LET US CORRECT OUR ISLAMIC FAITH

دعونا نصحّح العقيدة الاسلامية

 

 

 

 

تفسيرِ اَسدي 

TAFSEER-E-ASEDI  

 

 BY

 

SHAIKH MIR ASEDULLAH QUADRI

 
 
JUZ 6.2 LA YUHIBULLAH (لَا يُحِبُّ اللَّهُ)
 

 

سـورة المائدة

The Food
 

Al-Ma'idah | Sura # 5| 120 verses | Madinah

 

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ 

In the name of Allah, the Compassionate and the Merciful

  

 

Juz 6, Al-Maidah, Verse 001
 
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا أَوْفُوا بِالْعُقُودِ أُحِلَّتْ لَكُمْ بَهِيمَةُ الْأَنْعَامِ إِلَّا مَا يُتْلَى عَلَيْكُمْ غَيْرَ مُحِلِّي الصَّيْدِ وَأَنْتُمْ حُرُمٌ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَحْكُمُ مَا يُرِيدُ [ O' People who Believe! Fulfill your obligations (you have made to Allah).  The animals (goat, cow, camels, etc.) are made lawful for you (to eat) except what will be declared to you after this, but do not assume hunting as lawful when you are in Ihram. Indeed Allah commands whatever He wills.]
 
 
Juz 6, Al-Maidah, Verse 002
 
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا لَا تُحِلُّوا شَعَائِرَ اللَّهِ وَلَا الشَّهْرَ الْحَرَامَ وَلَا الْهَدْيَ وَلَا الْقَلَائِدَ وَلَا آَمِّينَ الْبَيْتَ الْحَرَامَ يَبْتَغُونَ فَضْلًا مِنْ رَبِّهِمْ وَرِضْوَانًا وَإِذَا حَلَلْتُمْ فَاصْطَادُوا وَلَا يَجْرِمَنَّكُمْ شَنَآَنُ قَوْمٍ أَنْ صَدُّوكُمْ عَنِ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ أَنْ تَعْتَدُوا وَتَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الْبِرِّ وَالتَّقْوَى وَلَا تَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الْإِثْمِ وَالْعُدْوَانِ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ [ O' you who believe, do not violate the symbols of Allah and the sanctity of the sacred month, nor the sacrificial animals sent to sacred territory (around Makka), nor the animals marked with garlands, nor the lives and wealth of those traveling towards the Sacred House (Kabah) seeking the munificence and approval of their Lord.  When you have completed the pilgrimage, you may hunt.  Let not the enmity of the people who had stopped you (earlier) from going to the Sacred Mosque (in Hudaibiya) tempt you to do excesses (over them). Help one another in righteousness and piety, and do not help one another in sin and injustice.  Be fearful to Allah.  Indeed Allah’s torment is severe.]
 
It is important that Muslims perform Hajj caarefully without violating any of the prescribed deeds during it.   The sanctity of the sacred months should be maintained.   During pilgrimage, hunting of animals is forbidden in the vicinity of Makka, therefore it is not lawful to kill them while in Ihram. It is important to protect the lives of the people who are coming to perform Hajj. Makkan pagans had stopped Muslims from performing Umra before the fall of Makka, and they were forced to stay in a place called Hudaibiya and return back to Madina without performing Umra. This was a serious provocation and irritant for Muslims.  Allah commanded Muslims that they should forgive this episode as all the people in Makka have embraced Islam.

 

Juz 6, Al-Maidah, Verse 003
 
حُرِّمَتْ عَلَيْكُمُ الْمَيْتَةُ وَالدَّمُ وَلَحْمُ الْخِنْزِيرِ وَمَا أُهِلَّ لِغَيْرِ اللَّهِ بِهِ وَالْمُنْخَنِقَةُ وَالْمَوْقُوذَةُ وَالْمُتَرَدِّيَةُ وَالنَّطِيحَةُ وَمَا أَكَلَ السَّبُعُ إِلَّا مَا ذَكَّيْتُمْ وَمَا ذُبِحَ عَلَى النُّصُبِ وَأَنْ تَسْتَقْسِمُوا بِالْأَزْلَامِ ذَلِكُمْ فِسْقٌ الْيَوْمَ يَئِسَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنْ دِينِكُمْ فَلَا تَخْشَوْهُمْ وَاخْشَوْنِ الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِي وَرَضِيتُ لَكُمُ الْإِسْلَامَ دِينًا فَمَنِ اضْطُرَّ فِي مَخْمَصَةٍ غَيْرَ مُتَجَانِفٍ لِإِثْمٍ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ [ Forbidden for you are carrion, and blood, and flesh of swine, and that which has been slaughtered while proclaiming the name of any other than Allah, and the animal killed by strangling or killed with blunt weapons, and one which died by falling, and that which was gored by the horns of some animal, and one eaten by a wild beast, except those whom you slaughter.  (Also forbidden is) that,  which is slaughtered at the altar (of idols) and that which is distributed by throwing of arrows (as an omen) as this is an act of sin.  This day, the disbelievers are in despair concerning your religion, so do not fear them and fear Me.  This day I have perfected your religion for you and completed My favor upon you, and have chosen Islam as your religion. However, if  someone is forced by intense hunger and thirst and is not inclined towards sin, then indeed Allah is Oft Forgiving, Most Merciful.]
 

