LET US CORRECT OUR ISLAMIC FAITH

دعونا نصحّح العقيدة الاسلامية

 

 

 

 

 

تفسيرِ اَسدي 

TAFSEER-E-ASEDI  

 

 BY

 

SHAIKH MIR ASEDULLAH QUADRI

 
 
JUZ 5.1 WAL MUHSANAT  (وَالْمُحْصَنَاتُ)
 

 

سورة النساء

The Women
 

An Nisa | Sura # 4| 176 verses | Madinan

 

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ 

In the name of Allah, the Most Compassionate and Most Merciful
 

Juz 5, An Nisa, Verse 024
 
وَالْمُحْصَنَاتُ مِنَ النِّسَاءِ إِلَّا مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُكُمْ كِتَابَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ وَأُحِلَّ لَكُمْ مَا وَرَاءَ ذَلِكُمْ أَنْ تَبْتَغُوا بِأَمْوَالِكُمْ مُحْصِنِينَ غَيْرَ مُسَافِحِينَ فَمَا اسْتَمْتَعْتُمْ بِهِ مِنْهُنَّ فَآَتُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُنَّ فَرِيضَةً وَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِيمَا تَرَاضَيْتُمْ بِهِ مِنْ بَعْدِ الْفَرِيضَةِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا [ Also forbidden are married women unless they are captives (of war). Such is the decree of Allah. Lawful for you are women besides these,  if you seek them with your consent (and pay Mehr) for wedlock and not for debauchery. Then give those of these women with whom you have shared the marital bliss, the agreed dower.  It will not be sinful if you agree to something (else) by mutual consent after having settled the dowry.  Allah is certainly All Knowing and All Wise. ]
 
Allah says "it is not just the agreed dower that is payable to women in marriage.  If you are rich, you can pay whatever you want over and above the settled dowry. 
 
The above verse also clarifies that seeking women only for sexual gratification is not allowed in Islam.  Marriage is sharing the responsibilities for a peaceful and content life together. 

 

Juz 5, An Nisa, Verse 025
 
وَمَنْ لَمْ يَسْتَطِعْ مِنْكُمْ طَوْلًا أَنْ يَنْكِحَ الْمُحْصَنَاتِ الْمُؤْمِنَاتِ فَمِنْ مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُكُمْ مِنْ فَتَيَاتِكُمُ الْمُؤْمِنَاتِ وَاللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ بِإِيمَانِكُمْ بَعْضُكُمْ مِنْ بَعْضٍ فَانْكِحُوهُنَّ بِإِذْنِ أَهْلِهِنَّ وَآَتُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ مُحْصَنَاتٍ غَيْرَ مُسَافِحَاتٍ وَلَا مُتَّخِذَاتِ أَخْدَانٍ فَإِذَا أُحْصِنَّ فَإِنْ أَتَيْنَ بِفَاحِشَةٍ فَعَلَيْهِنَّ نِصْفُ مَا عَلَى الْمُحْصَنَاتِ مِنَ الْعَذَابِ ذَلِكَ لِمَنْ خَشِيَ الْعَنَتَ مِنْكُمْ وَأَنْ تَصْبِرُوا خَيْرٌ لَكُمْ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ [ If one of you cannot afford to marry a believing woman (let him marry) a bondwoman you own who is a believer. Allah is aware of your faith. The one of you is of the other; so marry them with the consent of their people, and give them an appropriate dowry. They are women (seeking) wedlock, and not lechery, nor secretly looking for paramours. But if they are married and guilty of adultery, inflict on them half the punishment (enjoined) for free women. This is for those who are afraid of doing wrong. In case they can wait, it is better for them. Allah is All Forgiving and Most Merciful. ]
 
The strict punishment for adultery, rape, stealing, murder etc., are a strong deterrent for people to stay away from it. This is the reason these punishment are carried out publicly in an Islamic state.  But the question is, are these  applicable to everyone, from the King/Head of State to the Pauper? No one should be allowed to get away from punishment using his money or status.  Also, the people in power should not use these laws to strike terror in the minds of the people while they do all kinds of crimes and get away with them.  This is, generally what happens everywhere in the world.  The rule of Khulafa-e-Rashideen is exemplary for us in this context.    

 

Juz 5, An Nisa, Verse 026
 
يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيُبَيِّنَ لَكُمْ وَيَهْدِيَكُمْ سُنَنَ الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِكُمْ وَيَتُوبَ عَلَيْكُمْ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ  [ Allah wants to explain His commands to you and show you the ways of those before you, and to incline towards you with His mercy; and Allah is All Knowing, All Wise. ]

 

Juz 5, An Nisa, Verse 027
 
وَاللَّهُ يُرِيدُ أَنْ يَتُوبَ عَلَيْكُمْ وَيُرِيدُ الَّذِينَ يَتَّبِعُونَ الشَّهَوَاتِ أَنْ تَمِيلُوا مَيْلًا عَظِيمًا  [ (O' believers) Allah likes to turn towards you with His Mercy but those who are lost in their pleasures wish to take you far from the straight path. ]

 

