SHAIKH MIR ASEDULLAH QUADRI
Al-Ma'idah | Sura # 5| 120 verses | Madinan
بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
In the name of Allah, the Most Compassionate and Most Merciful
Juz 6, Al-Maidah, Verse 031فَبَعَثَ اللَّهُ غُرَابًا يَبْحَثُ فِي الْأَرْضِ لِيُرِيَهُ كَيْفَ يُوَارِي سَوْءَةَ أَخِيهِ قَالَ يَا وَيْلَتَى أَعَجَزْتُ أَنْ أَكُونَ مِثْلَ هَذَا الْغُرَابِ فَأُوَارِيَ سَوْأَةَ أَخِي فَأَصْبَحَ مِنَ النَّادِمِين [ So Allah sent a crow scratching the ground, to show him how to hide his brother’s dead body; he said, 'Woe to me! I was not even capable enough to be like this crow to hide my brother’s dead body'. And he regretted his action (of killing his brother.)]
In five preceding verses (27–31), Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) describes the story of the two sons of Adam (عليه السلام), namely, Habeel (Abel) and Qabeel (Cain).
The information about this episode is mentioned in Quran. However, details about it are a sketchy in Islamic literature. Based on these accounts, it is reported that after the descent from the Heavens, Adam and Hawwa (عليهم السلام) started living on Earth. It is believed that Hawwa (عليها السلام) bore sets of twins, and in each birth there was a male and a female child. And they were commanded that each son would marry the sister of his brother with whom she was born. No one was allowed to get married with his sister with whom he was born.
The incidence of killing of Habeel by his brother Qabeel was sparked when Qabeel refused to marry the twin sister of Habeel who was designated to be married to him; preferring instead his own twin sister with whom he was born. When Adam (عليه السلام) saw Qabeel was adamant and insisted on marrying his own twin sister, he suggested both the sons to refer the matter to Allah and let Him decided the outcome. They were advised to offer sacrifices and whosoever was right, his sacrifice will be accepted by Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ). The sacrifice of Habeel was accepted. The modalities of these sacrifices and how these were accepted are not known, however, Quran testifies that the sacrifice of Habeel was accepted by Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ).
Qabeel was not satisfied with the outcome. He was discontented which probably bred envy and jealousy towards his brother. He threatened to kill his brother. Habeel was a pious and virtuous man. He said, even if his brother raises his hands to kill him, he will not resist. By saying so, he wanted to cool down his brother and stop him from committing the crime. However, as the Quran testifies, he killed his brother and when he looked at the dead body of his brother, Qabeel did not know what to do with that as no other man on the face of the earth had died before that. Allah sent a crow digging up the earth to bury another crow who was dead so that he might show him how he should cover the dead body of his brother. Qabeel then knew how to bury the dead. He dug the ground and buried the body of his dead brother. He realized his guilt and regretted his action.Juz 6, Al-Maidah, Verse 032مِنْ أَجْلِ ذَلِكَ كَتَبْنَا عَلَى بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ أَنَّهُ مَنْ قَتَلَ نَفْسًا بِغَيْرِ نَفْسٍ أَوْ فَسَادٍ فِي الْأَرْضِ فَكَأَنَّمَا قَتَلَ النَّاسَ جَمِيعًا وَمَنْ أَحْيَاهَا فَكَأَنَّمَا أَحْيَا النَّاسَ جَمِيعًا وَلَقَدْ جَاءَتْهُمْ رُسُلُنَا بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ ثُمَّ إِنَّ كَثِيرًا مِنْهُمْ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ فِي الْأَرْضِ لَمُسْرِفُونَ [ That is why We decreed for the children of Israel that whosoever kills a human being, except (as punishment) for murder or for spreading corruption in the land, it shall be like killing all humanity; and whosoever saves a life, saves the entire human race. Our Apostles brought clear proofs to them; but even after that most of them committed excesses in the land. ]
Juz 6, Al-Maidah, Verse 033إِنَّمَا جَزَاءُ الَّذِينَ يُحَارِبُونَ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَيَسْعَوْنَ فِي الْأَرْضِ فَسَادًا أَنْ يُقَتَّلُوا أَوْ يُصَلَّبُوا أَوْ تُقَطَّعَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَأَرْجُلُهُمْ مِنْ خِلَافٍ أَوْ يُنْفَوْا مِنَ الْأَرْضِ ذَلِكَ لَهُمْ خِزْيٌ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَلَهُمْ فِي الْآَخِرَةِ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ [ The punishment for those who wage war against Allah and His Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and perpetrate disorders in the land is that they be crucified, or their hands and feet cut off from alternate sides, or they be banished far away from the land; this is their degradation in the world, and for them in the Hereafter is a great punishment.]
