Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) and His Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and he will conquer the fort of Qamus. The following day, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) called Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and sent the Muslims to attack the fort under his command.When Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) reached near the entrance of the fort, he was challenged by the Jews for individual fight with their prominent warriors. Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) killed whoever came out for individual fight. Seeing that they were loosing in individual fights, the Jews tried to enter their fort and close the door. But Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) was very swift in attacking the door and to the surprise of everyone, he uprooted the door from his hands which was so heavy that several men were needed to lift it from the ground. Surely, it was Allah's (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) Mercy and Prophet's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) support that helped Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) in uprooting such a mammoth gate of an impregnable fort. This is the reason that Hadhrat Ali (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) is regarded as the 'Victor of Khyber' (فاتح خيبر).As the gate was broken, Muslims entered the fort. Whoever resisted the Muslim army was killed inside the fort. Soon Jews realized that they cannot withstand the Muslim attack and they laid down their arms and surrendered. Muslims did not plunder the fortress as the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) declared anmesty to all Jews in Khyber. A treaty was signed with the Jews by which they were allowed to live in the area freely but were required to pay half of their produce to Muslims every year as Muslims will provide them protection from any outside attacks.Jews continued to live in Khyber oasis for several years until they were expelled by Hadrat Omer (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) during his caliphate for their anti state activities.After the fall of Khyber, Muslims marched to another smaller Jewish town known as Fadak which was close by Khyber. The Jews of Fadak did not fight and agreed to a similar treaty which was entered between Jews of Khyber and Muslims.The Battle of Khyber was an important turning point in the history of Islam. The Muslim rule was no longer confined to Madinah and its immediate environs. It was extended to other parts of Arabia and the Jews who had been extremely hostile to the Muslims had become the subjects of the Islamic state. And Quraish could no longer depend on the support of the Jews against Muslims.Juz 26, Al-Fath, Verse 021وَأُخْرَى لَمْ تَقْدِرُوا عَلَيْهَا قَدْ أَحَاطَ اللَّهُ بِهَا وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرًا [ And (He promises you) other (bounties)! You are (as yet) not capable of achieving them. But Allah has earmarked them (for you). Allah is capable of accomplishing everything! ]
Juz 26, Al-Fath, Verse 022وَلَوْ قَاتَلَكُمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لَوَلَّوُا الْأَدْبَارَ ثُمَّ لَا يَجِدُونَ وَلِيًّا وَلَا نَصِيرًا [ If the unbelievers had engaged you in combat at that time, they would have turned their backs (and fled). Then, they would not have found any allies or supporters. ]The above verse is related to the events at Hudaibiya. Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) says that Muslims were prevented from fighting in Hudaibiyah not because there was a possibility of them being defeated, rather, there were other reasons, which have been described in the following verses. And if there was a battle, surely, the Makkan polytheists would have been defeated and Makka would have fallen to Muslims at that time.
Juz 26, Al-Fath, Verse 023سُنَّةَ اللَّهِ الَّتِي قَدْ خَلَتْ مِنْ قَبْلُ وَلَنْ تَجِدَ لِسُنَّةِ اللَّهِ تَبْدِيلًا [ Such is the norm, the established way of Allah, which is in force since a very long time. You shall not find any change in the established practice of Allah! ]
Juz 26, Al-Fath, Verse 024وَهُوَ الَّذِي كَفَّ أَيْدِيَهُمْ عَنْكُمْ وَأَيْدِيَكُمْ عَنْهُمْ بِبَطْنِ مَكَّةَ مِنْ بَعْدِ أَنْ أَظْفَرَكُمْ عَلَيْهِمْ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرًا [ And it is He Who has restrained their hands from you and your hands from them in the midst of Makkah (through the peace treaty of Hudaibiya), after that He had made you victors over them. And Allah is the All Seer of what you do. ]
Juz 26, Al-Fath, Verse 025هُمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَصَدُّوكُمْ عَنِ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَالْهَدْيَ مَعْكُوفًا أَنْ يَبْلُغَ مَحِلَّهُ وَلَوْلَا رِجَالٌ مُؤْمِنُونَ وَنِسَاءٌ مُؤْمِنَاتٌ لَمْ تَعْلَمُوهُمْ أَنْ تَطَئُوهُمْ فَتُصِيبَكُمْ مِنْهُمْ مَعَرَّةٌ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ لِيُدْخِلَ اللَّهُ فِي رَحْمَتِهِ مَنْ يَشَاءُ لَوْ تَزَيَّلُوا لَعَذَّبْنَا الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنْهُمْ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا [ It is they, the unbelievers, who prevented you from reaching the Holy mosque and prevented the animals pledged for sacrifice from reaching the site of the sacrificial slaughter. But, there were believing men and women in their midst whom you did not know. Unwittingly, you would have killed them, and unknowingly you would have suffered the sin (of having killed the believers). Therefore, Allah restrained your hands, so that He might admit into His mercy whomever He wants. Had they (the believing men and women) stood apart, We would have punished the disbelievers with the painful punishment. ]Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) gives the reason for the peace treaty at Hudaibiya and why Muslims were prevented to fight at that time. There were a lot of people who had become Muslims in Makka but had not declared their faith publicly. If there was a fight at that time, these Muslims would have lost their lives. This was the wisdom of the peace treaty. After the peace treaty, all these people could declare their faith publicly and live like Muslims in Makka.