Juz 5, An Nisa, Verse 028
 
يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ أَنْ يُخَفِّفَ عَنْكُمْ وَخُلِقَ الْإِنْسَانُ ضَعِيفًا  [ Allah likes to lighten your burden, as man was created weak. ]

 

Juz 5, An Nisa, Verse 029
 
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا لَا تَأْكُلُوا أَمْوَالَكُمْ بَيْنَكُمْ بِالْبَاطِلِ إِلَّا أَنْ تَكُونَ تِجَارَةً عَنْ تَرَاضٍ مِنْكُمْ وَلَا تَقْتُلُوا أَنْفُسَكُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ بِكُمْ رَحِيمًا  [ O' believers, you should not usurp unjustly the wealth of each other, but trade by mutual consent; and do not destroy yourselves.  Allah is Most Merciful to you. ]

 

Juz 5, An Nisa, Verse 030
 
وَمَنْ يَفْعَلْ ذَلِكَ عُدْوَانًا وَظُلْمًا فَسَوْفَ نُصْلِيهِ نَارًا وَكَانَ ذَلِكَ عَلَى اللَّهِ يَسِيرًا  [ And whoever does that through injustice and oppression, We shall soon put him in the Fire;  and this is easy for Allah. ]
 
 
Juz 5, An Nisa, Verse 031
 
إِنْ تَجْتَنِبُوا كَبَائِرَ مَا تُنْهَوْنَ عَنْهُ نُكَفِّرْ عَنْكُمْ سَيِّئَاتِكُمْ وَنُدْخِلْكُمْ مُدْخَلًا كَرِيمًا  [ If you avoid major sins which you are forbidden, We will remove from you your lesser sins and admit you to a noble entrance (paradise).]

Knowingly and unknowingly, sins are committed by people  like rain showers throughout the day to day living.  We are always liable to make mistakes inadvertently. We are therefore cautioned to pay extra attention in avoiding  major sins.  The minor sins committed and recorded get erased by the mercy of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ). 

What are major sins? 

Any sin entailing a threat of punishment in the Hereafter explicitly mentioned in the Qur'an and Sunnah, come under this category.  Even among major sins, there are some heinous than others.  Like 'Shirk' is the worst kind.

It is in Quran - إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَغْفِرُ أَنْ يُشْرَكَ بِهِ وَيَغْفِرُ مَا دُونَ ذَلِكَ لِمَنْ يَشَاءُ وَمَنْ يُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ فَقَدِ افْتَرَى إِثْمًا عَظِيمًا [ Undoubtedly Allah does not forgive (the sin of) associating partners with Him,  and forgives anything lower than it,  to whomsoever He wills; and whoever ascribes partners to Allah is guilty of the gravest sin. ] (An-Nisa - 48)

It is in Hadith -  The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said : Avoid seven sins that doom a person to Hell.'  We said : 'What are they, O' Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)? He said: 'Associating others with Allah (shirk); witchcraft;  killing a person whom Allah has forbidden us to kill, except in cases dictated by Islamic law; consuming orphans’ wealth; consuming riba (interest); fleeing from the battlefield; and slandering chaste, innocent women. (Bukhari, Muslim)

If a person  repents from his sins and seek forgives, then Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) accepts his repentance. 

It is in Quran - قُلْ يَا عِبَادِيَ الَّذِينَ أَسْرَفُوا عَلَىٰ أَنفُسِهِمْ لَا تَقْنَطُوا مِن رَّحْمَةِ اللَّهِ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَغْفِرُ الذُّنُوبَ جَمِيعًا ۚ إِنَّهُ هُوَ الْغَفُورُ الرَّحِيمُ [ Say (O'Prophet ﷺ), O' My servants who have transgressed against themselves (by sinning), do not despair of the mercy of Allah. Indeed, Allah forgives all sins. Certainly, it is He who is the Forgiving, the Merciful.] (Az-Zumar - 53)

 

Juz 5, An Nisa, Verse 032
 
وَلَا تَتَمَنَّوْا مَا فَضَّلَ اللَّهُ بِهِ بَعْضَكُمْ عَلَى بَعْضٍ لِلرِّجَالِ نَصِيبٌ مِمَّا اكْتَسَبُوا وَلِلنِّسَاءِ نَصِيبٌ مِمَّا اكْتَسَبْنَ وَاسْأَلُوا اللَّهَ مِنْ فَضْلِهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمًا   [ And do not wish for that by which Allah has made some of you exceed others. For men is a share of what they have earned, and for women is a share of what they have earned. And seek from Allah His bounties. Indeed Allah has knowledge of all the things.]