Deviant sects like Salafis, Deobandis and their like minded cite a part of this verse ( وَمَا أُهِلَّ لِغَيْرِ اللَّهِ بِهِ ' 'a thing which has been dedicated to other than Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) is forbidden') - to claim Fateha and Eisal-e-Thawaab as Haram.  We have discussed this issue in brief here.

What is the purport of the the above command?

The above command is with reference to what we intend and commit by saying at the time of sacrificing the animal. The Makkan pagans used to sayبسم اللاتِ والعُزَى ['Bismillati wal Uzza' - In the name of Laat and Uzza - the deities of Makkan pagans]. Against this, it was established in Islam that Muslims say -  بسم اللهِ اللهُ اكبر [ Bismillahi Allahu Akbar - In the name of Allah and Allah is Supreme].

Islam teaches us to take the name of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) before everything we do.

It is in Hadith - It is narrated by Abu Hurairah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said :  'Every thing which does not start with the praise of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ)   is vitiated, devoid of virtue] (Musnad Ahmed). 

This is the reason  Fateha and Eisaal-e-Thawab is so popular among Muslims. We cook food, sacrifice animals in the name of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) and dedicate recompense (thawaab) to Awliya Allah and dead Muslims.  The people who are dead surely get benefited from Fateha and Eisaal-e-Thawaab  in their 'Life after Death'.

In Fateha, generally people read one time Sura Fateha, three times Sura Iqhlas (it is in Hadith that the recompense of reading 3 times Surah Ikhlas is equal to one full Quran), three times Durood Sharif and in the end Dua for our dead relatives.  We do not understand what is wrong in it and why it is objected by deviant sects? 

They raise an objection saying why should we do things in a specific way?  Put the food in front, read Quran on it and feed people.  Can't we feed the people without doing any such thing? 

Because it is Prophet's  (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) Sunnah to keep food in front and read Quran over it. It is a Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) practice for barakah in the food. 

It is in Hadith - It is narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) that we were accompanying the Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) in a march (towards Tabuk). He (the narrator) said : The provisions with the people were almost depleted. He (the narrator) said : (And the situation became so critical) that they (the men of the army) decided to slaughter some of their camels. He (the narrator) said : Upon this Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) : Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), I wish that you should pool together what has been left out of the provisions with the people and then invoke (the blessings of) Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) upon it. He (the narrator) said : He (the Prophet ﷺ) did it accordingly. He (the narrator) said : The one who had wheat in his possession came there with wheat. He who had dates with him came there with dates. And Mujahid said : He who possessed stones (seed) of dates came there with stones. I (the narrator) said : What did they do with the date-stones. They said : They (the people) sucked them and then drank water over them. He (the narrator said) : He (the Prophet ﷺ) invoked the blessings (of Allah) upon them (provisions). He (the narrator) said : (And there was such a miraculous increase in the stocks) that the people used their provisions fully (all through the journey). He (the narrator) said : At that time he (the Prophet  ﷺ) said : I bear testimony to the fact that there is no god but Allah, and I am His Apostle. The servants who would meet Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) without having any doubt about these,  would enter heaven.  (Muslim)

The deviant sects raise one more question, why should we do Fateha at a specific time in a year.?  Like at the time of Prophet's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) birth day, at the time of the death anniversary of Ghousul Azam (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), or on 40th day after the death of a person and on certain other occasions?

Because it is Sunnah to keep specific days for specific works. There are many Ahadith which describe that Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) fixed the days, dates and timings of specific things. This is the reason Ahle Sunnah wal Jama'a  fix the dates for doing good deeds like Eisaal-e-Thawaab.

(i) It is in Ahadith that Prophet Mohammad  (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) used to keep fast on the 'Day of Arafat', Ashura, and 15th Shabaan. 

(ii) Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) commanded us to perform Child's Aqeeqa on the 7th Day of birth.

(iii) Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) went to Ghazwa-e-Tabook on Thursday and he preferred to start journey on Thursdays.

(iv) Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) used to keep fast on Mondays and Thursdays.

(v) Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) used to go to Masjid-e-Quba on Saturdays.

It is important that when we intend to do a good thing, we should  fix the time and inform people in advance about it so that they do not forget in view of their preoccupations with other things.

Deviant sects mislead Muslims saying that if you sacrifice an animal for Eisaal-e-thawaab for some Wali Allah or dead Muslim, this is Haraam.  With this logic, they claim the food of Fateha is Haraam.

