SHAIKH MIR ASEDULLAH QUADRI
Al-Al-Mai'dah | Sura # 5| 120 verses | Madinan
بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
In the name of Allah, the Most Compassionate and Most Merciful
Juz 7, Al-Maidah, Verse 083وَإِذَا سَمِعُوا مَا أُنْزِلَ إِلَى الرَّسُولِ تَرَى أَعْيُنَهُمْ تَفِيضُ مِنَ الدَّمْعِ مِمَّا عَرَفُوا مِنَ الْحَقِّ يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَا آَمَنَّا فَاكْتُبْنَا مَعَ الشَّاهِدِينَ [ And when they listen to what has been revealed to the Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), you can see their eyes brim over with tears at the truth which they recognize, and say: "O Lord, we believe; include us among those who bear witness . ]
Juz 7, Al-Maidah, Verse 084وَمَا لَنَا لَا نُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّهِ وَمَا جَاءَنَا مِنَ الْحَقِّ وَنَطْمَعُ أَنْ يُدْخِلَنَا رَبُّنَا مَعَ الْقَوْمِ الصَّالِحِينَ [ And why should we not believe in Allah and what has come to us of the truth? And we aspire that our Lord will admit us along with the righteous people. ]Juz 7, Al-Maidah, Verse 085فَأَثَابَهُمُ اللَّهُ بِمَا قَالُوا جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِنْ تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا وَذَلِكَ جَزَاءُ الْمُحْسِنِينَ [ So for their saying (believing), Allah rewarded them with gardens (in Paradise) beneath which rivers flow, wherein they abide eternally. And that is the reward of the doers of good. ]Juz 7, Al-Maidah, Verse 086وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَكَذَّبُوا بِآَيَاتِنَا أُولَئِكَ أَصْحَابُ الْجَحِيمِ [ And those who disbelieved and denied Our signs, are the people of Hell. ]The above verses clarify that there were two types among the people who were invited by Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) to Islam. Some, whose hearts were opened by the grace of Allah, accepted the message forthwith. The verses of Quran and the explanation of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) touched their hearts and they recognized the truth instantly. People in the gathering could see the sea-change in them by looking at their body language when their eyes were filled with tears. They immediately accepted Islam and became part of the people who were to be rewarded in both the worlds. As against this group, there were others who remained adamant and did not accept Islam, rather tried to put hurdles on the way of Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and reserved their dwellings in Hell.
Juz 7, Al-Maidah, Verse 087يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا لَا تُحَرِّمُوا طَيِّبَاتِ مَا أَحَلَّ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ وَلَا تَعْتَدُوا إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يُحِبُّ الْمُعْتَدِينَ [ O' believers, do not forbid (yourselves from) the good things Allah has made lawful for you; and do not transgress. Allah does not love transgressors. ]
Juz 7, Al-Maidah, Verse 088وَكُلُوا مِمَّا رَزَقَكُمُ اللَّهُ حَلَالًا طَيِّبًا وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ الَّذِي أَنْتُمْ بِهِ مُؤْمِنُونَ [ Eat what is lawful and good Allah has bestowed upon you, and fear Allah in whom you believe. ]
Juz 7, Al-Maidah, Verse 089لَا يُؤَاخِذُكُمُ اللَّهُ بِاللَّغْوِ فِي أَيْمَانِكُمْ وَلَكِنْ يُؤَاخِذُكُمْ بِمَا عَقَّدْتُمُ الْأَيْمَانَ فَكَفَّارَتُهُ إِطْعَامُ عَشَرَةِ مَسَاكِينَ مِنْ أَوْسَطِ مَا تُطْعِمُونَ أَهْلِيكُمْ أَوْ كِسْوَتُهُمْ أَوْ تَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ فَمَنْ لَمْ يَجِدْ فَصِيَامُ ثَلَاثَةِ أَيَّامٍ ذَلِكَ كَفَّارَةُ أَيْمَانِكُمْ إِذَا حَلَفْتُمْ وَاحْفَظُوا أَيْمَانَكُمْ كَذَلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ آَيَاتِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ [ Allah does not hold you for meaningless oaths, He does take you to task for breaking the intended oaths; so the expiation of such oaths is to feed ten needy persons equal to the average of what you feed your family, or to clothe them, or to free one slave; and for one who has no means, is the fasting for three days; this is the expiation of your oaths when you have sworn; and fulfill your oaths; this is how Allah explains His verses to you, so that you may be thankful. ]Broadly speaking, there are 4 types of oaths, as follows.(i) Absurd Oath (یمین لغو)It is a nonsensical and an unintended oath. Since Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) forgives most of the minor and even major sins, He does not hold people for verbal oath which is a nonsensical act of absurdity and foolishness. Saying 'By God' or 'I swear to God', on everything is an absurd oath.