 

Juz 5, An Nisa, Verse 033
 
وَلِكُلٍّ جَعَلْنَا مَوَالِيَ مِمَّا تَرَكَ الْوَالِدَانِ وَالْأَقْرَبُونَ وَالَّذِينَ عَقَدَتْ أَيْمَانُكُمْ فَآَتُوهُمْ نَصِيبَهُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ شَهِيدًا   [ For each We have appointed heirs to what parents and relatives leave behind. And to those you have given your pledge in marriage give their share, for Allah is witness to everything. ]

 

Juz 5, An Nisa, Verse 034
 
الرِّجَالُ قَوَّامُونَ عَلَى النِّسَاءِ بِمَا فَضَّلَ اللَّهُ بَعْضَهُمْ عَلَى بَعْضٍ وَبِمَا أَنْفَقُوا مِنْ أَمْوَالِهِمْ فَالصَّالِحَاتُ قَانِتَاتٌ حَافِظَاتٌ لِلْغَيْبِ بِمَا حَفِظَ اللَّهُ وَاللَّاتِي تَخَافُونَ نُشُوزَهُنَّ فَعِظُوهُنَّ وَاهْجُرُوهُنَّ فِي الْمَضَاجِعِ وَاضْرِبُوهُنَّ فَإِنْ أَطَعْنَكُمْ فَلَا تَبْغُوا عَلَيْهِنَّ سَبِيلًا إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلِيًّا كَبِيرًا   [ Men are in charge of women by (pre-eminence of) what Allah has given one over the other and what they spend  from their wealth. So righteous women are devoutly obedient, guarding in (the husband's) absence what Allah would have them guard.  But those (wives) from whom you fear arrogance, (first) advise them; (then if they persist), forsake them in bed; and (finally), strike them. But if they obey you, seek no means against them.  Indeed, Allah is sublime and great. ]
 
Essentially, men and women have equal rights in Islam.  These rights are subject to the roles they are playing in individual homes and in society. Every responsibility brings certain privileges with it.  The law has to cover all these minute details.  If you do not keep these details in mind, your living becomes a mess that results in disintegration of homes and society. 
 
Men and women have different responsibilities  when they get married.  After marriage, their roles becomes distinct from each other. Thus, the above verse stipulates that husbands have preeminence over  their wives.  What is this preeminence? It is his responsibility to take care of his wife and children. He is responsible to provide food, shelter and every single need.  If he has one bread, his wife will share half of it.
 
If the meanings of 'preeminence' are authority and guardianship, it is also correct.  The degree of authority is something we need in all aspects of our lives.  Any meeting of a team of people requires a person to preside over and organize.  Similarly, any operation regardless of how small it is, requires a person to manage it.  This authority is actually a burden and this authority is describes in the above verse as 'preeminence'.  If an operational responsibility is given without the authority to execute it, the person will not be able to do justice with the assigned responsibility. 
It is in Quran -   وَلَهُنَّ مِثْلُ الَّذِي عَلَيْهِنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَلِلرِّجَالِ عَلَيْهِنَّ دَرَجَةٌ [ According to customary good and honorable norms, women have rights similar to those against them (men), but men have a degree of preeminence above them.(Al-Baqara - 228) 
The verse stipulates that men should manage the affairs in consultation with their wives and children. The father has to be compassionate, should think of his family and well being of his wife and children. The mother and children should cooperate with him in this task,  and his decision, in the end of the conversation, should be followed by all. If everyone in the family starts disputing with each other and try to run affairs as per their whims, the house becomes a battle ground.  
 
The most desirable and required attribute of the father is,  he should be compassionate with his wife and children.  If he is hard headed and misuses the provisions in the Sharia, then he is held responsible for it and he will be punished by divine laws accordingly.  Similarly, the role of wife and children are clearly specified.  If they transgress and create disorder at home, it is the responsibility of the father to set things right by showing disapproval.  Similar is the case between the wife and husband.  If she does not listen to the good counsel, a recourse has been provided to husband, to leave her alone in bed and reprimand. 
 
What is the meaning of 'striking them' (وَاضْرِبُوهُنَّ).  It means to scold, chide and censure.  It does not mean physical violence at home causing physical harm.  Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) never even slapped any of his wives throughout his life. 
 
If the wife is adamant, then there is only one course left, which is separation and divorce.

 

Juz 5, An Nisa, Verse 035
 
وَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ شِقَاقَ بَيْنِهِمَا فَابْعَثُوا حَكَمًا مِنْ أَهْلِهِ وَحَكَمًا مِنْ أَهْلِهَا إِنْ يُرِيدَا إِصْلَاحًا يُوَفِّقِ اللَّهُ بَيْنَهُمَا إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلِيمًا خَبِيرًا   [ If you fear a breach between them, appoint one arbiter from the people of the man and one from the people of the woman. If they wish to have a settlement then Allah will reconcile them, for Allah is All Knowing and Cognizant. ]

 

Juz 5, An Nisa, Verse 036
 
وَاعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ وَلَا تُشْرِكُوا بِهِ شَيْئًا وَبِالْوَالِدَيْنِ إِحْسَانًا وَبِذِي الْقُرْبَى وَالْيَتَامَى وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَالْجَارِ ذِي الْقُرْبَى وَالْجَارِ الْجُنُبِ وَالصَّاحِبِ بِالْجَنْبِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ وَمَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُكُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يُحِبُّ مَنْ كَانَ مُخْتَالًا فَخُورًا   [ Worship Allah and associate nothing with Him, and to parents do good, and to relatives, orphans, the needy, the near neighbor, the neighbor farther away, the companion at your side, the traveler, and those whom your right hands possess. Indeed, Allah does not like those who are self-deluding and boastful.]