It is in Hadith - At the time of sacrificing the animals Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) used to say اللهمَّ هذا منكَ ولك - اللهمَّ هذا عن محمدٍ وآلِ - بسم الله اللهُ اكبر   [O'Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) this is for you and from you. O'Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) this is from Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and 'Aal-e-Nabi (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) '.   In the name of Allah who is Supreme]. And  -  اللهمَّ انّ هذا  عَن شَهِدَ نِي بِى البَلاغ   [O'Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ), this is from the ones (your servants) who stood witness to my conveying your Message.] (Abu Dawood, Ahmad). 

Slaughtering of animals for deities is different from sacrificing them in the name of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) for conveying recompense (thawaab) to the needy. 

All Muslims in the world sacrifice animals by saying "Bismillahi Allahu Akbar".  Where is shirk in it? Muslims sacrifice animals in the name of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) and supplicate Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) to convey its thawaab to the dead Muslims by taking their names.  What is wrong in it? 

Wahhabism/Salafism was invented in Arabian Peninsula in 18th century AD by Ibn 'Abdul-Wahhab who took Quranic verses revealed for the Mushrikeen of Makka and applied them on Muslim Ulema, Awliya Allah, Sufi Shuyookh and general Muslims and said  those who do Fateha and Eisaal-e-Thawaab are similar to the Mushrikeen  of Makka.  He branded all Muslim Ulema/Awliya and Shuyookh of 1000 years before him as Mushrikeen.

 

Juz 6, Al-Maidah, Verse 004
 
يَسْأَلُونَكَ مَاذَا أُحِلَّ لَهُمْ قُلْ أُحِلَّ لَكُمُ الطَّيِّبَاتُ وَمَا عَلَّمْتُمْ مِنَ الْجَوَارِحِ مُكَلِّبِينَ تُعَلِّمُونَهُنَّ مِمَّا عَلَّمَكُمُ اللَّهُ فَكُلُوا مِمَّا أَمْسَكْنَ عَلَيْكُمْ وَاذْكُرُوا اسْمَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ سَرِيعُ الْحِسَابِ [ They ask you (O' Prophet ﷺ) what is made lawful for them; tell, 'good food is made lawful for you, and the beasts (and birds) of prey which you have trained and use for hunting, (and) you teach them what Allah has taught you; so eat what they kill and leave for you, and mention Allah’s name upon it, and keep fearing Allah; indeed Allah is swift in accountability.']

 

Juz 6, Al-Maidah, Verse 005
 
الْيَوْمَ أُحِلَّ لَكُمُ الطَّيِّبَاتُ وَطَعَامُ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ حِلٌّ لَكُمْ وَطَعَامُكُمْ حِلٌّ لَهُمْ وَالْمُحْصَنَاتُ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنَاتِ وَالْمُحْصَنَاتُ مِنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ مِنْ قَبْلِكُمْ إِذَا آَتَيْتُمُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُنَّ مُحْصِنِينَ غَيْرَ مُسَافِحِينَ وَلَا مُتَّخِذِي أَخْدَانٍ وَمَنْ يَكْفُرْ بِالْإِيمَانِ فَقَدْ حَبِطَ عَمَلُهُ وَهُوَ فِي الْآَخِرَةِ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِينَ [ On this day all things that are good have been made lawful for you; and made lawful for you is the food of the people of the Book, as your food is made lawful for them. And lawful are the chaste Muslim women, and the women of the people of the Book who are chaste, (for marriage) and not fornication or liaison, if you give them their dowries. Whoever turns a disbeliever after being a Muslim, all his deeds are wasted and he will be among the losers in the Hereafter.]  
 

Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) says that we can marry chaste women from the people of book.  What is the meaning of 'Chastity' in this verse? 

Here, chastity means, they should be morally chaste as well as their beliefs should also chaste.

What is the meaning of chastity of belief? 

It means, they should not believe that Isa (عليه السلام) or Uzair (عليه السلام) are the sons of God.  They should not worship the Idols of Prophets kept in Churches and Synagogues. Since the scriptures given to Christians and Jews have been corrupted, they should be inclined to believe their religions in  purest forms avoiding the corrupted version contained in their books. They should believe in the version of Quran which shows the correct version of belief in God.  Quran is the only book that has not been corrupted so far.  It is also important that they believe in the Prophet-hood of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) as the seal of Prophets.  This is the meaning of chastity in beliefs.

It is in Quran -   قُلْ يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ تَعَالَوْا إِلَىٰ كَلِمَةٍ سَوَاءٍ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَكُمْ أَلَّا نَعْبُدَ إِلَّا اللَّهَ وَلَا نُشْرِكَ بِهِ شَيْئًا وَلَا يَتَّخِذَ بَعْضُنَا بَعْضًا أَرْبَابًا مِّن دُونِ اللَّهِ ۚ فَإِن تَوَلَّوْا فَقُولُوا اشْهَدُوا بِأَنَّا مُسْلِمُونَ   [ Say : 'O People of the Book! come to common terms as between us and you : That we worship none but Allah; that we associate no partners with him; that we erect not, from among ourselves, Lords and patrons other than Allah.' If then they turn back, say you : 'Bear witness that we are Muslims. ] (Aal-e-Imran - 64).
 