(ii) Sinful Oath (یمین غموس )This kind of oath is known as 'immersive oath' (يمين الغموس). This is a sinful false oath taken consciously and deliberately to conceal a truth. A false witness/testimony in a Court of law comes under this category. You lied to hurt a person. In this case you need to seek forgiveness of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) and that person and compensate him for the loses he incurred as a result of your false testimony.(iii) Intentional Oath (یمین منعقدہ)The oath, taken with an intention and resolve, to do or not to do a thing, is known as an 'intentional oath'. If the work is bad and you have taken an oath of not doing it, you should hold on to your oath. If the work is virtuous and you have taken an oath of not doing it, then you should break it and continue doing the good work. However, for breaking an oath, you are liable for expiation (كفّاره). The expiation is, to feed an average amount of food to 10 poor people for one time or provide them with clothing which are suitable for them for Salah or free a slave and if you cannot afford these, then fast for 3 days.It is in Quran - لَا يُؤَاخِذُكُمُ اللَّهُ بِاللَّغْوِ فِي أَيْمَانِكُمْ وَلَكِنْ يُؤَاخِذُكُمْ بِمَا كَسَبَتْ قُلُوبُكُمْ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ حَلِيمٌ [ Allah will not call you to account for what is vain in your oaths, but He will call you to account for what you mean in your hearts. Allah is most forgiving and forbearing. (Al-Baqara - 225)(iv) Oath of Separation (ایلا)The husband takes an oath to separate himself from his wife. The duration of this separation has been fixed by Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) to be 4 months. If he unites with his wife during this period, he has to offer an expiation and if this separation is extended beyond 4 months, it will become a 'cogent divorce' or 'effective divorce (طلاق بائن). In a cogent divorce, the husband does not have the right to call back his wife. However, if the woman is willing, she can marry him with a new dower (مہر). Payment of the first dower was already expedient upon the husband. Now, a fresh dower will also become payable. This is the result of getting overwhelmed with anger on petty issues and using the name of Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) for vows.
Juz 7, Al-Maidah, Verse 090يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا إِنَّمَا الْخَمْرُ وَالْمَيْسِرُ وَالْأَنْصَابُ وَالْأَزْلَامُ رِجْسٌ مِنْ عَمَلِ الشَّيْطَانِ فَاجْتَنِبُوهُ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ [ O' believers indeed, intoxicants, gambling, (sacrificing on) stone alters (of idols), and the arrows you use for divination, are all acts of Satan. Keep away from them so that you may be successful. ]
Intoxicants (khamr خَمْرُ) is that which overtakes the intellect. It includes all kinds of intoxicant, wine, drugs etc.
Gambling (مَيْسِر) includes all kinds of games of chance to win money.
Stone alter (اٌّنصَاب) was the place where Makkan Pagans used to offer sacrifices for their Idols.
Use of arrows to find fortune was known as Azlaam (اٌّزْلاَمُ). When Makkan Pagans were not sure about some work, they used to take three arrows. One was inscribed 'do it'; the other was inscribed 'don't do it', and the third was inscribed 'try again'. Whichever arrow hit the target, they used to act accordingly.Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) says that all these things are filth (رِجْسٌ) and the deeds of Satan.
Prohibition of alcohol came in three stages. It is recorded by Ahmad in his Musnad that intoxicants were prohibited in there were three stages.
After Prophet's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) immigration to Madina, some people still consumed alcohol and were also involved in gambling. Sahabah asked the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) about these practices. On this the following verse was revealed.
It is in Quran - يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْسِرِ قُلْ فِيهِمَا إِثْمٌ كَبِيرٌ وَمَنَافِعُ لِلنَّاسِ وَإِثْمُهُمَا أَكْبَرُ مِنْ نَفْعِهِمَا [ They ask you about intoxicants and gambling. Say, ‘There is great sin in both, and some benefit for people. The sin is greater than the benefit.] (Al-Baqara - 219)
After the revelation of above verse, many people abandoned the consumption of wine and gambling. However, as the verse did not specifically prohibited both the things, some people continued with it.