Juz 26, Al-Fath, Verse 026إِذْ جَعَلَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا فِي قُلُوبِهِمُ الْحَمِيَّةَ حَمِيَّةَ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ فَأَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ سَكِينَتَهُ عَلَى رَسُولِهِ وَعَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَأَلْزَمَهُمْ كَلِمَةَ التَّقْوَى وَكَانُوا أَحَقَّ بِهَا وَأَهْلَهَا وَكَانَ اللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمًا [ (Remember) when the disbelievers had filled their hearts with arrogance and pride of (pre-Islamic) ignorance, then Allah sent down His serenity upon His Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and the believers, inspiring them to uphold the declaration of faith, for they were better entitled and more worthy of it. And Allah has knowledge of all things. ]As per the practice of Makkan polytheists, no one was disallowed from entering Makka if he comes unarmed, with the intention of Umra or Hajj. But they stopped Muslims from entering Makka for performing Umra even though they were in Ihram and unarmed. Their decision was the result of their false prestige and arrogance. Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) says that He sent down His serenity upon His Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and believers with which they did not get provoked by the stubborn behavior of Makkan pagans.Juz 26, Al-Fath, Verse 027لَقَدْ صَدَقَ اللَّهُ رَسُولَهُ الرُّؤْيَا بِالْحَقِّ لَتَدْخُلُنَّ الْمَسْجِدَ الْحَرَامَ إِنْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ آَمِنِينَ مُحَلِّقِينَ رُءُوسَكُمْ وَمُقَصِّرِينَ لَا تَخَافُونَ فَعَلِمَ مَا لَمْ تَعْلَمُوا فَجَعَلَ مِنْ دُونِ ذَلِكَ فَتْحًا قَرِيبًا [ Indeed Allah has in all truth shown the vision to His Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), that, Allah willing, you shall enter the Masjid-al-Haram, fearless and secure, (to perform Umrah or Hajj) and some having their heads shaved and others having their hair cut, for He knows what you do not know. So, He granted you a near victory before the fulfillment of that vision. ]
A thought was bothering to some Sahabah that since the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) had seen in his dream that they were doing tawaaf of Ka'ba and they came all the way for that, but they were returning back to Madina without entering Makka. How is it possible?
The above verse clarifies their doubt saying that this travel was a prelude to their entering the Haram and doing Tawaaf of Ka'ba soon.Juz 26, Al-Fath, Verse 028هُوَ الَّذِي أَرْسَلَ رَسُولَهُ بِالْهُدَى وَدِينِ الْحَقِّ لِيُظْهِرَهُ عَلَى الدِّينِ كُلِّهِ وَكَفَى بِاللَّهِ شَهِيدًا [ It is He Who has sent His Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) with guidance and the religion of truth (Islam), so that He may make it (Islam) superior over all other religions. And Allah is All Sufficient as a Witness. ]
Juz 26, Al-Fath, Verse 029مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ وَالَّذِينَ مَعَهُ أَشِدَّاءُ عَلَى الْكُفَّارِ رُحَمَاءُ بَيْنَهُمْ تَرَاهُمْ رُكَّعًا سُجَّدًا يَبْتَغُونَ فَضْلًا مِنَ اللَّهِ وَرِضْوَانًا سِيمَاهُمْ فِي وُجُوهِهِمْ مِنْ أَثَرِ السُّجُودِ ذَلِكَ مَثَلُهُمْ فِي التَّوْرَاةِ وَمَثَلُهُمْ فِي الْإِنْجِيلِ كَزَرْعٍ أَخْرَجَ شَطْأَهُ فَآَزَرَهُ فَاسْتَغْلَظَ فَاسْتَوَى عَلَى سُوقِهِ يُعْجِبُ الزُّرَّاعَ لِيَغِيظَ بِهِمُ الْكُفَّارَ وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ مِنْهُمْ مَغْفِرَةً وَأَجْرًا عَظِيمًا [ Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) is the Apostle of Allah, and those with him are strong against the unbelievers and compassionate to each other among themselves. When you see them, you will find them making Ruku (bowing down) and Sujud (prostrate in prayers), and craving for the blessings from Allah and His approval. They have the marks of Sujud (prostration) on their faces, the traces of their prostration. This is their similitude in the Taurat; and their similitude in the Injeel (is) they are like the seed which puts forth its sprout, then strengthens it, then becomes thick and stands firmly on its stem, delighting the sowers of the seed, so that through them He may enrage the unbelievers. Yet to those of them who will believe and do good deeds, Allah has promised forgiveness and a great reward. ]Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) praises the Sahabah who were with the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) in Hudaibiya and who did the pledge of allegiance (بيعة الرضوان) on his hand.