It is in Quran  -    لَّقَدْ كَفَرَ الَّذِينَ قَالُوا إِنَّ اللَّهَ ثَالِثُ ثَلَاثَةٍ ۘ وَمَا مِنْ إِلَـٰهٍ إِلَّا إِلَـٰهٌ وَاحِدٌ ۚ وَإِن لَّمْ يَنتَهُوا عَمَّا يَقُولُونَ لَيَمَسَّنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنْهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ   [ Indeed those who say : 'Allah is the third of the Trinity' became unbelievers. There is no god but Allah. If they do not desist in what they say, a painful punishment will afflict those of them who disbelieve. ] (Al-Ma'eda - 73)
 
It is in Quran -  وَقَالَتِ الْيَهُودُ عُزَيْرٌ ابْنُ اللَّهِ وَقَالَتِ النَّصَارَى الْمَسِيحُ ابْنُ اللَّهِ ۖ ذَ‌ٰلِكَ قَوْلُهُم بِأَفْوَاهِهِمْ ۖ يُضَاهِئُونَ قَوْلَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِن قَبْلُ ۚ قَاتَلَهُمُ اللَّهُ ۚ أَنَّىٰ يُؤْفَكُونَ  [ The Jews call 'Uzair a son of Allah, and the Christians call Christ the son of Allah. That is a saying from their mouth; (in this) they but imitate what the unbelievers of old used to say. Allah's curse be on them: how they are deluded away from the Truth! ] (At-Taubah - 30)                           

 

Juz 6, Al-Maidah, Verse 006
 
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا إِذَا قُمْتُمْ إِلَى الصَّلَاةِ فَاغْسِلُوا وُجُوهَكُمْ وَأَيْدِيَكُمْ إِلَى الْمَرَافِقِ وَامْسَحُوا بِرُءُوسِكُمْ وَأَرْجُلَكُمْ إِلَى الْكَعْبَيْنِ وَإِنْ كُنْتُمْ جُنُبًا فَاطَّهَّرُوا وَإِنْ كُنْتُمْ مَرْضَى أَوْ عَلَى سَفَرٍ أَوْ جَاءَ أَحَدٌ مِنْكُمْ مِنَ الْغَائِطِ أَوْ لَامَسْتُمُ النِّسَاءَ فَلَمْ تَجِدُوا مَاءً فَتَيَمَّمُوا صَعِيدًا طَيِّبًا فَامْسَحُوا بِوُجُوهِكُمْ وَأَيْدِيكُمْ مِنْهُ مَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيَجْعَلَ عَلَيْكُمْ مِنْ حَرَجٍ وَلَكِنْ يُرِيدُ لِيُطَهِّرَكُمْ وَلِيُتِمَّ نِعْمَتَهُ عَلَيْكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ [ O' believers, when you stand up for prayer, wash your faces and hands up to elbows, and also wipe your heads, and wash your feet up to the ankles. If you are in a state of 'Junub' (seminal discharge), then take a bath and purify yourself. In case you are ill or traveling, or you have attended the call of nature, or have slept with your wife and you cannot find water, then stroke your palms on the clean dust and pass them over your face and your hands.  Allah does not wish to impose any hardship on you.  He wishes to purify you and complete His favor upon you  so that you may be grateful. ]
 
Three issues have been mentioned in the above verse; (i) Ghusl, (ii) Wudu, and (iii) Tayammum.  We will discuss these briefly here. 
 
(i) Ghusl

A Muslim, male or female is expected to take bath (Ghusl) after sexual intercourse,  menstrual period, wet dreams etc.

There are 3 imperatives (Faraa'ez) of Ghusl, viz., (a) To rinse the mouth thoroughly, (b) To rinse nostrils thoroughly, and (c) Clean the impurity and thoroughly rub and wet the whole body, including the root of the hairs on head.

How Ghuls is done?  First have the intention in heart to purify for major impurity.  Then recite Bismillah and wash  hands three times, then wash the private part.  Then perform Wudu as done for Salah. Then pour water over the head  and body three times, and rub the hair so that thewater reaches the roots of the hair.  Then wash the body, making sure that the water reaches all parts, starting with the right side of the body and then the left, and rubbing it with the hands so that the water reaches the entire body.

 

 

(ii) Wudu

Wudu is performed for minor impurities, like a person has attended the call of nature, or passing of gas, etc. 

There are 4 imperatives (Fara'ez) in Wudu, viz., (a) Washing the face from the top of forehead down to the lower portion of the chin and  across from one ear to the other, (b) Washing both hands and arms up to the elbows, (c) Masah, wiping the head with wet hands, and (d) Washing both the feet up to the ankles.   