 

Juz 5, An Nisa, Verse 037
 
الَّذِينَ يَبْخَلُونَ وَيَأْمُرُونَ النَّاسَ بِالْبُخْلِ وَيَكْتُمُونَ مَا آَتَاهُمُ اللَّهُ مِنْ فَضْلِهِ وَأَعْتَدْنَا لِلْكَافِرِينَ عَذَابًا مُهِينًا  [ Those who are misers and preach miserliness to others, and hide what Allah has given them from His munificence; and We have kept ready a disgraceful punishment for the disbelievers.]

 

Juz 5, An Nisa, Verse 038
 
وَالَّذِينَ يُنْفِقُونَ أَمْوَالَهُمْ رِئَاءَ النَّاسِ وَلَا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَلَا بِالْيَوْمِ الْآَخِرِ وَمَنْ يَكُنِ الشَّيْطَانُ لَهُ قَرِينًا فَسَاءَ قَرِينًا  [ Those who spend their wealth to show off and do not believe in Allah and the Last Day, take Satan as companion, and what an evil a companion is he! ]

 

Juz 5, An Nisa, Verse 039
 
وَمَاذَا عَلَيْهِمْ لَوْ آَمَنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآَخِرِ وَأَنْفَقُوا مِمَّا رَزَقَهُمُ اللَّهُ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ بِهِمْ عَلِيمًا  [ And what would they lose, if they had believed in Allah and the Last Day and spent from what Allah has bestowed upon them? And Allah knows them very well. ]

 

Juz 5, An Nisa, Verse 040
 
إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَظْلِمُ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ وَإِنْ تَكُ حَسَنَةً يُضَاعِفْهَا وَيُؤْتِ مِنْ لَدُنْهُ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا  [ Indeed, Allah does not do injustice, (even) as much as an atom's weight; while if there is a good deed, He multiplies it and gives from Himself a great reward. ]
 
 
Juz 5, An Nisa, Verse 041
 
فَكَيْفَ إِذَا جِئْنَا مِنْ كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ بِشَهِيدٍ وَجِئْنَا بِكَ عَلَى هَؤُلَاءِ شَهِيدًا  [ So how will it be when We bring a witness from all nations, and We bring you (O' Prophet  ﷺ) as a witness and a watcher over them?]
 
If we know the 'fact of Prophet Mohammad' (حقيقتِ محمدي صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), we will understand the above verse in its proper perspective. 

It is established from the Quran and Ahadith that Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) is the root of all creation

It is in Hadith - It is related that Jābir Ibn  Abd Allah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said to Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم),  "O Apostle of Allāh (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) may my father and mother be sacrificed for you, tell me the first thing Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) created before all things.'  The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said:   O' Jabir (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), the first thing Allah  (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) created was the light of your Prophet (  صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) from His light. (And everything else was created from that light).  (Part of the Hadith). 

The above Hadith was narrated by Abd al-Razzaq (d. 211 AH) in his Musannaf according to Qastallani in al-Mawahib al-Laduniyya (1:55) and Zarqani in his Sharh al-Mawahib (1:56 of the Matba`a al-amira edition, Cairo). 

There cannot be any doubt as to the reliability of Abd al-Razzaq as a narrator.  Bukhari took 120 narrations from him while  Muslim took 400. 

Biahaqi also narrated the above Hadith with a different wording in "Dala'il al-Nubuwwa, according to Zurqani in his Sharh al-Mawahib (1:56 of the Matba'a al-amira, Cairo).  Also Diyarbakri narrated it in 'Taarikh al-Khamis (1-20). 

The authenticity of the above Hadith is also proved from the following Quranic verses and Ahadith. 

(i) It is in Quran –   يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ إِنَّا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ شَاهِدًا وَمُبَشِّرًا وَنَذِيرًا - وَدَاعِيًا إِلَى اللَّهِ بِإِذْنِهِ وَسِرَاجًا مُّنِيرًا [ O’ Prophet  ﷺ)! Truly,  We have sent you as a Witness, a Bearer of Glad Tidings and Warner (for the entire Cosmos); and as one who invites to Allah's (Grace) by His consent, and as a lamp spreading light (into the whole cosmos).] (Al - Ahzab 45-46).

The above verse describes Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) as 'Lamp spreading light (into the whole cosmos).  He is also referred as a Witness, a bearer of glad tidings and warner to humanity.  A witness is the one who knows about all the physical and spiritual aspects of this cosmos.  

(ii) It is in Quran  -  اللَّهُ نُورُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۚ مَثَلُ نُورِهِ كَمِشْكَاةٍ فِيهَا مِصْبَاحٌ ۖ الْمِصْبَاحُ فِي زُجَاجَةٍ ۖ الزُّجَاجَةُ كَأَنَّهَا كَوْكَبٌ دُرِّيٌّ يُوقَدُ مِن شَجَرَةٍ مُّبَارَكَةٍ زَيْتُونَةٍ لَّا شَرْقِيَّةٍ وَلَا غَرْبِيَّةٍ يَكَادُ زَيْتُهَا يُضِيءُ وَلَوْ لَمْ تَمْسَسْهُ نَارٌ ۚ نُّورٌ عَلَىٰ نُورٍ ۗ يَهْدِي اللَّهُ لِنُورِهِ مَن يَشَاءُ ۚ ۗ وَاللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ وَيَضْرِبُ اللَّهُ الْأَمْثَالَ لِلنَّاسِ  [ Allah  is the Light of the Heavens and Earth.  The similitude of His light is as a niche wherein is a lamp.  The lamp is in a glass.  The glass is as it were a shining star. (This lamp is) kindled from a blessed tree, an olive neither of the East nor of the West, whose oil would almost glow forth (of itself) though no fire touched it. Light upon Light (نُّورٌ عَلَىٰ نُورٍ ).  Allah guides to His light whom He will.  And Allah speaks to mankind in allegories, for Allah  is Knower of all things.]  (An-Nur - 35). 

