LET US CORRECT OUR ISLAMIC FAITH

دعونا نصحّح العقيدة الاسلامية

 


 
 
 

 

 SERVANTHOOD OF PROPHET MOHAMMAD (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)

 

Written   By

 
Shaikh Mir Asedullah Quadri 

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INTRODUCTION 

    

بِسم الله الرحمنِ الرحيم  

 الحمد لله رب العالمين ، والصلاة والسلام على سيدنا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين

 

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) has repeatedly commanded people to look for His signs in the Cosmos.  They are repeated reminded to think how they have came into this world  and what is the purpose of their lives.

It is in Quran - وَقُلِ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ سَيُرِيكُمْ آيَاتِهِ فَتَعْرِفُونَهَا ۚ وَمَا رَبُّكَ بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا تَعْمَلُونَ [ Say : ‘Praise be to Allah.  He will show you His Signs and you will recognize them.  Your Lord is not heedless of anything you do.] (An-Naml - 93)

It is in Quran وَمَا خَلَقْتُ الْجِنَّ وَالْإِنسَ إِلَّا لِيَعْبُدُونِ [ And I did not create the jinn and mankind except to worship Me.]  (Adh-Dhaariyat - 56)

It is important to know facts about our creator.  It is equally important to know facts about Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). Not knowing these facts, people have devised many religions and sects and are wandering in the darkness of apostasy.
 
We have written many books in this context. This book deals with the 'Servanthood of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)'.  It is an important book and a must read for all Muslims.
 
 

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Sometimes we say Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) to refer to the state of His Absolute Unity in which we take into account His limitless individuality (one-ness).
It is in Quran - قُلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ  [ Say O’ Prophet, Allah is one’. (Al-Ikhlas – 1)
 
Sometimes we Say Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) with reference to His epithets (names) and attributes.  In this state, Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) is the collective or root name which envelops all His attributes and names, like Rahman, Rahim, Sattar, Gaffar. 
                     
There are two facets of knowledge; one is 'abstract', the other is 'detail'. When we refer to a unitary name like 'animals or animal kingdom'; we mean all animals, including the human beings. But, when we look into details, we separate human beings from the animals in view of certain characteristics.  Even in animals, we separate horse from elephant, dog from tiger, etc. 
 
It is a known fact that before their creation, all creatures were in  Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) knowledge.  Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) created them with his prior knowledge.
 
Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) knowledge is of two types; (i)   He knows about himself, and (ii) He knows about His creatures.  Knowing Himself is known as His Knowledge, and knowing His creatures is known as His awareness.
 
Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) knows all His creatures in an 'abstract form' (as one Unit), as well as in detail format.  
 
The manifestation of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) knowledge about Himself is known as 'Divinity' (Uloohiyat - اُلوہيت).  And the manifestation of His creation in an ‘abstract form’ in  known as 'Servant-hood' (Uboodiyat - عُبُوديت).
 
Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) is the root name enveloping all Divine names and His attributes, and  'Servant of Allah' (عبدُ الله) is the root name enveloping all creatures.
 
The state of 'Divinity' (Uloohiyat - اُلوہيت) is the worshipable God.  The name of this Divinity is Allah.
It is in Quran –  الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ  [All the praise is for Allah who is the Sustainer of all worlds (in the cosmos)’ (Rabbul Aalameen) (Al-Fatiha – 1)
 
The state of 'Servant-hood' (Uboodiyat - عُبُوديت) is 'Servant of Allah' (عبدُ الله). 'Servanthood' and 'worship of Allah' is associated with Abdullah.
 
'Servant-hood' (Uboodiyat - عُبُوديت) is the ‘root’ (starting place of all creatures). From this root, all creatures came into being (existence). The whole cosmos is the detail of this 'root'.

Who is the manifestation (مظهر) of 'Servant of Allah' (عبد الله) in the Cosmos?  Who is the one who represents absolute serventhood in this Cosmos?
 
The following Quranic verses and Ahadith provide answer to this question.
 