Sunnah of the Wudu are, (a) Intention, (b) Reciting Bismillah, (c) Washing hands three times up to wrists, (d) Brushing teeth with a tooth stick (Miswak), (e) Rinsing the mouth thrice, (f) Passing fingers (khilal) through the bottom of the beard with wet hands, (g) Khilal of fingers and toes (passing fingers of both hands against each other and passing them through toes, (h) Washing each limb three times, (i) Doing Masah of the head once, (j) Doing Masah of the ears, (k) Doing wudu in proper order, (l) Washing each part, one after the other, without pause to make sure that no part gets dried before the next step.

Desirable actions of Wudu (Mustahabat) are, (a) Begin Wudu from the right side, (b) Masah of the nape, (c) Doing Wudu without assistance from others, (d) Sitting at an elevated clean place for Wudu.

Not desirable actions (Makroohaat) of Wudu are, (a) Doing Wudu at a dirty place, (b) Blowing nose with right hand, (c) Chit chatting worldly issues during Wudu, (d) Wasting a lot of water during Wudu, etc.

It is imperative (fard) to do Wudu when one is in the state of minor ritual impurity,  (a) before performing Salah, (b) reciting Quran or (c) touching the mushaf of Quran.

It is Wajib to perform Wudu before circumambulation (Tawaf) of Kaba.

(iii) Tayammum

If there is no access to water, or if water can't be used in view of certain health conditions, Tayammum is performed in place of Ghusl or Wudu. There are four steps in doing tayammum.  (a) Recite Bismillah and make Niyyah of Tayammum for Wudu or Ghusl, (b) Strike both hands on clean earth, (c) Rub both the hands on the complete face (as in Wudu), (d) Again strike both hands on the clean earth and rub the left hand over complete right hand till elbow. Then rub the right hand over complete left hand.

Important point

There is a difference between imperatives (Faraa'ez) related to faith (Iman) and imperatives related to deeds.  The one who ignores or rejects the imperatives related to basic faith of Islam is treated as out of Islam.  In the imperatives of the deeds, the commandment is absolute, but in its implementation is subject to interpretation.  Those who differ in this context, cannot be regarded as out of Islam.

For instance, the wiping of head (Masah) is one among the imperatives related to faith (Iman).  No one can deny this commandment.  If he does, he will be out of Islam. In the performance of how much head has to be wiped?  This issue is subject to interpretation.  It is where the differences of opinion occur between various Imams of Fiqh.

 
Juz 6, Al-Maidah, Verse 007
 
وَاذْكُرُوا نِعْمَةَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ وَمِيثَاقَهُ الَّذِي وَاثَقَكُمْ بِهِ إِذْ قُلْتُمْ سَمِعْنَا وَأَطَعْنَا وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ بِذَاتِ الصُّدُورِ [ Remember the favors He bestowed upon you, and the covenant He took from you, when you said : 'We have heard and obey.'  Fear Allah, for He knows the secrets of your heart. ]
 
When was this covenant taken? 
 
It may have been taken in the world of Similitude (عالمِ مِثال). Or the verse may be referring to the Promise of Allegiance (Baya) the Sahabah used to do on the hand of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) at the time of accepting Islam. 

 

Juz 6, Al-Maidah, Verse 008
 
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا كُونُوا قَوَّامِينَ لِلَّهِ شُهَدَاءَ بِالْقِسْطِ وَلَا يَجْرِمَنَّكُمْ شَنَآَنُ قَوْمٍ عَلَى أَلَّا تَعْدِلُوا اعْدِلُوا هُوَ أَقْرَبُ لِلتَّقْوَى وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ خَبِيرٌ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ [ O People who Believe! Firmly establish the commands of Allah, give testimony with justice, and do not let the enmity of people tempt you to do injustice.  Be just, it is nearer to piety, and fear Allah; indeed Allah is Well Aware of your deeds. ]

 

Juz 6, Al-Maidah, Verse 009
 
وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ لَهُمْ مَغْفِرَةٌ وَأَجْرٌ عَظِيمٌ [ It is Allah's promise to those who believe and do righteous deeds; for them there is forgiveness and great reward. ]

 

Juz 6, Al-Maidah, Verse 010
 
وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَكَذَّبُوا بِآَيَاتِنَا أُولَئِكَ أَصْحَابُ الْجَحِيمِ  [ But those who disbelieve and deny Our revelations are the people of Hell. ]
 
 
Juz 6, Al-Maidah, Verse 011
 
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا اذْكُرُوا نِعْمَةَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ إِذْ هَمَّ قَوْمٌ أَنْ يَبْسُطُوا إِلَيْكُمْ أَيْدِيَهُمْ فَكَفَّ أَيْدِيَهُمْ عَنْكُمْ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَعَلَى اللَّهِ فَلْيَتَوَكَّلِ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ  [ O believers, remember the favors Allah bestowed upon you when a people raised their hands against you and He restrained their hands. So fear Allah; and the faithful should place their trust in Allah. ]
 
There were incidents during the Prophet's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) time when Makkan pagans and Jews attempted to attack and kill the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and his close Sahabah by deceit. However, they could not succeed in their evil designs.  Probably, Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) is reminding the believers about those incidents.  