Juz 6, Al-Maidah, Verse 034إِلَّا الَّذِينَ تَابُوا مِنْ قَبْلِ أَنْ تَقْدِرُوا عَلَيْهِمْ فَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ [ But those who repent before they are subdued should know that Allah is forgiving and kind. ]Killing of innocent people is strictly prohibited in Islam. Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) says, killing of an innocent person is like killing the entire humanity.Islamic teachings are defensive in nature. Islam does not teach violence in any format. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) taught us Anti Violence. Violence is offensive in nature and anti-violence is defensive in nature. You need to learn and prepare yourself to defend yourself, your family, your town and your country against the offensive violence of enemies. This is anti-violence.
Jihad is sometimes necessary to bring back peace in the land. Thus Jihad is defensive in nature. Preemptive strike against an existential enemy is included in it. Islam is against offensive Jihad that creates chaos, mayhem and dissensions in the land. Islam does not allow creating anarchy and destruction. Islam is against spreading hatred and terror among people. This is the clear message conveyed by the above verses.Juz 6, Al-Maidah, Verse 035يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَابْتَغُوا إِلَيْهِ الْوَسِيلَةَ وَجَاهِدُوا فِي سَبِيلِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ [ O' People who Believe! Fear Allah, and seek the means towards Him, and strive in His cause in the hope of attaining success. ]All virtuous deeds are Wasila with which we seek to get proximity to Allah's (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ). Sahih Iman, Salah, Zakat, Fasting, Hajj and Taqwa, all are included in it. However, among all virtuous deeds, the love of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ and His Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) are supreme.
If someone wants to be in the proximity to Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ), it is important for him to first get to the proximity to the Apostle of Allah (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). As a matter of fact, Iman is not complete, if someone does not love the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) as per the guidelines set by Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) and His Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).
It is in Quran - النَّبِيُّ أَوْلَىٰ بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ مِنْ أَنفُسِهِمْ [ The Prophet ﷺ is more preferable to the believers than their own selves.] (Al-ahzaab - 33)
It is in Hadith - Anas (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) narrated that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said 'None of you will have Iman till he loves me more than his father, his children and all mankind. (Bukhari)Juz 6, Al-Maidah, Verse 036إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لَوْ أَنَّ لَهُمْ مَا فِي الْأَرْضِ جَمِيعًا وَمِثْلَهُ مَعَهُ لِيَفْتَدُوا بِهِ مِنْ عَذَابِ يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ مَا تُقُبِّلَ مِنْهُمْ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ [ As to those who insist on unbelief, even if they owned the whole of what is on the earth, and the like with it, to offer as ransom from the punishment on the Day of Resurrection, it will not be accepted from them. For them is a painful punishment. ]
Juz 6, Al-Maidah, Verse 037يُرِيدُونَ أَنْ يَخْرُجُوا مِنَ النَّارِ وَمَا هُمْ بِخَارِجِينَ مِنْهَا وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ مُقِيمٌ [ They would like to escape from the Fire, but will never succeed, and their suffering will be unending. ]
Juz 6, Al-Maidah, Verse 038وَالسَّارِقُ وَالسَّارِقَةُ فَاقْطَعُوا أَيْدِيَهُمَا جَزَاءً بِمَا كَسَبَا نَكَالًا مِنَ اللَّهِ وَاللَّهُ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ [ As for the thief, the male and the female, amputate their hands in recompense for what they committed as a deterrent (punishment) from Allah. And Allah is Exalted in Might and Wise. ]Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) warns people from Hell and by describing the permanent punishments of Hell, people are encouraged to shun sin and live a life full of virtue. Similarly, certain strict punishment in Islam are a great deterrent for people to stay away from creating chaos in the land.