(i) It is in Quran –  سُبْحَانَ الَّذِي أَسْرَىٰ بِعَبْدِهِ لَيْلًا مِّنَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ إِلَى الْمَسْجِدِ الْأَقْصَى الَّذِي بَارَكْنَا حَوْلَهُ لِنُرِيَهُ مِنْ آيَاتِنَا ۚ إِنَّهُ هُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْبَصِيرُ  [ The Unity of Allah is pure, who took 'His Servant' in one night from the honored mosque (Masjid-e-Haram) to the Al Aqsa mosque around which We have given abundance of virtue, so that We show him our signs and traces of Omnipotence (which were unseen by any one in this cosmos). Without doubt He is the (only) one who sees and listens.]  (Al-Israa – 1).
 
(ii) It is in Quran -  إِنَّ اللَّهَ وَمَلَائِكَتَهُ يُصَلُّونَ عَلَى النَّبِيِّ ۚ يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا صَلُّوا عَلَيْهِ وَسَلِّمُوا تَسْلِيمًا [Allah and His angels send blessings (and salutations) on Prophet Mohammad : O’ you who believe! Send your salutations and reverence on him, and salute him with all respect.] (Al-Ahazab – 56). (اللهم صلِّ على سيدنا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين)
 
(iii) It is in Quran –  وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ إِلَّا رَحْمَةً لِّلْعَالَمِينَ [ (O’ Prophet ﷺ) ‘We have not sent you except for the Mercy upon all worlds (in the cosmos).]  (Al-Anbiya – 107).
 
(iv) It is in Quran –  يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ إِنَّا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ شَاهِدًا وَمُبَشِّرًا وَنَذِيرًا  -  وَدَاعِيًا إِلَى اللَّهِ بِإِذْنِهِ وَسِرَاجًا مُّنِيرًا  [ O’ Prophet ﷺ! Truly We have sent you as a Witness, a Bearer of Glad Tidings, and Warner (for the entire Cosmos); and one who invites to Allah's  (Grace) by His consent, and as a lamp spreading light (into the whole cosmos).]  (Al – Ahzab - 45-46).
 
(v) It is in Hadith - It is narrated that Jābir ibn Abdullāh (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), 'O Apostle of Allāh (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), may my father and mother be sacrificed for you, tell me of the first thing Allāh (سبحانه و تعالى) created before all things.” He said : O' Jābir (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), the first thing Allāh (سبحانه و تعالى) created was the light (existence) of your Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) from His light, and that light remained in the midst of His Power for as long as He wished, and there was not, at that time, a Tablet or a Pen or a Paradise or a Fire or an angel or a heaven or an earth. And when Allāh (سبحانه و تعالى) wished to create His entire creation (this Cosmos), he created everything else from that light (existence).
 
(Abd al-Razzāq (d. 211) narrated it in his MusannafBayhaqī (d. 458) narrated it with a different wording in Dalā'il an-Nubūwwa according to Zurqāni in his Sharh al-Mawāhib (1:56 of the Matbā‘a al-‘amira in Cairo). Diyārbakrī narrated in it Tārīkh al-khāmis (1:20). Bukhari and Muslim have taken hundreds of Ahadith from Abdur Razzaq.)
  
(vii) It is in Quran - قَدْ جَاءَكُم مِّنَ اللَّهِ نُورٌ وَكِتَابٌ مُّبِينٌ  (From Allah has come to you a Light and a Book manifest.) (Al-Maeda - 15).
 
The above verse is very clear in describing Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)  as "Noor from Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی).  In the exegesis (Tafseer) of the above verse, many well known  Ulema have confirmed that the  "light"  refers to Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).