Suyūtī said in al-Riyād al-Aniqa : Ibn Jubair (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and K'ab al-Āhbar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said, 'What is meant by the second light [in Light upon Light (نُّورٌ عَلَىٰ نُورٍ )] is  Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) (as it is also described in verse Al-Ahzab- 46, above. 

(iii) It is in Quran - قَدْ جَاءَكُم مِّنَ اللَّهِ نُورٌ وَكِتَابٌ مُّبِينٌ  (From Allah has come to you a Light and a Book manifest.) (Al-Maida - 15). 

The above verse is very clear in describing Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) as 'Noor from Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ).  In the exegesis (Tafseer) of the above verse, many well known  Ulema have confirmed that the  'light'  refers to Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).

References - (1) Suyuti in Tafsir al-Jalalayn.   (2) Feruzabadi in the Tafsir Ibn 'Abbas entitled Tanwir al-miqbas (p. 72). (3) Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, in his Tafsir al-kabir (11:189). (4) Qadi Baidawi in his Tafsir entitled Anwar at-Tanzil. (5) Al-Baghawi in his Tafsir entitled Ma`alim at-Tanzil (2:23).  (6) Al-Shirbini in his Tafsir entitled al-Siraj al-Munir (p. 360). (7) The author of Tafsir Abi Sa`ud (4:36). (8) Thana’ullah Pani Pati in his Tafsir al-Mazhari, (3:67). (9) Shaikh Mohammad Abdul Qadeer Siddiqui (رحمتہ اللہ علیہ) in his Tafseer-e-Siddiqui.  (10) Ibn Jarir al-Tabari in his Tafsir jami` al-bayan (6:92)  (11) Al-Khazin in his Tafsir (2:28). (12) Al-Nasafi in his commentary entitled Tafsir Al-Madarik (1:276) and al-Qasimi in his Mahasin at-ta’wil (6:1921). (13) Ahmad al-Sawi in Tafsir al-Jalalayn (1:258). (14) Sayyid Mahmud al-Alusi in his commentary entitled Tafsir Ruh al-Ma`ani (6:97) and many others.   

(iv) It is in Quran -  وَهُوَ الَّذِي أَنشَأَكُم مِّن نَّفْسٍ وَاحِدَةٍ فَمُسْتَقَرٌّ وَمُسْتَوْدَعٌ ۗ قَدْ فَصَّلْنَا الْآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَفْقَهُونَ  [ And look, He is Who have created you from single soul  (نَّفْسٍ وَاحِدَةٍ) then there is (for you) a resting-place and a depository; indeed We have detailed our signs  for the people who understand.] (Al-Ana’am – 98).

Some people say that the above verse refers to  Prophet Adam ( علیھ السلا م ). Their contention is true as far as the Human beings are concerned. But as far as the entire creation is concerned, everything in this cosmos was created from the Noor of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). 

(vi) It is in Hadith - Narrated by Abu Hurayrah  (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ). When Allah's Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) was asked since how long he is the Prophet, he replied, ‘When Adam (علیھ السلا م) had not yet had his spirit joined to his body (Tirmidhi).

(vii) It is in Hadith  - Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said 'Allah gives and I distribute'. (Bukhari and Muslim) 

The above Hadith establishes the pivotal and central role of Prophet Mohammad  (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).  The process of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) giving and Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) distributing is eternal, from the time this Cosmos came into existence.

(viii) It is in Quran –  وَإِذْ أَخَذَ اللَّهُ مِيثَاقَ النَّبِيِّينَ لَمَا آتَيْتُكُم مِّن كِتَابٍ وَحِكْمَةٍ ثُمَّ جَاءَكُمْ رَسُولٌ مُّصَدِّقٌ لِّمَا مَعَكُمْ لَتُؤْمِنُنَّ بِهِ وَلَتَنصُرُنَّهُ ۚ قَالَ أَأَقْرَرْتُمْ وَأَخَذْتُمْ عَلَىٰ ذَ‌ٰلِكُمْ إِصْرِي ۖ قَالُوا أَقْرَرْنَا ۚ قَالَ فَاشْهَدُوا وَأَنَا مَعَكُم مِّنَ الشَّاهِدِينَ [ Behold! Allah took the covenant (promise) of (all) the prophets, saying : 'I give you a Book and Wisdom; then comes to you an Apostle (Mohammad – صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), confirming what is with you; do you believe in him and render him help.' Allah  said : 'Do you agree, and take this my Covenant as binding on you?' They said : 'We agree.' He said : 'Then bear witness, and I am with you among the witnesses.] (Aal-e-Imran – 81).