Juz 6, Al-Maidah, Verse 039فَمَنْ تَابَ مِنْ بَعْدِ ظُلْمِهِ وَأَصْلَحَ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ يَتُوبُ عَلَيْهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ [ But those who repent after a crime and reform themselves, shall be forgiven by Allah, for Allah is All forgiving, Most Merciful. ]
Juz 6, Al-Maidah, Verse 040أَلَمْ تَعْلَمْ أَنَّ اللَّهَ لَهُ مُلْكُ السَّمَوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ يُعَذِّبُ مَنْ يَشَاءُ وَيَغْفِرُ لِمَنْ يَشَاءُ وَاللَّهُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ [ Do you not know that to Allah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth? He punishes whom He wills and forgives whom He wills, for Allah has the power over all things. ]
Juz 6, Al-Maidah, Verse 041يَا أَيُّهَا الرَّسُولُ لَا يَحْزُنْكَ الَّذِينَ يُسَارِعُونَ فِي الْكُفْرِ مِنَ الَّذِينَ قَالُوا آَمَنَّا بِأَفْوَاهِهِمْ وَلَمْ تُؤْمِنْ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَمِنَ الَّذِينَ هَادُوا سَمَّاعُونَ لِلْكَذِبِ سَمَّاعُونَ لِقَوْمٍ آَخَرِينَ لَمْ يَأْتُوكَ يُحَرِّفُونَ الْكَلِمَ مِنْ بَعْدِ مَوَاضِعِهِ يَقُولُونَ إِنْ أُوتِيتُمْ هَذَا فَخُذُوهُ وَإِنْ لَمْ تُؤْتَوْهُ فَاحْذَرُوا وَمَنْ يُرِدِ اللَّهُ فِتْنَتَهُ فَلَنْ تَمْلِكَ لَهُ مِنَ اللَّهِ شَيْئًا أُولَئِكَ الَّذِينَ لَمْ يُرِدِ اللَّهُ أَنْ يُطَهِّرَ قُلُوبَهُمْ لَهُمْ فِي الدُّنْيَا خِزْيٌ وَلَهُمْ فِي الْآَخِرَةِ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ [ O' Noble Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) Do not let yourself be aggrieved by the people who hasten towards disbelief and say with their tongues, 'we believe,' but do not believe in their hearts. And those of the Jews who listen to a great deal to falsehood, and spy on behalf of others who do not come to you, and who distort the words out of context, and say (to their people) : 'If you are given (what we say is true) accept it; but if you are not given it, beware.' You cannot intercede with Allah for him whom Allah would not show the way. These are the people whose hearts Allah does not want to purify. For them is ignominy in this world and great punishment in Hereafter. ]
Juz 6, Al-Maidah, Verse 042سَمَّاعُونَ لِلْكَذِبِ أَكَّالُونَ لِلسُّحْتِ فَإِنْ جَاءُوكَ فَاحْكُمْ بَيْنَهُمْ أَوْ أَعْرِضْ عَنْهُمْ وَإِنْ تُعْرِضْ عَنْهُمْ فَلَنْ يَضُرُّوكَ شَيْئًا وَإِنْ حَكَمْتَ فَاحْكُمْ بَيْنَهُمْ بِالْقِسْطِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُقْسِطِينَ [ The excessively eager listeners of falsehood, who earn through unlawful means, if they come to you (O' Prophet ﷺ for a dispute among them), judge between them or decline. And if you decline, they can do no harm to you; but if you judge, judge with justice. And indeed Allah loves those who are just. ]
Juz 6, Al-Maidah, Verse 043وَكَيْفَ يُحَكِّمُونَكَ وَعِنْدَهُمُ التَّوْرَاةُ فِيهَا حُكْمُ اللَّهِ ثُمَّ يَتَوَلَّوْنَ مِنْ بَعْدِ ذَلِكَ وَمَا أُولَئِكَ بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ [ But why should they make you a judge (in the first place) when the Torah is with them which contains the Laws of Allah (for them)? Even then they turn away. They are those who will never believe. ]
Juz 6, Al-Maidah, Verse 044إِنَّا أَنْزَلْنَا التَّوْرَاةَ فِيهَا هُدًى وَنُورٌ يَحْكُمُ بِهَا النَّبِيُّونَ الَّذِينَ أَسْلَمُوا لِلَّذِينَ هَادُوا وَالرَّبَّانِيُّونَ وَالْأَحْبَارُ بِمَا اسْتُحْفِظُوا مِنْ كِتَابِ اللَّهِ وَكَانُوا عَلَيْهِ شُهَدَاءَ فَلَا تَخْشَوُا النَّاسَ وَاخْشَوْنِ وَلَا تَشْتَرُوا بِآَيَاتِي ثَمَنًا قَلِيلًا وَمَنْ لَمْ يَحْكُمْ بِمَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ فَأُولَئِكَ هُمُ الْكَافِرُونَ [ Undoubtedly We sent down the Taurat, in which is guidance and light; the Jews were commanded according to it by Our Prophets, and the rabbis and the religious jurists for they were commanded to protect Allah’s Book, and they were witnesses there to. Thus (the people of the book were told), do not fear men, fear Me, and do not exchange My verses for a small price; and whoever does not judge according to what is sent down by Allah, it is they who are disbelievers. ]