(a) Suyuti in Tafsir al-Jalalayn.   (b) Feruzabadi in the Tafsir Ibn `Abbas entitled Tanwir al-miqbas (p. 72). (c) Imam Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, in his Tafsir al-kabir (11:189). (d) Qadi Baidawi in his Tafsir Anwar at-Tanzil. (e) Al-Baghawi in his Tafsir Ma`alim at-Tanzil (2:23).  (f) Al-Shirbini in his Tafsir al-Siraj al-Munir (p. 360). (g)  Tafsir Abi Sa`ud (4:36). (h) Thana’ullah Pani Pati in his Tafsir al-mazhari, (3:67). (i) Shaikh Mohammad Abdul Qadeer Siddiqui (رحمتہ اللہ علیہ) in his Tafseer-e-Siddiqui. 
 
(viii) It is in Hadith - Abdullah bin Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) narrated that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) told his companions : 'I am not like you.  I live with my Sustainer (رب) who feeds and provides me drink.  (Bukhari, Muslim).

(ix) It is in Hadith - Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said ‘ Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) gives and I distribute’. (Bukhari, Muslim)
 
(x) It is in Quran – وَمَا آتَاكُمُ الرَّسُولُ فَخُذُوهُ وَمَا نَهَاكُمْ عَنْهُ فَانتَهُوا [When the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) gives you something, take it and when he refrains you from anything, keep yourselves away from it.] (Al-Hashr - 7)

From the above Quranic verses and Ahadith, it is clear that the manifestation of the 'Servant of Allah (عبدُ الله) is none other than Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).  This is known as 'veracity of Prophet Mohammad' (حقيقتِ محمدي صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). The other human beings and creatures are the details of this fact (حقيقت). 

Generally people are unable to grasp facts about Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) and the Cosmos. In view of their ignorance, they have developed many stories and notions in this context. 
 
The difference between creator and creation?

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) is our creator. Since all His attributes and Names belong to him, they do not fall under the category of creatures.  Allah’s (سبحانه و تعالى) knowledge is His attribute, therefore, it does not fall under the category of creatures.

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) knows about Himself and about His creatures who are in His knowledge.  Since facts of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) and facts of all His creation (اعيانِ ثابتہ)  are part of His knowledge, therefore, these do not fall under the category of creatures.  Any thing coming into existence after the command of ‘Be’ is creature.
It is in Quran -  إِنَّمَا قَوْلُنَا لِشَيْءٍ إِذَا أَرَدْنَاهُ أَن نَّقُولَ لَهُ كُن فَيَكُونُ [And a thing We  'Will ’ (to create), We only Say ‘Be’, and there it is (it comes into existence)’. (An-Nahl – 40).

When Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) willed to create things, or when He wanted the facts of creatures to manifest in external existence within His knowledge or when collective or individual facts of creatures came into existence after the command ‘Be’, they were known as creatures.
It is in Hadith -  (In detailed creations) The first thing which Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) created was the pen. Then, He said to it : Write. It asked: My Lord, what should I write? He said: Write the proportions of all things up until the Hour (Resurrection).’ (Ahmad, Tirmidhi)

When we talk about Allah's knowledge, we mean His knowledge about Himself.  When we refer to Allah's knowledge about His creation, we refer to it as Allah's awareness.

As we have described above, we all existed in Allah's (سبحانه و تعالى) knowledge as His awareness. Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) knew about all his creations before their birth.  Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) knew horse as horse and tiger as tiger. Among humans, he knew who was believer, who was non-believer and who was apostate.   

It is in Quran وَاللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ  [And Allah knows about everything.] (An-Noor - 64).  Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) knows about Himself and about His creation.  

How did we exist in Allah's (سبحانه و تعالى) knowledge? 

We existed in Allah's knowledge as 'Probate Architype' (Ain-e-Thabita - عینِ ثابتہ).

What is Probate Archetype (عینِ ثابتہ)? 

A 'probate archetype' (عینِ ثابتہ) is a unit of information about every single creation of Allah.  It is an 'individual fact' or 'innate' (ذات)' of every creature which existed in Allah's (سبحانه و تعالى) knowledge.  The root of all creations is known as 'Archetype Primeval' (عينُ الاعيان). And as we have described, this is 'the veracity (fact) of Prophet Mohammad' (حقيقتِ محمدي صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). 

When Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) wanted to bring us into external existence (in this world), He first created our material body as per the requirement of this world, then associated a specific soul with it. When these two joined with our innate/person (ذات),  we came into existence. 

There are three things involved in our creation, viz., (i) the 'human self' or 'person' or 'innate' (ذات), the human body (جسم), and human soul (روح). 

The meaning of earlier and later creation

When we compare the Unity of Allah (ذاتِ الہي) with His creation, we call it ‘eternal antiquity’.  The creator, Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) is eternally antiquated (existing eternally).

When we compare the manifestation of 'the Servant of Allah (عبدُ الله) in Allah's knowledge as compared to the detailed creation of things in the Cosmos,  we call it ‘timeless antiquity. The ‘abstract form or root’ is earlier than the detailed version of all creatures.

(i) It is in Quran - وَهُوَ الَّذِي أَنشَأَكُم مِّن نَّفْسٍ وَاحِدَةٍ [ And look, He (Allah - سبحانه و تعالى) is Who created (all of) you from single Innate (نَّفْسٍ وَاحِدَةٍ) (Al-Ana'am - 98).
(ii) It is in Hadith - Abu Hurayrah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) narrated that when Allah's Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) was asked since how long he is the Prophet,  he replied, ‘When Adam (عليه السلام) had not yet had his spirit joined to his body. (Tirmidhi).

(iii) It is in Hadith - It is narrated that Jābir ibn Abdullāh (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), 'O Apostle of Allāh (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), may my father and mother be sacrificed for you, tell me of the first thing Allāh (سبحانه و تعالى) created before all things.” He said : O' Jābir (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), the first thing Allāh (سبحانه و تعالى) created was the light (existence) of your Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) from His light, and that light remained in the midst of His Power for as long as He wished, and there was not, at that time, a Tablet or a Pen or a Paradise or a Fire or an angel or a heaven or an earth. And when Allāh (سبحانه و تعالى) wished to create His entire creation (this Cosmos), he created everything else from that light (existence).
(Abd al-Razzāq (d. 211) narrated it in his MusannafBayhaqī (d. 458) narrated it with a different wording in Dalā'il an-Nubūwwa according to Zurqāni in his Sharh al-Mawāhib (1:56 of the Matbā‘a al-‘amira in Cairo). Diyārbakrī narrated in it Tārīkh al-khāmis (1:20). Bukhari and Muslim have taken hundreds of Ahadith from Abdur Razzaq.)
  
(iv) It is in Quran - قَدْ جَاءَكُم مِّنَ اللَّهِ نُورٌ وَكِتَابٌ مُّبِينٌ  (From Allah has come to you a Light and a Book manifest.) (Al-Maeda - 15).
 
The above verse is very clear in describing Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)  as "Noor from Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی).  In the exegesis (Tafseer) of the above verse, many well known  Ulema have confirmed that the  "light"  refers to Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).

(a) Suyuti in Tafsir al-Jalalayn.   (b) Feruzabadi in the Tafsir Ibn `Abbas entitled Tanwir al-miqbas (p. 72). (c) Imam Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, in his Tafsir al-kabir (11:189). (d) Qadi Baidawi in his Tafsir Anwar at-Tanzil. (e) Al-Baghawi in his Tafsir Ma`alim at-Tanzil (2:23).  (f) Al-Shirbini in his Tafsir al-Siraj al-Munir (p. 360). (g)  Tafsir Abi Sa`ud (4:36). (h) Thana’ullah Pani Pati in his Tafsir al-mazhari, (3:67). (i) Shaikh Mohammad Abdul Qadeer Siddiqui (رحمتہ اللہ علیہ) in his Tafseer-e-Siddiqui. 

Things are appearing in this cosmos in a pre-set format; first father, then son, then grand son. This is known as ‘periodic antiquity’ or ‘periodic precedence’. When we compare creation of grand father with the creation of his son or grand son, we call it ‘periodic antiquity’.
 
The followers of deviant sects do not understand these facts.  In their ignorance, they do blasphemy of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) by treating him on par with sinful human beings. Their foul mouth has taken them away from Islam.