 

Juz 6, Al-Maidah, Verse 012
 
 وَلَقَدْ أَخَذَ اللَّهُ مِيثَاقَ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ وَبَعَثْنَا مِنْهُمُ اثْنَيْ عَشَرَ نَقِيبًا وَقَالَ اللَّهُ إِنِّي مَعَكُمْ لَئِنْ أَقَمْتُمُ الصَّلَاةَ وَآَتَيْتُمُ الزَّكَاةَ وَآَمَنْتُمْ بِرُسُلِي وَعَزَّرْتُمُوهُمْ وَأَقْرَضْتُمُ اللَّهَ قَرْضًا حَسَنًا لَأُكَفِّرَنَّ عَنْكُمْ سَيِّئَاتِكُمْ وَلَأُدْخِلَنَّكُمْ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِنْ تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ فَمَنْ كَفَرَ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ مِنْكُمْ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ سَوَاءَ السَّبِيلِ  [ And Allah had taken a covenant from the Children of Israel, and appointed from among them twelve leaders. And Allah said, 'I am with you. If you establish prayer and give Zakat and believe in My Apostles and support them and loan Allah a goodly loan, I will surely remove from you your sins and admit you to gardens beneath which rivers flow. But then after this, if any of you disbelieves, he has certainly gone astray from the Straight Path. ]

 

Juz 6, Al-Maidah, Verse 013
 
 فَبِمَا نَقْضِهِمْ مِيثَاقَهُمْ لَعَنَّاهُمْ وَجَعَلْنَا قُلُوبَهُمْ قَاسِيَةً يُحَرِّفُونَ الْكَلِمَ عَنْ مَوَاضِعِهِ وَنَسُوا حَظًّا مِمَّا ذُكِّرُوا بِهِ وَلَا تَزَالُ تَطَّلِعُ عَلَى خَائِنَةٍ مِنْهُمْ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا مِنْهُمْ فَاعْفُ عَنْهُمْ وَاصْفَحْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُحْسِنِينَ  [ When they dishonored their pledge We condemned them, and hardened their hearts. So they distort the words of the Scripture out of context, and have forgotten some of what they were warned against. You will always hear of treachery on their part except that of a few. So (O' Prophet ﷺ) forgive and excuse them; indeed Allah loves the benevolent.]

 

Juz 6, Al-Maidah, Verse 014
 
 وَمِنَ الَّذِينَ قَالُوا إِنَّا نَصَارَى أَخَذْنَا مِيثَاقَهُمْ فَنَسُوا حَظًّا مِمَّا ذُكِّرُوا بِهِ فَأَغْرَيْنَا بَيْنَهُمُ الْعَدَاوَةَ وَالْبَغْضَاءَ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ وَسَوْفَ يُنَبِّئُهُمُ اللَّهُ بِمَا كَانُوا يَصْنَعُونَ  [ We had taken the pledge of those also who call themselves Christians. But they too forgot to take heed of the warning they were given. So We let them loose,  (as a result of which) enmity and hatred against each other (took hold in their hearts) and it will last  till the Day of Resurrection, when Allah will inform them of what they were doing.]

 

Juz 6, Al-Maidah, Verse 015
 
 يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ قَدْ جَاءَكُمْ رَسُولُنَا يُبَيِّنُ لَكُمْ كَثِيرًا مِمَّا كُنْتُمْ تُخْفُونَ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ وَيَعْفُو عَنْ كَثِيرٍ قَدْ جَاءَكُمْ مِنَ اللَّهِ نُورٌ وَكِتَابٌ مُبِينٌ  [ O people of the Book, Our Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) has come to you, revealing many things of the Scriptures that you had suppressed from passing over to others. To you has come light and a clear Book from Allah. ]
 
The above verse describes the Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)  as Noor from Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ).
It is in Quran  يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ قَدْ جَاءَكُمْ بُرْهَانٌ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ وَأَنْزَلْنَا إِلَيْكُمْ نُورًا مُبِينًا  (O' mankind! Indeed the clear proof from your Lord has come to you, and We have sent down to you a bright light.) (An-Nisa - 174). 
 
It is in Quran –  يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ إِنَّا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ شَاهِدًا وَمُبَشِّرًا وَنَذِيرًا  -  وَدَاعِيًا إِلَى اللَّهِ بِإِذْنِهِ وَسِرَاجًا مُّنِيرًا  [ O’ Prophet ﷺ, Truly We have sent you as a Witness, a Bearer of Glad Tidings, and Warner; and one who invites to Allah's  (Grace) by His consent, and as a lamp spreading light (into the whole cosmos). ]  (Al–Ahzab - 45-46).
It is in Hadith - It is related that Jābir Ibn  Abd Allah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said to Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم),  O' Apostle of Allāh (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) may my father and mother be sacrificed for you, tell me the first thing Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) created before all things."  The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said:   O' Jabir (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), the first thing Allah  (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) created was the light of your Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) from His light. (And everything else was created from that light).  (Part of the Hadith).
The above Hadith was narrated by Abd al-Razzaq (d. 211 AH) in his Musannaf according to Qastallani in al-Mawahib al-Laduniyya (1:55) and Zarqani in his Sharh al-Mawahib (1:56 of the Matba`a al-amira edition, Cairo). There cannot be any doubt as to the reliability of Abd al-Razzaq as a narrator.  Bukhari took 120 narrations from him while  Muslim took 400.  Biahaqi also narrated this Hadith with a different wording in "Dala'il al-Nubuwwa, according to Zurqani in his Sharh al-Mawahib (1:56 of the Matba'a al-amira, Cairo).  