When we understand the above facts, it is easy for us to understand the above verse 41 that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) is a witness for all the Prophets and their nations.  He knows about the truthfulness of all the prophets and the affairs of their nations from the time of Adam (علیھ السلا م) till the day of Resurrection.  

 

Juz 5, An Nisa, Verse 042
 
يَوْمَئِذٍ يَوَدُّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَعَصَوُا الرَّسُولَ لَوْ تُسَوَّى بِهِمُ الْأَرْضُ وَلَا يَكْتُمُونَ اللَّهَ حَدِيثًا  [ On that day, those who disbelieved and disobeyed the Noble Apostles will wish that they be buried and the ground leveled above them; and they will not be able to hide anything from Allah.]

 

Juz 5, An Nisa, Verse 043
 
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا لَا تَقْرَبُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَأَنْتُمْ سُكَارَى حَتَّى تَعْلَمُوا مَا تَقُولُونَ وَلَا جُنُبًا إِلَّا عَابِرِي سَبِيلٍ حَتَّى تَغْتَسِلُوا وَإِنْ كُنْتُمْ مَرْضَى أَوْ عَلَى سَفَرٍ أَوْ جَاءَ أَحَدٌ مِنْكُمْ مِنَ الْغَائِطِ أَوْ لَامَسْتُمُ النِّسَاءَ فَلَمْ تَجِدُوا مَاءً فَتَيَمَّمُوا صَعِيدًا طَيِّبًا فَامْسَحُوا بِوُجُوهِكُمْ وَأَيْدِيكُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَفُوًّا غَفُورًا [ O' Believers, do not pray when you are intoxicated; instead, wait until you can understand what you are saying.  Also, do not pray in the state of impurity until after you have taken bath; except while traveling; and if you are ill or on a journey or one of you returns from answering the call of nature or you have cohabited with women, and you do not find water, then cleanse (yourself) with clean soil and wipe your face and hands. Allah  is Gracious and All-forgiving.]
 
Drinking and gambling  were very popular in the pre-Islamic era in Arabia. Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) worked on two fronts, (a) he corrected the beliefs of the people, helped them come out of the darkness of idol worship, and (b) he also corrected their personal and societal habits of illiteracy and created awareness for a healthy and vibrant society.
 
Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurairah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said, that Khamr (intoxicants) were prohibited gradually, in three stages. 
(i) First wine and gambling were declared sins.   يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْسِرِ ۖ قُلْ فِيهِمَا إِثْمٌ كَبِيرٌ وَمَنَافِعُ لِلنَّاسِ وَإِثْمُهُمَا أَكْبَرُ مِن نَّفْعِهِمَا  [ They ask you about wine and gambling. Say, 'In them is great sin and (yet, some) benefit for people. But their sin is greater than their benefit.] (Al-Baqara - 219) 
 
(ii) Then came this commandment - يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا لَا تَقْرَبُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَأَنْتُمْ سُكَارَى حَتَّى تَعْلَمُوا مَا تَقُولُونَ  [ O' Believers, do not pray when you are intoxicated; instead, wait until you can understand what you are saying.] (An-Nisa - 43)
 
(iii) Then the final command -  يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِنَّمَا الْخَمْرُ وَالْمَيْسِرُ وَالْأَنصَابُ وَالْأَزْلَامُ رِجْسٌ مِّنْ عَمَلِ الشَّيْطَانِ فَاجْتَنِبُوهُ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ  -  إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ الشَّيْطَانُ أَن يُوقِعَ بَيْنَكُمُ الْعَدَاوَةَ وَالْبَغْضَاءَ فِي الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْسِرِ وَيَصُدَّكُمْ عَن ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ وَعَنِ الصَّلَاةِ ۖ فَهَلْ أَنتُم مُّنتَهُونَ [ O' you who believe, indeed, intoxicants, gambling, (sacrificing on) stone alters (to other than Allah), and divining arrows are but defilement from the work of Satan, so avoid it that you may be successful.  Satan only wants to cause between you animosity and hatred through intoxicants and gambling and to avert you from the remembrance of Allah and from prayer. So will you not desist? ] (Al-Maaida - 90-91)
Wine  has negative effects on human health.  It damages bones, is one of causes of cancer, high blood pressure, increase cholesterol levels and weak heart muscles.  It also damages brain functions as it impairs mental function, causing behavioral changes and memory impairment.  This is the reason, Islam has forbidden wine and use of intoxicants in any form.
 
 
Juz 5, An Nisa, Verse 044
 
أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا نَصِيبًا مِنَ الْكِتَابِ يَشْتَرُونَ الضَّلَالَةَ وَيُرِيدُونَ أَنْ تَضِلُّوا السَّبِيلَ [ Have you not seen those who were given a portion of the Scripture, purchasing error (in exchange for it) and wishing you would (also) lose the way?]

 

Juz 5, An Nisa, Verse 045
 
وَاللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ بِأَعْدَائِكُمْ وَكَفَى بِاللَّهِ وَلِيًّا وَكَفَى بِاللَّهِ نَصِيرًا [ But Allah knows your enemies well, and Allah is sufficient to protect you, and Allah is sufficient for all help.]