After some time, the following command was revealed.It is in Quran - يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا لَا تَقْرَبُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَأَنْتُمْ سُكَارَى حَتَّى تَعْلَمُوا مَا تَقُولُونَ [ O' Believers, do not pray when you are intoxicated; instead, wait until you can understand what you are saying.] (An-Nisa - 43)
After the revelation of the above verse, many abandoned wine drinking. However, as it is very difficult to get rid of chronic wine addiction, some people could not abandon it. However, following the command, they curtailed drinking to smaller quantity only in the night so that they are not under its influence during the Salah times.
After some time, the above verse (al-Maidah - 90) was revealed completely prohibiting alcohol and gambling.Juz 7, Al-Maidah, Verse 091إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ الشَّيْطَانُ أَنْ يُوقِعَ بَيْنَكُمُ الْعَدَاوَةَ وَالْبَغْضَاءَ فِي الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْسِرِ وَيَصُدَّكُمْ عَنْ ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ وَعَنِ الصَّلَاةِ فَهَلْ أَنْتُمْ مُنْتَهُونَ [ Satan only wishes to create among you enmity and hatred through wine and gambling, and to divert you from the remembrance of Allah and prayer. Will you therefore not desist? ]Juz 7, Al-Maidah, Verse 092وَأَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَاحْذَرُوا فَإِنْ تَوَلَّيْتُمْ فَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّمَا عَلَى رَسُولِنَا الْبَلَاغُ الْمُبِينُ [ And obey Allah and obey the Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), and beware. And if you turn away, then know that the responsibility of Our Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) is only to convey the message. ]Juz 7, Al-Maidah, Verse 093لَيْسَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ جُنَاحٌ فِيمَا طَعِمُوا إِذَا مَا اتَّقَوْا وَآَمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ ثُمَّ اتَّقَوْا وَآَمَنُوا ثُمَّ اتَّقَوْا وَأَحْسَنُوا وَاللَّهُ يُحِبُّ الْمُحْسِنِينَ [ Those who believe and perform good deeds will not be held accountable for what they have consumed (in the past) if they fear Allah and believe, and do good things and are conscious (of Allah) and believe and still fear and do good, for Allah loves those who do good. ]Juz 7, Al-Maidah, Verse 094يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا لَيَبْلُوَنَّكُمُ اللَّهُ بِشَيْءٍ مِنَ الصَّيْدِ تَنَالُهُ أَيْدِيكُمْ وَرِمَاحُكُمْ لِيَعْلَمَ اللَّهُ مَنْ يَخَافُهُ بِالْغَيْبِ فَمَنِ اعْتَدَى بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ فَلَهُ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ [ O People who Believe! Allah will surely test you with some prey that is within reach of your hands and your spears, so that Allah may make known those who fear Him without seeing; so henceforth, a painful punishment is for anyone who transgresses. ]
Juz 7, Al-Maidah, Verse 095يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا لَا تَقْتُلُوا الصَّيْدَ وَأَنْتُمْ حُرُمٌ وَمَنْ قَتَلَهُ مِنْكُمْ مُتَعَمِّدًا فَجَزَاءٌ مِثْلُ مَا قَتَلَ مِنَ النَّعَمِ يَحْكُمُ بِهِ ذَوَا عَدْلٍ مِنْكُمْ هَدْيًا بَالِغَ الْكَعْبَةِ أَوْ كَفَّارَةٌ طَعَامُ مَسَاكِينَ أَوْ عَدْلُ ذَلِكَ صِيَامًا لِيَذُوقَ وَبَالَ أَمْرِهِ عَفَا اللَّهُ عَمَّا سَلَفَ وَمَنْ عَادَ فَيَنْتَقِمُ اللَّهُ مِنْهُ وَاللَّهُ عَزِيزٌ ذُو انْتِقَامٍ [ O you who believe, do not kill prey when you are in Ahram. And anyone among you who does so on purpose should offer livestock of equivalent value, determined by two honorable persons among you (as expiation), to be brought to the Kabah as an offering; or else expiate by giving food to the poor, or its equivalent in fasting, so that he may realize the gravity of his deed. Allah has forgiven what has happened in the past; but any one who does so again will be punished by Allah. And (know that) Allah is severe in requital. ]
