LET US CORRECT OUR ISLAMIC FAITH

دعونا نصحّح العقيدة الاسلامية

 

 

 

 

 

 

تفسيرِ اَسدي 

TAFSEER-E-ASEDI  

 

 BY

 

SHAIKH MIR ASEDULLAH QUADRI

 
  

JUZ 28.2  QAD SAMI'ALLAHU (قَدْ سَمِعَ اللَّهُ)

 

 

سورة الحشر

THE EXILE
 

Al-Hashr| Sura # 59| 24 Verses | Madinan

 

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ 

In the name of Allah, the Most Compassionate and Most Merciful

 
Juz 28, Al-Hashr, Verse 001
 
سَبَّحَ لِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ  [ All that exists in the heavens and the earth is praising Allah's limitless glory. He is the Almighty, All Wise. ]
 
Juz 28, Al-Hashr, Verse 002
 
هُوَ الَّذِي أَخْرَجَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ مِنْ دِيَارِهِمْ لِأَوَّلِ الْحَشْرِ مَا ظَنَنْتُمْ أَنْ يَخْرُجُوا وَظَنُّوا أَنَّهُمْ مَانِعَتُهُمْ حُصُونُهُمْ مِنَ اللَّهِ فَأَتَاهُمُ اللَّهُ مِنْ حَيْثُ لَمْ يَحْتَسِبُوا وَقَذَفَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمُ الرُّعْبَ يُخْرِبُونَ بُيُوتَهُمْ بِأَيْدِيهِمْ وَأَيْدِي الْمُؤْمِنِينَ فَاعْتَبِرُوا يَا أُولِي الْأَبْصَارِ  [ It is He Who drove the disbelievers, the people of the book (the Jews of Bani An-Nadhir), from their homes at the very start of assembly (the siege against them). You never thought they would depart (without resistance). And they thought their strongholds would defend them against Allah. But Allah came upon them from where they least expected. He cast terror in their hearts, so they ruined their homes with their own hands, and the hands of the believers. So learn the lesson, Oh you, endowed with sights! ]
 
Banu An-Nadhir was a Jewish community living in Madina. All tribes in Madina were the signatories to the Constitution of Madina introduced by Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). As per Clause 37 of the Constitution of Madina :   وأن على اليهود نفقتهم وعلى المسلمين نفقتهم ، وأن بينهم النصر على من حارب أهل هذه الصحيفة ، وأن بينهم النصح والنصيحة والبر دون الإثم - وأنه لا يأثم أمره بحليفه وأن النصر للمظلوم [ The Jews must bear their expense and the Muslims must bear their expenses. They help one another against those who make war against the people of this document. Between them is good understanding, honorable dealing, and honesty, not treachery.  Help (is to be given) to whoever is wronged.]
 
In spite of the signatory to the above, the Jews of Banu An-Nadhir used to plot against the Muslims.  Abdur  Razzaq in his Musannaf, 5/359-60; Ibn Hajar in  Fath al Bari, 7/331; Abu Dawood in his Sunan, 2/139-40, reported that an attempt on the life of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) was made by Jews of Banu An-Nadhir on the instigation of Makkan Quraish.
 
The Jews sent a message to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), inviting him to come with 30 of his companions to meet them. They promised to come out with a similar number of their Rabbis, to a designated place in Madinah, where they would listen to him. If the rabbis are convinced of what he said, then all Jews of their tribe would accept Islamic faith.  When the two parties approached each other, the Jews suggested that (there was no need for 30 people on each side). Let the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and three of his companions meet with three of their rabbis privately, and if he convinced them, then Banu an Nadir would accept Islam. Since it  was a formal preaching meeting,  no one was allowed to carry weapons. However, the three rabbis carried daggers hidden in their clothing to attack the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and his three companions. 
 
A Jewish women, whose brother had become Muslim, knew about this plot and informed Muslims about it.  Thus the meeting was cancelled. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) took a punitive action against the Jewish tribe for their attempt on his life.  The Muslims besieged Banu An-Nadhir.  Within a few days they surrendered.  They were asked  to leave Madina along with their belongings.  It is reported that before leaving, the Jews destroyed their homes and carried even the doors of their houses.
 