 

Juz 5, An Nisa, Verse 046
 
مِنَ الَّذِينَ هَادُوا يُحَرِّفُونَ الْكَلِمَ عَنْ مَوَاضِعِهِ وَيَقُولُونَ سَمِعْنَا وَعَصَيْنَا وَاسْمَعْ غَيْرَ مُسْمَعٍ وَرَاعِنَا لَيًّا بِأَلْسِنَتِهِمْ وَطَعْنًا فِي الدِّينِ وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ قَالُوا سَمِعْنَا وَأَطَعْنَا وَاسْمَعْ وَانْظُرْنَا لَكَانَ خَيْرًا لَهُمْ وَأَقْوَمَ وَلَكِنْ لَعَنَهُمُ اللَّهُ بِكُفْرِهِمْ فَلَا يُؤْمِنُونَ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا [ Some of the Jews interchange the words from their places and say, 'we hear and disobey' and they say 'Hear; may you not be able to hear';  and they say 'Ra'ena' (to disrespect the Prophet ﷺ)' distorting it with their tongues and in order to slander religion.  Had they said, we hear and we obey' and 'kindly listen to us, (O Prophet ﷺ)', and ''look mercifully upon us, (O' Prophet  ﷺ), it would have been much better for them and more just. Allah has cursed them for their disbelief; so they do not believe except a little. ] 

In Arabic 'ra'ina (رَاعِنَا) means 'take care of us, or hold our hands. This word was used by Sahabah to address the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) to request him to look at them for explaining something which was not understood by them fully.  This happened mostly during Prophet's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) teaching to groups of Sahabah.  This word is derived from the Arabic word 'ra'ee' (رَاعِي), meaning 'Shepherd.  The shepherd guides a herd of sheep and cattle towards the places that are rich in greenery and water.  He also looks after the herd and protects them from wild predators.

It is in Quran -  يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا لَا تَقُولُوا رَاعِنَا وَقُولُوا انْظُرْنَا وَاسْمَعُوا وَلِلْكَافِرِينَ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ  [  O' you who believe! Do not say 'ra‘ina', but say, 'unzurna', and listen. A painful punishment awaits the unbelievers. .] (Al-Baqara -104)  

When we look the Arabic meanings of both the words 'ra'ina' and 'unzurna' (انْظُرْنَا), they are more or less the same. Then why did Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) commanded Sahabah to use 'unzurna', instead of ra'ina'?

Jews used to join the groups of Sahabah apparently to let Muslims believe that they wanted to know about Islam from the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). In Hebrew and Syriac languages, a similar sounding word 'rai’na' was used as a slur to insult a person who is negligent. Since, the Jews were aware of these languages, they used certain words with the intention to undermine the respect of the  Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and thought that Muslims will not know about it. Allah  (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) exposed the evil of Jews.

 
Juz 5, An Nisa, Verse 047
 
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ آَمِنُوا بِمَا نَزَّلْنَا مُصَدِّقًا لِمَا مَعَكُمْ مِنْ قَبْلِ أَنْ نَطْمِسَ وُجُوهًا فَنَرُدَّهَا عَلَى أَدْبَارِهَا أَوْ نَلْعَنَهُمْ كَمَا لَعَنَّا أَصْحَابَ السَّبْتِ وَكَانَ أَمْرُ اللَّهِ مَفْعُولًا [ O' people of the Book, believe in what We have revealed (the Quran), which confirms what is already with you,  before We disfigure your look and turn your faces about and curse you, as We did with those who had broken the Sabbath; and (remember) what Allah decrees is done (instantly). ]
 
The details about the punishment of the people of Sabbath are given in the Tafseer of verse # 65, Sura Al-Baqara.  It is also given below for the benefit of the readers.

Sabbath (Saturday) is an important day in Jewish tradition which  was granted to them on their own request.   Israelis wanted to relax one day in a week when they would not work in order  to focus on  their worship. This kind of break allowed them to balance between worldly pursuits and worship / meditation.

It is reported that during the time of Dawood (عليه السلام) a small community of Jews lived by the side of a Sea.  Their livelihood was catching fish from the ocean and selling it to nearby towns.  It so happened that a lot of fish used to appear near the shore on Saturday. On other days, they had to fish far away in the sea.  In this, it was a trial for them from their Lord. 

It is in Quran -  وَاسْأَلْهُمْ عَنِ الْقَرْيَةِ الَّتِي كَانَتْ حَاضِرَةَ الْبَحْرِ إِذْ يَعْدُونَ فِي السَّبْتِ إِذْ تَأْتِيهِمْ حِيتَانُهُمْ يَوْمَ سَبْتِهِمْ شُرَّعًا وَيَوْمَ لَا يَسْبِتُونَ ۙ لَا تَأْتِيهِمْ ۚ كَذَ‌ٰلِكَ نَبْلُوهُم بِمَا كَانُوا يَفْسُقُونَ [And ask them (O' Prophet ﷺ) about the town that was by the sea, when they transgressed in  Sabbath, when the fish came to them openly on their sabbath day, and the day they had no Sabbath, the fish did not come to them. Thus did We give them trial because they were defiantly disobedient. ] (Al-Araaf - 163).