Juz 6, Al-Maidah, Verse 045وَكَتَبْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ فِيهَا أَنَّ النَّفْسَ بِالنَّفْسِ وَالْعَيْنَ بِالْعَيْنِ وَالْأَنْفَ بِالْأَنْفِ وَالْأُذُنَ بِالْأُذُنِ وَالسِّنَّ بِالسِّنِّ وَالْجُرُوحَ قِصَاصٌ فَمَنْ تَصَدَّقَ بِهِ فَهُوَ كَفَّارَةٌ لَهُ وَمَنْ لَمْ يَحْكُمْ بِمَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ فَأُولَئِكَ هُمُ الظَّالِمُونَ [ And in the Taurat, We made it obligatory upon them that, a life (is the retribution) for a life, and an eye for an eye, and a nose for a nose, and an ear for an ear, and a tooth for a tooth, and for wounds is a retribution'; then whoever willingly agrees to retribution, it shall redeem him of his sin; and whoever does not judge according to what is sent down by Allah, it is they who are the unjust.]Juz 6, Al-Maidah, Verse 046وَقَفَّيْنَا عَلَى آَثَارِهِمْ بِعِيسَى ابْنِ مَرْيَمَ مُصَدِّقًا لِمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ مِنَ التَّوْرَاةِ وَآَتَيْنَاهُ الْإِنْجِيلَ فِيهِ هُدًى وَنُورٌ وَمُصَدِّقًا لِمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ مِنَ التَّوْرَاةِ وَهُدًى وَمَوْعِظَةً لِلْمُتَّقِينَ [ And We brought Prophet Isa Ibn Maryam (عليه السلام), following the footsteps of those Prophets, confirming the Taurat which preceded him, and We bestowed upon him the Injeel (Gospel) in which is guidance and light, and confirms the Taurat which preceded it, and guidance and instruction for the righteous.]
Juz 6, Al-Maidah, Verse 047وَلْيَحْكُمْ أَهْلُ الْإِنْجِيلِ بِمَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ فِيهِ وَمَنْ لَمْ يَحْكُمْ بِمَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ فَأُولَئِكَ هُمُ الْفَاسِقُونَ [ And let the People of the Injeel (Gospel) judge by what Allah has revealed therein. And whoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed, then it is those who are the defiantly disobedient.]
Juz 6, Al-Maidah, Verse 048وَأَنْزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ مُصَدِّقًا لِمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ وَمُهَيْمِنًا عَلَيْهِ فَاحْكُمْ بَيْنَهُمْ بِمَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ وَلَا تَتَّبِعْ أَهْوَاءَهُمْ عَمَّا جَاءَكَ مِنَ الْحَقِّ لِكُلٍّ جَعَلْنَا مِنْكُمْ شِرْعَةً وَمِنْهَاجًا وَلَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ لَجَعَلَكُمْ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً وَلَكِنْ لِيَبْلُوَكُمْ فِي مَا آَتَاكُمْ فَاسْتَبِقُوا الْخَيْرَاتِ إِلَى اللَّهِ مَرْجِعُكُمْ جَمِيعًا فَيُنَبِّئُكُمْ بِمَا كُنْتُمْ فِيهِ تَخْتَلِفُونَ [ And We have revealed to you, (O' Prophet ﷺ), the Book in truth, confirming that which preceded it of the Scripture and as a criterion over it. So judge between them by what Allah has revealed and do not heed to their inclinations (that are) away from what has come to you of the truth. In order for you to teach your (Ummah) We prescribed a law and a method. Had Allah willed, He would have made (all of) you one nation, but to test you in what He has given you; so race towards good. To Allah is your return all together, and He will inform you concerning that over which you used to differ. ]
Juz 6, Al-Maidah, Verse 049وَأَنِ احْكُمْ بَيْنَهُمْ بِمَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ وَلَا تَتَّبِعْ أَهْوَاءَهُمْ وَاحْذَرْهُمْ أَنْ يَفْتِنُوكَ عَنْ بَعْضِ مَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ إِلَيْكَ فَإِنْ تَوَلَّوْا فَاعْلَمْ أَنَّمَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ أَنْ يُصِيبَهُمْ بِبَعْضِ ذُنُوبِهِمْ وَإِنَّ كَثِيرًا مِنَ النَّاسِ لَفَاسِقُونَ [ And (O'believers) Judge between them in the light of what has been revealed by Allah, and do not follow their whims, and beware of them lest they lead you away from the guidance sent down to you by Allah. If they turn away, then know that Allah is sure to punish them for some of their sins; and many of them are transgressors. ]