As per the authentic reports in Ahadith, the expulsion of Banu An-Nadhir took place in 2 AH after the Battle of Badr.   However, there are some differences of opinions among scholars as to the timing of the expulsion of Banu An-Nadhir.  Some consider that it took place in the 3 AH, after the battle of Uhad. 
 

Juz 28, Al-Hashr, Verse 003
 
وَلَوْلَا أَنْ كَتَبَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمُ الْجَلَاءَ لَعَذَّبَهُمْ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَلَهُمْ فِي الْآَخِرَةِ عَذَابُ النَّارِ  [ Had Allah not decreed exile for them, He would have certainly punished them in this world. And in the Hereafter they will suffer the punishment of the Fire. ]
 
 
Juz 28, Al-Hashr, Verse 004
 
ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ شَاقُّوا اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَمَنْ يُشَاقِّ اللَّهَ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ [ That is because they opposed Allah and His Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). Allah is severe in punishment toward anyone opposing Allah. ]
 
 
Juz 28, Al-Hashr, Verse 005
 
مَا قَطَعْتُمْ مِنْ لِينَةٍ أَوْ تَرَكْتُمُوهَا قَائِمَةً عَلَى أُصُولِهَا فَبِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ وَلِيُخْزِيَ الْفَاسِقِينَ [ It was with Allah´s permission that you cut down (some of) the date palm trees and left (others) standing on their stems, in order that He might disgrace the evildoers. ]
 
 
Juz 28, Al-Hashr, Verse 006
 
وَمَا أَفَاءَ اللَّهُ عَلَى رَسُولِهِ مِنْهُمْ فَمَا أَوْجَفْتُمْ عَلَيْهِ مِنْ خَيْلٍ وَلَا رِكَابٍ وَلَكِنَّ اللَّهَ يُسَلِّطُ رُسُلَهُ عَلَى مَنْ يَشَاءُ وَاللَّهُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ [ You did not charge with horse or camel for whatever (spoils) Allah gave His Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) from them. In any case, Allah gives authority to His Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) over whomsoever He please. Allah has power over all things. ]
 
There are two types of earnings as a result of the war.  One is,  which is earned after fighting the battle.  This is known as War booty (Ghaneemah - غنيمة). The other is, which is earned, without fighting the battle when the opposing side surrenders without any resistance. This is known as fay (the spoils of war). There are different rules for the distribution of these two earnings.
(i) The war booty is divided into 5 parts,  4 of which are distributed among the members of the army who fought the war.  The 5th part is used as per the following commandment.
It is in Quran -  وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّمَا غَنِمْتُم مِّن شَيْءٍ فَأَنَّ لِلَّهِ خُمُسَهُ وَلِلرَّسُولِ وَلِذِي الْقُرْبَىٰ وَالْيَتَامَىٰ وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ  [And know that whatever of war-booty that you may gain, verily, one-fifth (1/5th) of it is assigned to Allah, and to the Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), and to the near relatives (of the Apostle ﷺ, and also) the orphans, the poor and the wayfarer.] (al-Anfaal -41). 
(ii) The fay (spoils of war) is  also divided into 5 parts, the distribution of which is described in the following verses.
In war booty, all recipients become owners of their share.  However, in case of  Fay, the  physical assets (like orchards, etc.,)  became the property of the state; from the income of which, all beneficiaries were supported on a long or short term basis.  The Head of the State was the Custodian of the Fay (spoils of war). 
During the lifetime of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), he personally distributed from the income of fay properties, including the orchards of Fadak, to all assigned beneficiaries.  After his death, the distribution was continued in the same way by Khulafa-e-Rashideen, Abu Bakr, Umar, Othman and Ali  (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہم اجمعين).
 