 

Juz 6, Al-Maidah, Verse 016
 
 يَهْدِي بِهِ اللَّهُ مَنِ اتَّبَعَ رِضْوَانَهُ سُبُلَ السَّلَامِ وَيُخْرِجُهُمْ مِنَ الظُّلُمَاتِ إِلَى النُّورِ بِإِذْنِهِ وَيَهْدِيهِمْ إِلَى صِرَاطٍ مُسْتَقِيمٍ  [ With it, Allah guides whoever obeys the will of Allah to the paths of peace, and takes them out of darkness towards light by His command, and guides them to the straight path. ]

 

Juz 6, Al-Maidah, Verse 017
 
 لَقَدْ كَفَرَ الَّذِينَ قَالُوا إِنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْمَسِيحُ ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ قُلْ فَمَنْ يَمْلِكُ مِنَ اللَّهِ شَيْئًا إِنْ أَرَادَ أَنْ يُهْلِكَ الْمَسِيحَ ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ وَأُمَّهُ وَمَنْ فِي الْأَرْضِ جَمِيعًا وَلِلَّهِ مُلْكُ السَّمَوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا يخْلُقُ مَا يَشَاءُ وَاللَّهُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ  [ They have indeed become disbelievers who say, 'Messiah, the son of Maryam (عليه السلام) is certainly Allah; say, 'Who can do anything if He wills the Messiah, the son of Maryam (عليه السلام), and his mother and everyone else are destroyed on earth? And for Allah is the kingship of the heavens and the earth and all that is between them. He creates whatever He wills. Allah has  power over all the things. ]
 
 
Juz 6, Al-Maidah, Verse 018
 
 وَقَالَتِ الْيَهُودُ وَالنَّصَارَى نَحْنُ أَبْنَاءُ اللَّهِ وَأَحِبَّاؤُهُ قُلْ فَلِمَ يُعَذِّبُكُمْ بِذُنُوبِكُمْ بَلْ أَنْتُمْ بَشَرٌ مِمَّنْ خَلَقَ يَغْفِرُ لِمَنْ يَشَاءُ وَيُعَذِّبُ مَنْ يَشَاءُ وَلِلَّهِ مُلْكُ السَّمَوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا وَإِلَيْهِ الْمَصِيرُ  [ And the Jews and the Christians say, 'We are the children of Allah and His beloved.'  Tell (them), 'then why does He punish you for your sins?' Rather, you are human beings from among His creatures. He forgives whom He wills, and He punishes whom He wills. And to Allah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth and whatever is there between them, and everything will return back to Him. ]
 
 
Juz 6, Al-Maidah, Verse 019
 
 يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ قَدْ جَاءَكُمْ رَسُولُنَا يُبَيِّنُ لَكُمْ عَلَى فَتْرَةٍ مِنَ الرُّسُلِ أَنْ تَقُولُوا مَا جَاءَنَا مِنْ بَشِيرٍ وَلَا نَذِيرٍ فَقَدْ جَاءَكُمْ بَشِيرٌ وَنَذِيرٌ وَاللَّهُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ  [ O' people of the Book, Our Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) has come to you at a time when Apostles had ceased to come long ago, lest you said : 'There did not come to us any Apostle of good tidings and of warnings.'  So now there has come to you a bearer of good tidings and of warnings.  (Know that) Allah has the power over all  the things. ]

 

Juz 6, Al-Maidah, Verse 020
 
 وَإِذْ قَالَ مُوسَى لِقَوْمِهِ يَا قَوْمِ اذْكُرُوا نِعْمَةَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ إِذْ جَعَلَ فِيكُمْ أَنْبِيَاءَ وَجَعَلَكُمْ مُلُوكًا وَآَتَاكُمْ مَا لَمْ يُؤْتِ أَحَدًا مِنَ الْعَالَمِينَ  [ Remember when Musa (عليه السلام) said to his people : O' my people, remember the favors that Allah bestowed upon you when He appointed Apostles from among you, and made you kings and gave you what had never been given to any one in the world. ]

 

Juz 6, Al-Maidah, Verse 021
 
 يَا قَوْمِ ادْخُلُوا الْأَرْضَ الْمُقَدَّسَةَ الَّتِي كَتَبَ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ وَلَا تَرْتَدُّوا عَلَى أَدْبَارِكُمْ فَتَنْقَلِبُوا خَاسِرِينَ  [ Enter then, my people, the Holy Land that Allah has ordained for you, and do not turn back as losers. ]