Juz 7, Al-Maidah, Verse 096أُحِلَّ لَكُمْ صَيْدُ الْبَحْرِ وَطَعَامُهُ مَتَاعًا لَكُمْ وَلِلسَّيَّارَةِ وَحُرِّمَ عَلَيْكُمْ صَيْدُ الْبَرِّ مَا دُمْتُمْ حُرُمًا وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ الَّذِي إِلَيْهِ تُحْشَرُونَ [ It is lawful for you to hunt from the sea and to eat from it, for your benefit and that of the travelers; and hunting on land is forbidden for you while you are on the pilgrimage; and fear Allah, before whom you have to gather in the end. ]Juz 7, Al-Maidah, Verse 097جَعَلَ اللَّهُ الْكَعْبَةَ الْبَيْتَ الْحَرَامَ قِيَامًا لِلنَّاسِ وَالشَّهْرَ الْحَرَامَ وَالْهَدْيَ وَالْقَلَائِدَ ذَلِكَ لِتَعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ يَعْلَمُ مَا فِي السَّمَوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ [ Allah has made the Ka'ba, the Sacred House, a means of support for mankind, as also the holy month, the sacrificial offerings, and consecrated cattle, so that you may understand that Allah knows all that is in the heavens and the earth, and Allah has knowledge of all the things. ]
Juz 7, Al-Maidah, Verse 098اعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ [ Know that the punishment of Allah is severe, but that Allah is also All Forgiving and Most Merciful. ]The above verses are about the sanctity of Hajj and about Muslims' etiquette during the sacred months of Hajj. When they are on Hajj pilgrimage, they may find some easy prey and feel tempted to hunt them around the vicinity of Kaba. Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) warned them about it. They are strictly forbidden from hunting when they are in Ahram.
Juz 7, Al-Maidah, Verse 099مَا عَلَى الرَّسُولِ إِلَّا الْبَلَاغُ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ مَا تُبْدُونَ وَمَا تَكْتُمُونَ [ Not upon the Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) is (any responsibility) except to convey the message (to people). And Allah knows whatever you reveal and whatever you conceal. ]
Juz 7, Al-Maidah, Verse 100قُلْ لَا يَسْتَوِي الْخَبِيثُ وَالطَّيِّبُ وَلَوْ أَعْجَبَكَ كَثْرَةُ الْخَبِيثِ فَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ يَا أُولِي الْأَلْبَابِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ [ Say, the impure (evil) and the pure (good) are not equal, even though the abundance of the impure may attract you. Keep fearing Allah, O men of wisdom, so that you may succeed. ]
Juz 7, Al-Maidah, Verse 101يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا لَا تَسْأَلُوا عَنْ أَشْيَاءَ إِنْ تُبْدَ لَكُمْ تَسُؤْكُمْ وَإِنْ تَسْأَلُوا عَنْهَا حِينَ يُنَزَّلُ الْقُرْآَنُ تُبْدَ لَكُمْ عَفَا اللَّهُ عَنْهَا وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ حَلِيمٌ [ O' believers, do not ask about things which, if made known to you, may vex you. But if you ask about them when the Quran is being revealed they will be unfolded to you. Allah has overlooked (your failings) in this (respect), for Allah is forgiving and forbearing. ]
Juz 7, Al-Maidah, Verse 102قَدْ سَأَلَهَا قَوْمٌ مِنْ قَبْلِكُمْ ثُمَّ أَصْبَحُوا بِهَا كَافِرِينَ [ A community asked such (questions) before you; then they became thereby disbelievers. ]
Juz 7, Al-Maidah, Verse 103مَا جَعَلَ اللَّهُ مِنْ بَحِيرَةٍ وَلَا سَائِبَةٍ وَلَا وَصِيلَةٍ وَلَا حَامٍ وَلَكِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا يَفْتَرُونَ عَلَى اللَّهِ الْكَذِبَ وَأَكْثَرُهُمْ لَا يَعْقِلُونَ [ Allah has not commanded (to sacrifice) the camel with ears sliced (Bahira) or the she-camel (Saibah) or the she-goat (Wasilah) or the breeding camel (Haam), but the disbelievers fabricate lies against Allah; and most of them do not have any sense. ]We have briefly described in the following the practices of Makkan pagans mentioned in the above verse.Bahira (بَحِيرَةٍ) - Bahira was the title of the camel. When the she-camel gave birth to her 5th calf, they used to see if it was male or a female. If it was male, they used to slaughter it and all men and women used to eat its meat. If the fifth calf was a female, they used to split its ear