 
Juz 28, Al-Hashr, Verse 007
 
مَا أَفَاءَ اللَّهُ عَلَى رَسُولِهِ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْقُرَى فَلِلَّهِ وَلِلرَّسُولِ وَلِذِي الْقُرْبَى وَالْيَتَامَى وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ كَيْ لَا يَكُونَ دُولَةً بَيْنَ الْأَغْنِيَاءِ مِنْكُمْ وَمَا آَتَاكُمُ الرَّسُولُ فَخُذُوهُ وَمَا نَهَاكُمْ عَنْهُ فَانْتَهُوا وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ  [ Whatever spoils from the dwellers of the township Allah has bestowed on His Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), shall belong to Allah, His Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), Apostle's  (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) relatives, and to the orphans, the needy and the travelers in need; so that it may not become the property of the rich among you. Whatever the Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) gives you, take it and from whatever he forbids you, refrain from it. Fear Allah; for Allah is stern in retribution. ]
 
 
Juz 28, Al-Hashr, Verse 008
 
لِلْفُقَرَاءِ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ الَّذِينَ أُخْرِجُوا مِنْ دِيارِهِمْ وَأَمْوَالِهِمْ يَبْتَغُونَ فَضْلًا مِنَ اللَّهِ وَرِضْوَانًا وَيَنْصُرُونَ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ أُولَئِكَ هُمُ الصَّادِقُونَ  [ A share of the spoils shall be given to the indigent immigrants who were driven out of their homes and their possessions, and are seeking Allah’s grace and His approval and who want to help in Allah's (cause) and His Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).  Such are indeed the true believers. ]
 
 
Juz 28, Al-Hashr, Verse 009
 
وَالَّذِينَ تَبَوَّءُوا الدَّارَ وَالْإِيمَانَ مِنْ قَبْلِهِمْ يُحِبُّونَ مَنْ هَاجَرَ إِلَيْهِمْ وَلَا يَجِدُونَ فِي صُدُورِهِمْ حَاجَةً مِمَّا أُوتُوا وَيُؤْثِرُونَ عَلَى أَنْفُسِهِمْ وَلَوْ كَانَ بِهِمْ خَصَاصَةٌ وَمَنْ يُوقَ شُحَّ نَفْسِهِ فَأُولَئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ  [ As for those who had settled in the city and (embraced) the faith before (the arrival of) the emigrants, they love whoever immigrates to them, never having a desire in their hearts for whatever (of the gains) is given to the emigrants. They give (the emigrants) preference over themselves even though they may be in need. And whoever is saved from the selfishness of his inner self (نَفْسِهِ), it is they who are (truly) successful. ]
 
 
Juz 28, Al-Hashr, Verse 010
 
وَالَّذِينَ جَاءُوا مِنْ بَعْدِهِمْ يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَا اغْفِرْ لَنَا وَلِإِخْوَانِنَا الَّذِينَ سَبَقُونَا بِالْإِيمَانِ وَلَا تَجْعَلْ فِي قُلُوبِنَا غِلًّا لِلَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا رَبَّنَا إِنَّكَ رَءُوفٌ رَحِيمٌ  [ And those who came after them say, 'Our Lord! Forgive us and our brothers who have preceded us in faith and do not put any hatred in our hearts against those who have believed. Our Lord! You are Most Kind and Most Merciful. ]
 
 
Juz 28, Al-Hashr, Verse 011
 
أَلَمْ تَر إِلَى الَّذِينَ نَافَقُوا يَقُولُونَ لِإِخْوَانِهِمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ لَئِنْ أُخْرِجْتُمْ لَنَخْرُجَنَّ مَعَكُمْ وَلَا نُطِيعُ فِيكُمْ أَحَدًا أَبَدًا وَإِنْ قُوتِلْتُمْ لَنَنْصُرَنَّكُمْ وَاللَّهُ يَشْهَدُ إِنَّهُمْ لَكَاذِبُونَ  [ Have you (O' Prophet  ﷺ) not observed those who were hypocrites? They say to their fellow disbelievers among the people of the Scripture : 'If you are expelled, we indeed will go out with you. We will never obey anyone against you. Even if you are attacked, we will indeed help you.' But Allah is witness that surely they are liars. ]
 