As plenty of fish used to appear on Sabbath day, a difference of opinion occurred in that town among people. Some people did not like the  practice of catching the fish on Saturday and opposed it.  They warned others against catching the fish appearing on Saturday.  When matters could not be resolved, the people who opposed left that town and started living at a nearby place. They knew that the people who were attempting to catch the fish appearing on Saturday (Sabbath day)  may face Allah's (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) wrath.

It is in Quran -  وَإِذْ قَالَتْ أُمَّةٌ مِّنْهُمْ لِمَ تَعِظُونَ قَوْمًا ۙ اللَّهُ مُهْلِكُهُمْ أَوْ مُعَذِّبُهُمْ عَذَابًا شَدِيدًا ۖ قَالُوا مَعْذِرَةً إِلَىٰ رَبِّكُمْ وَلَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَّقُونَ [And when a community among them said, "Why do you advise (or warn) a people whom Allah is (about) to destroy or to punish with a severe punishment?" they (the advisors) said, "To be absolved before your Lord and perhaps they may fear Him.] (Al-Araaf - 164).

The people who wanted to catch the fish appearing on Saturday, then devised a plan.  They started putting their nets in the water on Friday night, in order for fish to get trapped on Saturday.  On Sunday  they used to go and catch that fish. With this practice, they claimed that they were not braking the religious laws and at the same time making a lot of money by selling excessive catch.  This practice was continued for some time.

It so happened  that one day the people who had left this community realized that there is no activity in the neighboring town they left.  No one from that town was seen selling the fish either. When they went their to see what was going on, they were aghast to see their relatives who had been turned into apes. Certain facial features allowed them to recognize them individually. And within 3 days, all the people who turned into apes died.  That is  how the entire town was destroyed.

It is in Quran - فَلَمَّا نَسُوا مَا ذُكِّرُوا بِهِ أَنجَيْنَا الَّذِينَ يَنْهَوْنَ عَنِ السُّوءِ وَأَخَذْنَا الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا بِعَذَابٍ بَئِيسٍ بِمَا كَانُوا يَفْسُقُونَ  [ And when they forgot that by which they had been reminded, We saved those who had forbidden evil and seized those who wronged, with a wretched punishment, because they were defiantly disobeying.] (Al-Araaf - 165).

It is in Quran - فَلَمَّا عَتَوْا عَن مَّا نُهُوا عَنْهُ قُلْنَا لَهُمْ كُونُوا قِرَدَةً خَاسِئِينَ [ So when they were insolent about that which they had been forbidden, We said to them, "Be apes, despised.] (Al-Araaf - 166).

   
Juz 5, An Nisa, Verse 048
 
إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَغْفِرُ أَنْ يُشْرَكَ بِهِ وَيَغْفِرُ مَا دُونَ ذَلِكَ لِمَنْ يَشَاءُ وَمَنْ يُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ فَقَدِ افْتَرَى إِثْمًا عَظِيمًا  [ Undoubtedly Allah does not forgive (the sin of) associating partners with Him,  and forgives anything lower than it to whomsoever He wills; and whoever ascribes partners to Allah is guilty of the gravest sin. ]

 

Juz 5, An Nisa, Verse 049
 
أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ يُزَكُّونَ أَنْفُسَهُمْ بَلِ اللَّهُ يُزَكِّي مَنْ يَشَاءُ وَلَا يُظْلَمُونَ فَتِيلًا  [ Did you not see those who (falsely) proclaim their piety (cleanliness of deeds)? In fact Allah purifies whomever He wills, and no injustice, even equal to the hair upon a date seed will be done to them. ]

 

Juz 5, An Nisa, Verse 050
 
انْظُرْ كَيْفَ يَفْتَرُونَ عَلَى اللَّهِ الْكَذِبَ وَكَفَى بِهِ إِثْمًا مُبِينًا  [ See how they fabricate lies about Allah, which is a manifest sin. ]

 

Juz 5, An Nisa, Verse 051
 
أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا نَصِيبًا مِنَ الْكِتَابِ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْجِبْتِ وَالطَّاغُوتِ وَيَقُولُونَ لِلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا هَؤُلَاءِ أَهْدَى مِنَ الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا سَبِيلًا [ Did you not see those who received a portion of the Book, that they believe in idols and devils, and say regarding the disbelievers that they are more rightly guided than Muslims? ]

 

Juz 5, An Nisa, Verse 052
 
أُولَئِكَ الَّذِينَ لَعَنَهُمُ اللَّهُ وَمَنْ يَلْعَنِ اللَّهُ فَلَنْ تَجِدَ لَهُ نَصِيرًا [ It is they whom Allah has cursed; and for those whom Allah has cursed, you (O Prophet ﷺ)  will not find any supporter. ]

 

Juz 5, An Nisa, Verse 053
 
أَمْ لَهُمْ نَصِيبٌ مِنَ الْمُلْكِ فَإِذًا لَا يُؤْتُونَ النَّاسَ نَقِيرًا [ Have they a share in the kingdom? (No, if they had,) they would never have given an iota to the people. ]