and used to call it Bahira. It was meant only for males who used to drink its milk. When she dies, all men and women used to eat its meat.Saibah (سَائِبَةٍ) - A person, whatever he wanted from his possession, used to dedicate it the name of an Idol deity and used to take it to the caretakers of the Idols. These caretakers used to give it to the travelers/visitors. If it was an animal, only male travelers were allowed to eat its meat after slaughter. If the animal died of its natural death, its meat used to be eaten by both men and women travelers.Wasilah (وَصِيلَةٍ) - When the goat gave birth to the 7th kid, and if it was a male, they used to slaughter it and all men and women used to eat its meat. If it was a female, they will let it live but women were not allowed to drink its milk. When this goat dies its natural death, both men and women used to eat its meat. If the goat gave birth to both male and female the 7th time, they used to keep both these goats alive and used to say that they have united both brother and sister. However, only men were allowed to benefit from them. Once they died, both men and women used to eat their meat.Haam ( حَامٍ) - When the male camel used to mate with its grand daughter (female camel), they used to say that the back of this camel is safe. They used to leave it to feed freely. It was not used for riding or for transporting goods. They used to make sure that other camels do not bother him. When this old camel dies, both men and women used to eat its meat.Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) says that He did not command Makkan Pagans for those practices.There was a group of Makkan Pagans, the followers of Umru bin Lahi who used to say that they do not eat (i) Bahira, (ii) Saibah, (iii) Wasilah, and Haami because Allah (عَزَّ وَجَلَّ) has forbidden them from it.Surely, there was no truth in Pagans claims. The pagans were not aware of His commandments in regard to what is allowed and what is forbidden. Their talk in this context was absolutely absurd.It is in Quran - وَقَالُوا هَذِهِ أَنْعَامٌ وَحَرْثٌ حِجْرٌ لَا يَطْعَمُهَا إِلَّا مَنْ نَشَاءُ بِزَعْمِهِمْ وَأَنْعَامٌ حُرِّمَتْ ظُهُورُهَا وَأَنْعَامٌ لَا يَذْكُرُونَ اسْمَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهَا افْتِرَاءً عَلَيْهِ سَيَجْزِيهِمْ بِمَا كَانُوا يَفْتَرُونَ [ And they said, 'These cattle and crops are forbidden; only those whom we wish can eat them in their opinion' and some cattle are those which they have forbidden riding upon, and some cattle over which they do not mention the name of Allah while slaughtering. All this, is fabricating lies against Allah. He will punish them for what they fabricate. ] (Al-An'aam -138)It is in Quran - وَقَالُوا مَا فِي بُطُونِ هَذِهِ الْأَنْعَامِ خَالِصَةٌ لِذُكُورِنَا وَمُحَرَّمٌ عَلَى أَزْوَاجِنَا وَإِنْ يَكُنْ مَيْتَةً فَهُمْ فِيهِ شُرَكَاءُ سَيَجْزِيهِمْ وَصْفَهُمْ إِنَّهُ حَكِيمٌ عَلِيمٌ [ And they say: 'Whatever is in the wombs of these cattle is only meant for men and forbidden for their women; but in case of an still-born, both could eat it.' (And they claim it is from God). Allah will punish them for what they assert. He is All Wise and All Knowing. ] (Al-An'aam -139)It is in Quran - وَمِنَ الْإِبِلِ اثْنَيْنِ وَمِنَ الْبَقَرِ اثْنَيْنِ قُلْ آَلذَّكَرَيْنِ حَرَّمَ أَمِ الْأُنْثَيَيْنِ أَمَّا اشْتَمَلَتْ عَلَيْهِ أَرْحَامُ الْأُنْثَيَيْنِ أَمْ كُنْتُمْ شُهَدَاءَ إِذْ وَصَّاكُمُ اللَّهُ بِهَذَا فَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّنِ افْتَرَى عَلَى اللَّهِ كَذِبًا لِيُضِلَّ النَّاسَ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِينَ [ And there are two of camels and two of oxen. Ask them, which has He forbidden, the two males or the two females, or what the females carry in their wombs? Were you present at the time when Allah commanded it?" Who then could be more wicked than he who fabricates a lie and ascribes it to Allah to mislead men, without any knowledge? Allah does not guide the unjust. ] (Al-An'aam -144)