 
Juz 28, Al-Hashr, Verse 012
 
لَئِنْ أُخْرِجُوا لَا يَخْرُجُونَ مَعَهُمْ وَلَئِنْ قُوتِلُوا لَا يَنْصُرُونَهُمْ وَلَئِنْ نَصَرُوهُمْ لَيُوَلُّنَّ الْأَدْبَارَ ثُمَّ لَا يُنْصَرُونَ  [ If the People of the Book are driven out, they will never go with them, nor, if the people of the Book are attacked, will they help them, and even if they help them, they will turn their backs; leaving them with no help at all. ]
 
 
Juz 28, Al-Hashr, Verse 013
 
لَأَنْتُمْ أَشَدُّ رَهْبَةً فِي صُدُورِهِمْ مِنَ اللَّهِ ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ قَوْمٌ لَا يَفْقَهُونَ  [ Indeed, there is more fear in their hearts for you (believers) than for Allah. That is because they are a people who do not comprehend (Allah). ]
 
 
Juz 28, Al-Hashr, Verse 014
 
لَا يُقَاتِلُونَكُمْ جَمِيعًا إِلَّا فِي قُرًى مُحَصَّنَةٍ أَوْ مِنْ وَرَاءِ جُدُرٍ بَأْسُهُمْ بَيْنَهُمْ شَدِيدٌ تَحْسَبُهُمْ جَمِيعًا وَقُلُوبُهُمْ شَتَّى ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ قَوْمٌ لَا يَعْقِلُونَ  [ They will never fight against you together except in fortified territories  or from behind walls. Their enmity among themselves is very strong. You think them as united but their hearts are divided. This is because they are a people who do not understand. ]
 
 
Juz 28, Al-Hashr, Verse 015
 
كَمَثَلِ الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِهِمْ قَرِيبًا ذَاقُوا وَبَالَ أَمْرِهِمْ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ  [ They are like their immediate predecessors (Jews of Banu Qainuqa); they tasted the evil result of their deeds, for them will be a painful torment. ]
 

The Jews of Banu Qainuqa tribe were the first to violate the terms of the Constitution of Madina.  They had a walled stronghold at the outskirts of Madina. They were arrogant people and were involved in all kinds of trouble in Madina, including killings.  They used to behave like a Mafia.   In spite of their behavior, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) remained patient for a long time and kept on advising them to behave like civilized citizens.

The trouble between them and Muslims came to a peak when the Jews of Banu Qainuqa undressed a Muslim woman on the street, took her cloths in their hands and began to jeer and tease her in front of a crowd.  Among the crowd, there was a Muslim male who tried to defend the woman and in the fight he killed a Jew and was himself killed by other Jews. 

When this incident was reported to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), he demanded apology from Banu Qainuqa and compensation to the victims and assurance that this kind of activities will be stopped in future.  Bani Qainuqa ignored these demands.  Thus the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) ordered action against them.  Their stronghold was besieged by Muslims.  The Muslims blocked all routes from where any help could come to them from outside.  After a fortnight, Bani Qainuqa surrendered.  Under the Jewish law, all males among their could be beheaded, and their females and children could be taken as slaves.  But the  Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) took a lenient view, and merely ordered their expulsion from Madina in 2 AH.

 
 
Juz 28, Al-Hashr, Verse 016
 
كَمَثَلِ الشَّيْطَانِ إِذْ قَالَ لِلْإِنْسَانِ اكْفُرْ فَلَمَّا كَفَرَ قَالَ إِنِّي بَرِيءٌ مِنْكَ إِنِّي أَخَافُ اللَّهَ رَبَّ الْعَالَمِينَ  [ (They are) like Satan who says to man : 'Do not believe;' and when he becomes a disbeliever, he says : 'I have nothing to do with you. I fear Allah, the Lord of all the worlds.' ]
 