 

Juz 6, Al-Maidah, Verse 022
 
 قَالُوا يَا مُوسَى إِنَّ فِيهَا قَوْمًا جَبَّارِينَ وَإِنَّا لَنْ نَدْخُلَهَا حَتَّى يَخْرُجُوا مِنْهَا فَإِنْ يَخْرُجُوا مِنْهَا فَإِنَّا دَاخِلُونَ [ They said : O' Musa (عليه السلام), in that land live very strong people. We shall never go there until they leave. We shall enter when they go away. ]

 

Juz 6, Al-Maidah, Verse 023
 
 قَالَ رَجُلَانِ مِنَ الَّذِينَ يَخَافُونَ أَنْعَمَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمَا ادْخُلُوا عَلَيْهِمُ الْبَابَ فَإِذَا دَخَلْتُمُوهُ فَإِنَّكُمْ غَالِبُونَ وَعَلَى اللَّهِ فَتَوَكَّلُوا إِنْ كُنْتُمْ مُؤْمِنِينَ [ So two men among them who feared Allah and whom Allah had favored, said to them  'Charge and rush towards gate.  If you enter, you will surely be victorious. And place your trust in Allah if you truly believe. ]

 

Juz 6, Al-Maidah, Verse 024
 
 قَالُوا يَا مُوسَى إِنَّا لَنْ نَدْخُلَهَا أَبَدًا مَا دَامُوا فِيهَا فَاذْهَبْ أَنْتَ وَرَبُّكَ فَقَاتِلَا إِنَّا هَاهُنَا قَاعِدُونَ [ They said, O' Musa (عليه السلام), We will never enter it when they are there. You and your Lord go and fight.  We will remain seated here. ]

 

Juz 6, Al-Maidah, Verse 025
 
 قَالَ رَبِّ إِنِّي لَا أَمْلِكُ إِلَّا نَفْسِي وَأَخِي فَافْرُقْ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَ الْقَوْمِ الْفَاسِقِينَ [ Said Musa (عليه السلام), 'My Lord! I have no control except over myself and my brother, so keep us separated from the disobedient nation. ]

 

Juz 6, Al-Maidah, Verse 026
 
 قَالَ فَإِنَّهَا مُحَرَّمَةٌ عَلَيْهِمْ أَرْبَعِينَ سَنَةً يَتِيهُونَ فِي الْأَرْضِ فَلَا تَأْسَ عَلَى الْقَوْمِ الْفَاسِقِينَ [ (Said Allah) Then verily this land is forbidden for them for forty years, and they shall wander over the earth. So do not grieve for these wicked people. ]
 
The detailed account of Bani Israel during the time of Musa (عليه السلام) has been discussed in detail in the Tafseer of Surah al-Baqara.
 
 
Juz 6, Al-Maidah, Verse 027
 
 وَاتْلُ عَلَيْهِمْ نَبَأَ ابْنَيْ آَدَمَ بِالْحَقِّ إِذْ قَرَّبَا قُرْبَانًا فَتُقُبِّلَ مِنْ أَحَدِهِمَا وَلَمْ يُتَقَبَّلْ مِنَ الْآَخَرِ قَالَ لَأَقْتُلَنَّكَ قَالَ إِنَّمَا يَتَقَبَّلُ اللَّهُ مِنَ الْمُتَّقِينَ [ Narrate to them the story of the two sons of Adam's (عليه السلام), in truth, when each of them offered a sacrifice (to Allah), that of one was accepted, and that of the other was not. Said (the one) : 'I will murder you', and the other replied : 'Allah only accepts from those who are upright and preserve themselves from evil.]

 

Juz 6, Al-Maidah, Verse 028
 
 لَئِنْ بَسَطْتَ إِلَيَّ يَدَكَ لِتَقْتُلَنِي مَا أَنَا بِبَاسِطٍ يَدِيَ إِلَيْكَ لِأَقْتُلَكَ إِنِّي أَخَافُ اللَّهَ رَبَّ الْعَالَمِينَ [ If you raise your hand to kill me, I will raise not mine to kill you, for I fear Allah, the Lord of the worlds; ]

 

Juz 6, Al-Maidah, Verse 029
 
إِنِّي أُرِيدُ أَنْ تَبُوءَ بِإِثْمِي وَإِثْمِكَ فَتَكُونَ مِنْ أَصْحَابِ النَّارِ وَذَلِكَ جَزَاءُ الظَّالِمِينَ [ I only desire that you alone should bear my sin and your own sin and become (one) of the people of Hell; and that is the right punishment of the oppressor. ]

 

Juz 6, Al-Maidah, Verse 030
 
فَطَوَّعَتْ لَهُ نَفْسُهُ قَتْلَ أَخِيهِ فَقَتَلَهُ فَأَصْبَحَ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِينَ [ So his Nafs incited him to kill his brother and he killed him and became one among the losers. ]