Juz 6, Al-Maidah, Verse 050أَفَحُكْمَ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ يَبْغُونَ وَمَنْ أَحْسَنُ مِنَ اللَّهِ حُكْمًا لِقَوْمٍ يُوقِنُونَ [ So do they wish a judgement of Pagan ignorance? And whose judgement is better than that of Allah, for the people who are firm in their faith? ]
Juz 6, Al-Maidah, Verse 051يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا لَا تَتَّخِذُوا الْيَهُودَ وَالنَّصَارَى أَوْلِيَاءَ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلِيَاءُ بَعْضٍ وَمَنْ يَتَوَلَّهُمْ مِنْكُمْ فَإِنَّهُ مِنْهُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِينَ [ O believers, do not hold Jews and Christians as your allies. They are allies of one another; and anyone who makes them his friends is surely one of them; and Allah does not guide the unjust. ]
Juz 6, Al-Maidah, Verse 052فَتَرَى الَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ مَرَضٌ يُسَارِعُونَ فِيهِمْ يَقُولُونَ نَخْشَى أَنْ تُصِيبَنَا دَائِرَةٌ فَعَسَى اللَّهُ أَنْ يَأْتِيَ بِالْفَتْحِ أَوْ أَمْرٍ مِنْ عِنْدِهِ فَيُصْبِحُوا عَلَى مَا أَسَرُّوا فِي أَنْفُسِهِمْ نَادِمِينَ [ You will now see those in whose hearts is a disease, that they rush towards the Jews and the Christians, saying, 'We fear that a misfortune will possibly befall us'; so it is likely that Allah may soon bring victory, or a command from Him (to the believers), so they will remain regretting what they had hidden in their hearts.]
Juz 6, Al-Maidah, Verse 053وَيَقُولُ الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا أَهَؤُلَاءِ الَّذِينَ أَقْسَمُوا بِاللَّهِ جَهْدَ أَيْمَانِهِمْ إِنَّهُمْ لَمَعَكُمْ حَبِطَتْ أَعْمَالُهُمْ فَأَصْبَحُوا خَاسِرِينَ [ Then the believers will say: 'Are these the people who had sworn by Allah on solemn oath and said: 'We are surely with you? All their deeds are destroyed and they are ruined. ]
Juz 6, Al-Maidah, Verse 054يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا مَنْ يَرْتَدَّ مِنْكُمْ عَنْ دِينِهِ فَسَوْفَ يَأْتِي اللَّهُ بِقَوْمٍ يُحِبُّهُمْ وَيُحِبُّونَهُ أَذِلَّةٍ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَعِزَّةٍ عَلَى الْكَافِرِينَ يُجَاهِدُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَلَا يَخَافُونَ لَوْمَةَ لَائِمٍ ذَلِكَ فَضْلُ اللَّهِ يُؤْتِيهِ مَنْ يَشَاءُ وَاللَّهُ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ [ O you who believe, whoever of you should revert from his religion (should remember that) Allah will bring forth (in place of them) a people He will love and who will love Him (who are) humble toward the believers, powerful against the disbelievers; who strive in the cause of Allah and do not fear the blame of a critic. That is the favor of Allah He bestows upon whom He wills. And Allah is All Encompassing and All Knowing. ]
Juz 6, Al-Maidah, Verse 055إِنَّمَا وَلِيُّكُمُ اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَالَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا الَّذِينَ يُقِيمُونَ الصَّلَاةَ وَيُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ وَهُمْ رَاكِعُونَ [ Your guardian (or solver of grievances) can be Allah and His Apostle ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) and those who believe, who establish Salah, and pay Zakat and bow down (in prayer). ]
Juz 6, Al-Maidah, Verse 056وَمَنْ يَتَوَلَّ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَالَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا فَإِنَّ حِزْبَ اللَّهِ هُمُ الْغَالِبُونَ [ And those who take Allah and His Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and the believers as their guardians are indeed men of Allah, who will surely be victorious. ]