 
Juz 28, Al-Hashr, Verse 017
 
فَكَانَ عَاقِبَتَهُمَا أَنَّهُمَا فِي النَّارِ خَالِدَيْنِ فِيهَا وَذَلِكَ جَزَاءُ الظَّالِمِينَ  [ So the end of both (Satan and those whom he has deceived, and the hypocrites and those whom they have betrayed) is that they will find themselves in the Fire to abide therein (for ever). That is the retribution of the wrongdoers.' ]
 
 
Juz 28, Al-Hashr, Verse 018
 
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَلْتَنْظُرْ نَفْسٌ مَا قَدَّمَتْ لِغَدٍ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ خَبِيرٌ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ  [ O' you who believe, be fearful of Allah. Let each one consider what (deeds) he has sent  in advance for the morrow (After life), and fear Allah. Surely Allah is aware of what you do. ]
 
 
Juz 28, Al-Hashr, Verse 019
 
وَلَا تَكُونُوا كَالَّذِينَ نَسُوا اللَّهَ فَأَنْسَاهُمْ أَنْفُسَهُمْ أُولَئِكَ هُمُ الْفَاسِقُونَ  [ Be not like those who forgot Allah, as a result Allah caused them to forget themselves, it is they who are the transgressors. ]
 
A person who forgets about his Lord, surely, will forget about himself as who is he?  The Hadith -  من عرفه نفسه فقد عرفه ربه [ Whosoever knows himself, knows about his Lord.] is in total conformity with the above verse.  
 
In the tafseer of verse 16, Sura Qaaf, we have described about it in detail.  
 
 
Juz 28, Al-Hashr, Verse 020
 
لَا يَسْتَوِي أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ وَأَصْحَابُ الْجَنَّةِ أَصْحَابُ الْجَنَّةِ هُمُ الْفَائِزُونَ  [ The companions of fire and the dwellers of paradise are not equal. It is the dwellers of paradise, who are certainly the successful ones. ]
 
 
Juz 28, Al-Hashr, Verse 021
 
لَوْ أَنْزَلْنَا هَذَا الْقُرْآَنَ عَلَى جَبَلٍ لَرَأَيْتَهُ خَاشِعًا مُتَصَدِّعًا مِنْ خَشْيَةِ اللَّهِ وَتِلْكَ الْأَمْثَالُ نَضْرِبُهَا لِلنَّاسِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ [ Had We sent down this Quran upon a mountain, you would have certainly seen it humbled and torn apart in awe of Allah. We set forth such comparisons for people, (so) perhaps they may reflect. ]
 
 
Juz 28, Al-Hashr, Verse 022
 
هُوَ اللَّهُ الَّذِي لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا هُوَ عَالِمُ الْغَيْبِ وَالشَّهَادَةِ هُوَ الرَّحْمَنُ الرَّحِيمُ [ He is Allah, there is no god but He, the Knower of the unseen and seen. He is Most Compassionate and Most Merciful.    ]
 
 
Juz 28, Al-Hashr, Verse 023
 
هُوَ اللَّهُ الَّذِي لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الْمَلِكُ الْقُدُّوسُ السَّلَامُ الْمُؤْمِنُ الْمُهَيْمِنُ الْعَزِيزُ الْجَبَّارُ الْمُتَكَبِّرُ سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ [ He is Allah, there is no god but He,  the Sovereign, the Sacrosanct, the Peace Giver, the Faith Giver, the Overseer, the Almighty, the Powerful, the Supremely Great. May Allah be exalted in His glory, above all they associate with Him. !   ]
 
 
Juz 28, Al-Hashr, Verse 024
 
هُوَ اللَّهُ الْخَالِقُ الْبَارِئُ الْمُصَوِّرُ لَهُ الْأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَى يُسَبِّحُ لَهُ مَا فِي السَّمَوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ [ He is Allah, the Creator, the Inventor of all things, and the Bestower of forms. To Him belongs the best names. All that are in the heavens and the earth glorify Him. And He is the Almighty, the All Wise.   ]

  

 

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Juz 28.1  Qad Sami'allahu

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Juz 28.5  Qad Sami'allahu

Juz 28.6  Qad Sami'allahu